Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: August 2014

Chapter 4 - Hormonal influences in women with epilepsy


1. Reddy DS. The role of neurosteroids in the pathophysiology and treatment of catamenial epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2009; 85:1–30.
2. Verrotti A, Latini G, Manco R, et al. Influence of sex hormones in brain excitability and epilepsy. J Endocr Invest 2007; 30:797–803.
3. Herzog AG, Klein P and Ransil BJ. Three patterns of catamenial epilepsy. Epilepsia 1997; 38:1082–8.
4. Scharfman HE and MacLusky NJ. The influence of gonadal hormones on neuronal excitability, seizures and epilepsy in the female. Epilepsia 2006; 47:1423–40.
5. Matthews J and Gustafsson JA. Estrogen signaling: a subtle balance between ERα and ERß. Mol Interv 2004; 3:281–92.
6. Yokomaku D, Numakawa T, Numakawa Y, et al. Estrogen enhances depolarization-induced glutamate release through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase in cultured hippocampal neurons. Mol Endocrinol 2003; 17:831–44.
7. Zheng P. Neuroactive steroid regulation of neurotransmitter release in the CNS: action, mechanism and possible significance. Prog Neurobiol 2009; 89:134–52.
8. Stitt SL and Kinnard WJ. The effects of certain progestins and estrogen on the threshold of electrically induced seizure patterns. Neurology 1986; 18:213–16.
9. Lothman EW and Collins RC. Kainic acid induced limbic seizures: metabolic, behavioral, electroencephalographic and neuropathological correlates. Brain Res 1981; 218:299–318.
10. Edwards HE, Burnham WM, Mendonca A, et al. Steroid hormones affect limbic after-discharge thresholds and kindling rates in adult female rats. Brain Res 1999; 838:136–50.
11. Hyder SM, Huang JC, Nawaz Z, et al. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by estrogens and progestins. Environ Health Perspect 2000; 108(Suppl 5):785–90.
12. Veliskova J, Velisek L and Galanopoulou AS. Neuroprotective effects of estrogens on hippocampal cells in adult female rats after status epilepticus. Epilepsia 2000; 41(Suppl 6):S30–S35.
13. Reibel S, André V, Chassagnon S, et al. Neuroprotective effects of chronic estradiol benzoate treatment on hippocampal cell loss induced by status epilepticus in the female rat. Neurosci Lett 2000; 281:79–82.
14. Nakamura NH, Rosell DR, Akama KT, et al. Estrogen and ovariectomy regulate mRNA and protein of glutamic acid decarboxylases and cation-chloride cotransporters in the adult rat hippocampus. Neuroendocrinology 2004; 80:308–23.
15. Bäckström T. Epileptic seizures in women related to plasma estrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle. Acta Neurol Scand 1976; 54:321–47.
16. El-Khayat HA, Soliman NA, Tomoum HY, et al. Reproductive hormonal changes and catamenial pattern in adolescent females with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2008; 49:1619–26.
17. Reddy DS, Castenada DA, O’Malley BW, et al. Antiseizure activity of progesterone and neurosteroids in progesterone receptor knockout mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 310:230–9.
18. Edwards HE, Epps T, Carlen PL, et al. Progestin receptors mediate progesterone suppression of epileptiform activity in tetanized hippocampal slices in vitro. Neuroscience 2000; 101:895–906.
19. Maguire JL, Stell BM, Rafizadeh M, et al. Ovarian cycle-linked changes in GABA-A receptors mediating tonic inhibition alter seizure susceptibility and anxiety. Nat Neurosci 2005; 8:797–804.
20. Herzog AG and Frye CA. Seizure exacerbation associated with inhibition of progesterone metabolism. Ann Neurol 2003; 53:390–1.
21. Gangisetty O and Reddy DS. Neurosteroid withdrawal regulates GABA-A receptor α4-subunit expression and seizure susceptibility by activation of progesterone receptor-independent early growth response factor-3 pathway. Neuroscience 2010; 170:865–80.
22. Williamson J, Mtchedlishvili Z and Kapur J. Characterization of the convulsant action of pregnenolone sulfate. Neuropharmacology 2004; 46:856–864.
23. Reddy DS. Testosterone modulation of seizure susceptibility is mediated by neurosteroids 3α-androstanediol and 17-estradiol. Neuroscience 2004; 129:195–207.
24. Verrotti A, la Torre R, Trotta D, et al. Valproate-induced insulin resistance and obesity in children. Horm Res 2009; 71:125–31.
25. Isojarvi J. Disorders of reproduction in patients with epilepsy: antiepileptic drug related mechanisms. Seizure 2008; 17:111–19.
26. Bauer J, Isojarvi JI, Herzog AG, et al. Reproductive dysfunction in women with epilepsy: recommendations for evaluation and management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73:121–5.
27. Verrotti A, D’Eqidio C, Mohn A, et al. Antiepileptic drugs, sex hormones, and PCOS. Epilepsia 2011; 52(2):199–211.
28. Jacobsen NW, Halling-Sorensen B and Birkved FK. Inhibition of human aromatase complex (CYP19) by antiepileptic drugs. Toxicol In Vitro 2008; 22:146–53.
29. Lossius MI, Taubøll E, Mowinckel P, et al. Reversible effects of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function in men and women with epilepsy – a prospective randomized double-blind withdrawal study. Epilepsia 2007; 48:1875–82.
30. Hamed SA, Hamed EA, Shokry M, et al. The reproductive conditions and lipid profile in females with epilepsy. Acta Neurol Scand 2007; 115:12–22.
31. Isojärvi JI, Taubøll E and Herzog AG. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function in individuals with epilepsy. CNS Drugs 2005; 19:207–23.
32. Galimberti CA, Magri F, Copello F, et al. Seizure frequency and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels in women with epilepsy receiving antiepileptic drug treatment. Epilepsia 2005; 46:517–23.
33. Galimberti CA, Magri F, Copello F, et al. Changes in sex steroid levels in women with epilepsy on treatment: relationship with antiepileptic therapies and seizure frequency. Epilepsia 2009; 50:28–32.
34. Murialdo G, Galimberti CA, Gianelli MV, et al. Effects of valproate, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine on sex steroid setup in women with epilepsy. Clin Neuropharmacol 1998; 21:52–8.
35. Newmark ME and Penry JK. Catamenial epilepsy: a review. Epilepsia 1980; 21:281–300.
36. Chang Q and Gold PE. Switching memory systems during learning: changes in patterns of brain acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and striatum in rats. J Neurosc 2003; 23:3001–5.
37. Mathern GW, Babb TL and Armstrong DL. Hippocampal sclerosis. In: Engel J Jr, Pedley TA, eds. Epilepsy: a comprehensive textbook. Philadelphia, IL: Lippincott-Raven, 1997; 133–55.
38. Maguire JL, Stell BM, Rafizadeh M, et al. Ovarian cycle-linked changes in GABA(A) receptors mediating tonic inhibition alter seizure susceptibility and anxiety. Nat Neurosc 2005; 8:797–804.
39. Tan M and Tan U. Effects of testosterone and clomiphene on spectral EEG and visual evoked response in a young man with posttraumatic epilepsy. Int J Neurosc 2001; 106:87–94.