Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: October 2017

18 - Insights Gained on the Great Recession's Effects

from Part VI - Conclusion
    • By John Bynner, Emeritus Professor of Social Sciences in Education at the London Institute of Education, Glen H. Elder, Odum Distinguished Research Professor of Sociology at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Walter R. Heinz, Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Psychology at the University of Bremen, Germany, Ingrid Schoon, Professor of Human Development and Social Policy at the University College London Institute of Education
  • Edited by Ingrid Schoon, University College London, John Bynner, University College London
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316779507.019
  • pp 447-478

Summary

What Have We Learned?

What have we learned about the changing nature of youth transitions and the effect of the Great Recession on them? In this final chapter we draw conclusions and seek further insights from the evidence presented. First we give a brief overview, taking the discussion back to the initial questions about the recession effects to which the preceding chapters were directed. Second, we discuss the evidence in the light of key themes of contemporary youth research and draw out their intersection with life course theory. We then consider the theoretical and policy insights to be gained from the evidence reported. Our discussion focuses on young people in the USA, the UK, and Germany, but also takes into account developments across a range of industrialized countries.

Overview

What was the impact of the Great Recession on young people making the transition to independent adulthood? The overall conclusion to be drawn is that the Great Recession was a significant but not principal influence on young people's changing life course post-2007. Better to characterize it as a major economic shock that intensified the impact of preexisting economic and social processes on young people's lives. Originating principally in Western countries in the period of technological transformation and de-industrialization of the late 1970s, as the contributors to the book show, these effects presented new obstacles to entering and sustaining employment within the adult labor market. There were also wider repercussions for functioning in the family and other life domains. Although the short-term effects may have been modest, they might be followed by more serious outcomes and long-term scarring effects. There could also be lagged effects (i.e., a delay between the exposure and onset of adjustment problems) and therefore continued monitoring of life chances for young people is necessary.

The recession effects varied with each successive cohort embarking on the transition to independent adulthood, i.e., they differed for different age groups, for different countries, and between different sections of the youth population. Younger cohorts, aged 15–18 when the effects of the Great Recession began to be felt, faced heightened difficulties in gaining entry to jobs or to the vocational education and training (VET) routes that previously ensured access to them.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Young People's Development and the Great Recession
  • Online ISBN: 9781316779507
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316779507
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
Arnett, J. J. 2000. Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens to the twenties. American Psychologist 55 : 469–480.
Banks, M., Bates, I., Breakwell, G. et al. 1992. Careers and Identities. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bartels, L. M. 2013. Political effects of the Great Recession. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 650(1): 47–75.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: SAGE.
Buchmann, M. I., and Kriesi, I.. 2011. Transition to adulthood in Europe. Annual Review of Sociology 37: 481–503.
Bynner, J. 2005. Rethinking the youth phase of the life course: the case of emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth Studies 8: 367–384.
Bynner, J., and Ashford, S.. 1994. Politics and participation: some antecedents of young people's political activity and disaffection. European Journal of Social Psychology 24: 223–226.
Bynner, J., and Parsons, S.. 2002. Social exclusion and the transition from school to work: the case of young people not in education, employment or training NEET, Journal of Vocational Behaviour 60: 289–309.
Bynner, J., and Parsons, S.. 2007.Illuminating Disadvantage: Profiling the Experiences of Adults with Entry Level Literacy or Numeracy over the Life Course. Research Report, NRDC, Institute of Education, London.
Carson, E. A. 2014. Prisoners in 2013. Revised in September 2014. Retrieved from www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf (accessed March 27, 2017).
Côté, J., and Bynner, J., , J. 2008. Exclusion from emerging adulthood: UK and Canadian perspectives on structure and agency in the transition to adulthood.Journal of Youth Studies 11: 251–268.
Côté, J. E., and Levine, C. G.. 2002. Identity Formation, Agency, and Culture. A Social Psychological Synthesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Danzinger, S. 2013. Evaluating the effects of the recession. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 650: 6–24.
Duckworth, K., and Schoon, I. 2012. Beating the odds: exploring the aspects of social risk on young people's school-to-work transitions during recession in the UK. National Institute Economic Review 222: 38–51.
Elder, G. H., Jr. 1974/1999. Children of the Great Depression: Social Change in Life Experience. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Elder, G. H., Jr., and Conger, R. D.. 2000.Children of the Land: Adversity and Success in Rural America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Elder, G. H., Elder, G. H., Jr., and George, K.. 2016. Age, cohorts and the life course. In Handbook of the Life Course, volume 2, eds. Shanahan, M., Mortimer, J. T., and Johnson, M. K., 59–85. London: Springer International Publishing.
Furlong, A., and Cartmel, F.. 1997. Young People and Social Change. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Giuliano, P., and Spilimbergo, A.. 2014. Growing up in a recession. Review of Economic Studies 81: 787–817.
Heinz, W. R. 2009. Structure and agency in transition research. Journal of Education and Work. Special issue: Continuity and Change in 40 Years of School to Work Transitions 22: 391–404.
Heinz, W. R. 2002. Self-socialization and post-traditional society. In Advances in Life-Course Research: New Frontiers in Socialization, eds. Settersten, R. A. J. and Owens, T. J., 41–64. New York: Elsevier.
Hurrelmann, K. and Traxler, C. (Eds.). 2016. Jugend, Vorsage, Finanzen. Berlin: MetallRente.
Jones, G. 2009. Youth. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Jones, G., and Wallace, C.. 1992. Youth, Family and Citizenship. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mortimer, J. T., Zhang, F. L., Hussemann, J., and Wu, C.- Y.. 2014. Parental economic hardship and children's achievement orientations. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 5: 105–128.
Morris, P. 2011. Democratic Deficit: Critical Citizens Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam, R. D. 2015. Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Roberts, K., Clark, S. C., and Wallace, C.. 1994. Flexibility and individualisation. A comparison of transitions into employment in England and Germany.Sociology 28: 31–54.
Shanahan, M. J. 2000. Pathways to adulthood in changing societies: variability and mechanisms in life course perspective. Annual Review of Sociology 26: 667–692.
Schoon, I. 2014. Parental worklessness and the experience of NEET among their offspring. Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE). Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 6: 129–150.
Schoon, I., and Eccles, J. S. (Eds.). (2014). Gender Differences in Aspirations and Attainment. A Life Course Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schoon, I., and Lyons-Amos, M.. 2016. Diverse pathways in becoming an adult: the role of structure, agency and context. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, in press. Accessible at www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0276562416300178
Schoon, I., and Lyons-Amos, M.. 2017. The social ecology of agency. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies,8(1), 35–56.
Schoon, I., & Mortimer, J. T. (2017). Youth and the Great Recession – are values, achievement orientation and outlook to the future affected? International Journal of Psychology, 52(1), 1–8.
Schoon, I., and Silbereisen, K. R. (Eds.). 2009. Transitions from School to Work: Globalization, Individualisation, and Patterns of Diversity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schumpeter, J. A. 1942/1975. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper.
Schwartz, S. H. 1994. Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues 50: 19–45.
Standing, G. 2011. The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury.
Vuolo, M., Staff, J., and Mortimer, J.. 2012. Weathering the Great Recession: psychological and behavioral trajectories in the transition from school to work. Developmental Psychology 48: 1759–1773.