Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
When States Come Out
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 38
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In the last two decades, the LGBT movement has gained momentum that is arguably unprecedented in speed and suddenness when compared to other human rights movements. This book investigates the recent history of this transnational movement in Europe, focusing on the diffusion of the norms it champions and the overarching question of why, despite similar international pressures, the trajectories of socio-legal recognition for LGBT minorities are so different across states. The book makes the case that a politics of visibility has engendered the interactions between movements and states that empower marginalized people - mobilizing actors to demand change, influencing the spread of new legal standards, and weaving new ideas into the fabrics of societies. It documents how this process of 'coming out' empowers marginalized social groups by moving them to the center of political debate and public recognition and making it possible for them to obtain rights to which they have due claim.

Reviews

‘This innovative book breaks new ground in the study of human rights, international relations, social movements, and identity politics. Phillip Ayoub provides a deep and rigorous multi-method analysis of a critical issue at the frontiers of the struggle for human dignity.’

Alison Brysk - Mellichamp Professor of Global Governance, University of California, Santa Barbara

‘A revolution has swept across the countries of Europe, transforming LGBT persons from criminal degenerates into upstanding and even celebrated members of society. But the revolution has not changed all countries equally. Some have moved quickly to grant LGBT citizens the same rights and protections accorded to their fellows. Other countries have showed greater reluctance, and even now fall short of equal incorporation. Accounting for the overall trends and especially the enduring variations are Phillip Ayoub's central tasks, and he fulfills them brilliantly in this masterful and incisive book.’

David John Frank - University of California, Irvine

‘When States Come Out is a masterful analysis of the domestic and transnational currents of Europe’s LGBT politics. Based on a rich trove of new qualitative and quantitative data, Ayoub’s compelling argument shows how and why the politics of visibility is at the center of the human rights and dignity movement.’

Peter J. Katzenstein - Walter S. Carpenter, Jr Professor of International Studies, Cornell University

‘This brilliant study provides a compelling answer to the question of what drives policy success of LGBT movements in particular and of social movements more generally. Phillip Ayoub anchors his empirically rich, meticulously researched, and theoretically sophisticated argument in the idea that norm visibility is the key to policy success. This book is a must-read for scholars and activists interested in how marginalized groups gain agency and generate political change.’

Sabine Lang - Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington, and author of NGOs, Civil Society, and the Public Sphere (Cambridge, 2012)

‘Why, like their counterparts in the United States, have some European Union states advanced LGBT rights much more rapidly than others in recent years? In When States Come Out, Phillip Ayoub marries a sophisticated theoretical framework to a wealth of empirical data to advance a compelling argument about the importance of transnational norms and the domestic politics of visibility to shaping real progress on the rights of sexual minorities. This is an important contribution not only to the literature on LGBT politics, but also to that on comparative social movements and the politics of social change more broadly.’

Robert Singh - Birkbeck, University of London

‘When States Come Out sheds new light on long-standing questions about the conditions under which weak, marginalized, and stigmatized groups are able to bring about political and social change. Focusing on the inconsistent diffusion of rights and recognition for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people across European Union states, Phillip Ayoub draws on a wealth of evidence to demonstrate the important role of individual and collective visibility in provoking both recognition of but also resistance to justice and equality for LGBT people. His analyses lead to important and often surprising insights about the sources and consequences of both movement victories and setbacks, offering reasons for optimism at the same time as they deliver sobering reminders about continued persecution and barriers to justice.’

Dara Z. Strolovitch - Princeton University

‘There are many well-trained scholars of social movements; many others who are experts on European transnational politics; and still others who specialize on the LGBT movement. But there is no one who has encompassed all three more elegantly than Phillip Ayoub has done in this richly documented, carefully researched, and intellectually inspiring book. More than a consummate exercise in comparative research, and more than an in-depth inquiry into the LGBT movement in both parts of Europe, it is also a profoundly enlightening inquiry into the factors that produce cultural openness to diversity and those that inhibit it.’

Sidney Tarrow - Emeritus Maxwell M. Upson Professor of Government, Cornell University, and author of Power in Movement (Cambridge, 2011) and The Language of Contention (Cambridge, 2013)

'This is an excellent examination and analysis of what makes the efforts of sexual minorities, and social movements in general, successful or not … Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.'

W. K. Hall Source: Choice

'More than just a sophisticated case study, When States Come Out is a resource for anyone seeking to promote human rights at the civil society and state levels.'

Source: Ethics & International Affairs

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

  • 2 - The politics of visibility and LGBT rights in Europe
    pp 21-52
  • 7 - Visibility in movement and transnational politics
    pp 199-224
References
24kul.si. 2013. “Institute for Family Life and Culture.” http://24kul.si/zavod-kulsi.
Abdelal, Rawi, Herrera, Yoshiko M., Johnston, Alastair Iain, and McDermott, Rose. 2006. “Identity as a Variable.” Perspectives on Politics 4(4): 695–711.
Acharya, Amitav. 2004. “How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism.” International Organization 58(2): 239–75.
Adam, Barry, Duyvendak, Jan Willem, and Krouwel, Andre. 1998. Global Emergence of Gay & Lesbian Politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Adamczyk, Amy, and Pitt, Cassady. 2009. “Shaping Attitudes about Homosexuality: The Role of Religion and Cultural Context.” Social Science Research 38(2): 338–51.
Agence France Presse. 2014. “Thomas Hitzlsperger, Gay German Soccer Player, Says Homophobia Now Has an ‘Opponent.’” Huffington Post. www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/09/thomas-hitzlsperger-homophobia-_n_4566999.html.
Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Almeida, Paul D. 2003. “Opportunity Organizations and Threat-Induced Contention: Protest Waves in Authoritarian Settings.” The American Journal of Sociology 109(2): 345–400.
Altman, Dennis. 1996. “Rupture or Continuity? The Internationalization of Gay Identities.” Social Text 14(3): 77–94.
Altman, Dennis. 1999. “Globalization, Political Economy, and HIV/AIDS.” Theory and Society 28(4): 559–84.
Amar, Paul. 2013. The Security Archipelago: Human-Security States, Sexuality Politics, and the End of Neoliberalism. Durham: Duke University Press Books.
Amt fuer Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg. 2011. “Über 457 000 Ausländer Aus 190 Staaten in Berlin Gemeldet.” www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/pms/2011/11-02-04.pdf.
Andersen, Robert, and Fetner, Tina. 2008. “Economic Inequality and Intolerance: Attitudes toward Homosexuality in 35 Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 52(4): 942–58.
Anderson, Christopher J. 2007. “The Interaction of Structures and Voting Behavior.” In Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior, eds. Dalton, Russell and Klingemann, Hans-Dieter. New York: Oxford University Press, 589–609.
Anderson, Christopher J., and Tverdova, Yuliya V.. 2003. “Corruption, Political Allegiances, and Attitudes toward Government in Contemporary Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 47(1): 91–109.
Andrews, Bruce. 1975. “Social Rules and the State as a Social Actor.” World Politics 27(4): 521–40.
Asal, Victor, Sommer, Udi, and Harwood, Paul G.. 2013. “Original Sin: A Cross-National Study of the Legality of Homosexual Acts.” Comparative Political Studies 46(3): 320–51.
Ayoub, Phillip M. 2010. “Repressing Protest: Threat and Weakness in the European Context, 1975–1989.” Mobilization 15(4): 465–88.
Ayoub, Phillip M. 2013. “Cooperative Transnationalism in Contemporary Europe: Europeanization and Political Opportunities for LGBT Mobilization in the European Union.” European Political Science Review 5(2): 279–310.
Ayoub, Phillip M. 2014. “With Arms Wide Shut: Threat Perception, Norm Reception, and Mobilized Resistance to LGBT Rights.” Journal of Human Rights 13(3): 337–62.
Ayoub, Phillip M. 2015a. “Contested Norms in New-Adopter States: International Determinants of LGBT Rights Legislation.” European Journal of International Relations 21(2): 293–322.
Ayoub, Phillip M. 2015b. “Thematic Review: LGBT Rights and Movements in Comparative and International Politics.” Politics & Gender 11(1): 218–30.
Ayoub, Phillip M., and Paternotte, David, eds. 2014. LGBT Activism and the Making of Europe: A Rainbow Europe?Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ayoub, Phillip M., Wallace, Sophia J., and Zepeda-Millán, Chris. 2014. “Triangulation in Social Movement Research.” In Methodological Practices in Social Movement Research, ed. Porta, Donatella della. Oxford University Press, 67–96.
Bączkowski, Tomasz. 2008. “Diese widerwärtigen Päderasten.” Berliner Debatte Initial 19(6): 33–41.
Bączkowski, Tomasz. 2010. “Spór O Sobotnią Paradę Równości W Warszawie.” Rzeczpospolita. www.rp.pl/artykul/9157,509229-Spor-o-sobotnia-Parade-Rownosci-w-Warszawie.html.
Badgett, M. V. Lee. 2009. When Gay People Get Married: What Happens When Societies Legalize Same-Sex Marriage. New York University Press.
Bajpai, Kanti. 2000. Human Security: Concept and Measurement. New Delhi, India: Kroc Institute Occasional Paper No. 19:OP:1.
Balzer, Carsten, and Hutta, Jan Simon. 2014. “Trans Networking in the European Vortex: Between Advocacy and Grassroots Politics.” In LGBT Activism and the Making of Europe: A Rainbow Europe?, eds. Ayoub, Phillip M. and Paternotte, David. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 171–92.
Barnard, Catherine. 2008. “The ‘Opt-Out’ for the UK and Poland from the Charter of Fundamental Rights: Triumph of Rhetoric over Reality?” In The Lisbon Treaty: EU Constitutionalism without a Constitutional Treaty?, eds. Griller, Stefan and Ziller, Jacques. Austria: Springer Wien New York, 257–83.
Baruch, Yehuda, and Holtom, Brooks C.. 2008. “Survey Response Rate Levels and Trends in Organizational Research.” Human Relations 61(8): 1139–60.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Jones, Bryan D.. 2009. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. 2nd edn. University of Chicago Press.
Beachy, Robert. 2014. Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Beger, Nico J. 2004. Tensions in the Struggle for Sexual Minority Rights in Europe: Que(e)rying Political Practices. Reprint. Manchester University Press.
Beissinger, Mark, and Kotkin, Stephen, eds. 2014. Historical Legacies of Communism in Russia and Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Beltrán, Cristina. 2010. The Trouble with Unity: Latino Politics and the Creation of Identity. Oxford University Press.
Benford, Robert D., and Snow, David A.. 1999. “Alternative Types of Cross- National Diffusion in the Social Movement Arena.” In Social Movements in a Globalizing World, eds. Porta, Donatella della, Kriesi, Hanspeter, and Rucht, Dieter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 23–9.
Berbec-Rostas, Mariana. 2013. “Homophobia in Romanian Football Receives a Red Card from European Union Court.” Open Society Foundations. www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/homophobia-romanian-football- receives-red-card-european-union-court.
Berezin, Mabel, and Diez-Medrano, Juan. 2008. “Distance Matters: Place, Political Legitimacy and Popular Support for European Integration.” Comparative European Politics 6(1): 1–32.
Berger, Peter L. 1993. A Far Glory: The Quest for Faith in an Age of Credulity. New York: Anchor.
Bernstein, Mary. 2002. “Identities and Politics: Toward a Historical Understanding of the Lesbian and Gay Movement.” Social Science History 26(3): 531–81.
Bernstein, Mary, and Reimann, Renate. 2001. Queer Families, Queer Politics: Challenging Culture and the State. New York: Columbia University Press.
Biedroń, Robert, and Abramowicz, Marta. 2007. “The Polish Educational System and the Promotion of Homophobia.” In The Situation of Bisexual and Homosexual Persons in Poland 2005 and 2006 Report, ed. Abramowicz, Marta. Warsaw: Campaign Against Homophobia and Lambda Warsaw Association, 51–5.
Binnie, Jon. 2004. The Globalization of Sexuality. London: Sage Publications.
Binnie, Jon, and Klesse, Christian. 2013. “‘Like a Bomb in the Gasoline Station’: East-West Migration and Transnational Activism around Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Politics in Poland.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(7): 1107–24.
Bishin, Benjamin G., Hayes, Thomas J., Incantalupo, Matthew B., and Smith, Charles Anthony. 2015. “Opinion Backlash and Public Attitudes: Are Political Advances in Gay Rights Counterproductive?American Journal of Political Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12181.
Blumenfeld, Warren J., and Raymond, Diane Christine. 1988. Looking at Gay and Lesbian Life. Boston: Beacon Press.
Bob, Clifford. 2012. The Global Right Wing and the Clash of World Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Borowik, Irena. 2002. “The Roman Catholic Church in the Process of Democratic Transformation: The Case of Poland.” Social Compass 49(2): 239–52.
Broqua, Christophe. 2015. “AIDS Activism from North to Global.” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Lesbian and Gay Activism, eds. Paternotte, David and Tremblay, Manon. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 59–72.
Bruce-Jones, Eddie, and Itaborahy, Lucas. 2011. ILGA Report: State-Sponsored Homophobia. ILGA-Europe. www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/droi/dv/4_04ilgareport_/4_04ilgareport_en.pdf.
Bruce, Katherine McFarland. in press. Parading Toward Equality. New York University Press.
Brysk, Alison. 2000. From Tribal Village to Global Village. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Brysk, Alison. 2013. Speaking Rights to Power: Constructing Political Will. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bunce, Valerie. 2003. “Rethinking Recent Democratization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience.” World Politics 55(2): 167–92.
Burns, Joseph R. 2009. “The Laying of Hands: Pope John Paul II and the Catholic Church's Political Role in Poland Pre- and Post-1989.” In The Rhetoric of Pope John Paul II, eds. Joseph, Blaney and Joseph, Zompetti. Lexington Books, 151–73.
Butler, Judith. 2008. “Sexual Politics, Torture, and Secular Time.” The British Journal of Sociology 59(1): 1–23.
Buzan, Barry. 1990. “The Case for a Comprehensive Definition of Security and the Institutional Consequences of Accepting It.” Working Papers 4(0): 1–17.
Búzás, Zoltán. 2013. “The Color of Threat: Race, Threat Perception, and the Demise of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902–1923).” Security Studies 22(4): 573–606.
Bylok, Katarzyna, and Pędziwiatr, Konrad. 2010. “The Family of Radio Maryja and One of Its Activists.” Presented at Tischner European University.
Carlson-Rainer, Elise. 2015. “LGBT Pride: Marching on the Front Lines.” E-International Relations. www.e-ir.info/2015/07/01/lgbt-pride-marching-on-the-front-lines/.
Carpenter, R. Charli. 2011. “Vetting the Advocacy Agenda: Network Centrality and the Paradox of Weapons Norms.” International Organization 65(1): 69–102.
Carrillo, Héctor. 2007. “Imagining Modernity: Sexuality, Policy and Social Change in Mexico.” Sexuality Research & Social Policy 4(3): 74–91.
Cârstocea, Sinziana. 2006. “Between Acceptance and Rejection: Decriminalizing Homosexuality in Romania.” In The Gays’ and Lesbians’ Rights in an Enlarged European Union, eds. Anne, Weyembergh and Sinziana, Cârstocea. Brussels: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 216–22.
Casanova, José. 2009. “The Religious Situation in Europe.” In Secularization and the World Religions, eds. Hans, Joas and Klaus, Wiegandt. Liverpool University Press.
Chabot, Sean, and Duyvendak, Jan Willem. 2002. “Globalization and Transnational Diffusion between Social Movements: Reconceptualizing the Dissemination of the Gandhian Repertoire and the ‘Coming Out’ Routine.” Theory and Society 31(6): 697–740.
Chauncey, George. 1994. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. New York: Basic Books.
Chauncey, George. 2005. Why Marriage: The History Shaping Today's Debate Over Gay Equality. New York: Basic Books.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. 1997. “International Norms and Domestic Politics.” European Journal of International Relations 3(4): 473–95.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2001. “Why Comply? Social Learning and European Identity Change.” International Organization 55(3): 553–88.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2005. “International Institutions and Socialization in Europe: Introduction and Framework.” International Organization 59(4): 801–26.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2006. “Tracing Causal Mechanisms.” International Studies Review 8(2): 362–70.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2014. “Identity, Europe and the World beyond Public Spheres.” In European Public Spheres: Politics Is Back, ed. Risse, Thomas. New York: Cambridge University Press, 227–46.
Chetaille, Agnes. 2011. “Poland: Sovereignty and Sexuality in Post-Socialist Times.” In The Lesbian and Gay Movement and the State, eds. Tremblay, Manon, Paternotte, David, and Johnson, Carol. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 119–34.
Cohen, Cathy J. 1997. “Punks, Bulldaggers, and Welfare Queens: The Radical Potential of Queer Politics?GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 3(4): 437–65.
Colbert, Chuck. 2013. “LGBT Catholics React to Pope's Resignation.” Pride Source. www.pridesource.com/article.html?article=58503.
Conrad, Kathryn. 2001. “Queer Treasons: Homosexuality and Irish National Identity.” Cultural Studies 15(1): 124–37.
Conrad, Ryan, ed. 2014. Against Equality: Queer Revolution, Not Mere Inclusion. Oakland, CA: AK Press.
Conway, Brian. 2009. Individual-Level Determinants of Religious Practice and Belief in Catholic Europe. IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD. IRISS Working Paper Series. http://ideas.repec.org/p/irs/iriswp/2009–14.html.
Cooley, Jonna, and Burkholder, Gary. 2011. “Using Video and Contact to Change Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians.” Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences 5(1): 83–90.
Cortell, Andrew P., and Davis, James W. 1996. “How Do International Institutions Matter? The Domestic Impact of International Rules and Norms.” International Studies Quarterly 40(4): 451–78.
Council of Europe. 2011. Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
Cox, Cece. 2005. “To Have and To Hold – Or Not: The Influence of the Christian Right on Gay Marriage Laws in the Netherlands, Canada, and the United States.” Law & Sexuality 14: 1–50.
Cragg, Gulliver. 2010. “Gays Defy Traditionalists with Warsaw March.” New Zealand Herald. www.nzherald.co.nz/relationships/news/article.cfm?c_id=41&objectid=10659619.
Crenshaw, Kimberle. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43(6): 1241–99.
Crisp, Richard J., and Turner, Rhiannon N. 2009. “Can Imagined Interactions Produce Positive Perceptions?: Reducing Prejudice through Simulated Social Contact.” American Psychologist 64(4): 231–40.
Črnič, Aleš, and Lesjak, Gregor. 2003. “Religious Freedom and Control in Independent Slovenia.” Sociology of Religion 64(3): 349–66.
Currier, Ashley. 2012. Out in Africa: LGBT Organizing in Namibia and South Africa. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Darden, Keith, and Grzymała-Busse, Anna. 2006. “The Great Divide: Literacy, Nationalism, and the Communist Collapse.” World Politics 59(1): 83–115.
Davenport, Christian. 1995. “Multi-Dimensional Threat Perception and State Repression: An Inquiry into Why States Apply Negative Sanctions.” American Journal of Political Science 39(3): 683–713.
Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dececco, John, and Bullough, Vern L.. 2002. Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. Binghamton, NY: Routledge.
Deutsch, Karl W. 1957. Political Community and the North Atlantic Area. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Deutsch, Karl W. 1963. The Nerves of Government: Models of Political Communication and Control. New York: Free Press.
Dimitrova, Antoaneta, and Rhinard, Mark. 2005. “The Power of Norms in the Transposition of EU Directives.” European Integration Online Papers 9(16).
Dixon, John, Durrheim, Kevin, and Tredoux, Colin. 2005. “Beyond the Optimal Contact Strategy: A Reality Check for the Contact Hypothesis.” The American Psychologist 60(7): 697–711.
Dorf, Michael C., and Tarrow, Sidney. 2014. “Strange Bedfellows: How an Anticipatory Countermovement Brought Same-Sex Marriage into the Public Arena.” Law & Society Review 39(2): 449–73.
Dreher, Axel. 2006. “Does Globalization Affect Growth? Evidence from a New Index of Globalization.” Applied Economics 38(10): 1091–1110.
Dreher, Axel, Gaston, Noel, and Martens, Willem. 2008. Measuring Globalisation: Gauging Its Consequences. New York: Springer.
della Porta, Donatella, and Caiani, Manuela. 2007. “Europeanization From Below? Social Movements and Europe.” Mobilization 12(1): 1–20.
della Porta, Donatella, and Tarrow, Sidney. 2005. Transnational Protest and Global Activism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
D'Emilio, John. 1983. “Capitalism and Gay Identity.” In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, eds. Snitow, Ann, Stansell, Christine, and Thompson, Sharon. New York: Monthly Review Press, 100–11.
D'Emilio, John. 1998. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities. 2nd edn. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press.
de Wilde, Pieter, and Zürn, Michael. 2012. “Can the Politicization of European Integration Be Reversed?Journal of Common Market Studies 50(S1): 137–53.
Easter, Gerald M. 1997. “Preference for Presidentialism: Postcommunist Regime Change in Russia and the NIS.” World Politics 49(2): 184–211.
Economist. 2014. “Pride and Prejudice.” www.economist.com/news/international/21595034-more-places-are-seeing-gay-marchesor-clever-substitutes-pride-and-prejudice.
Encarnación, Omar. 2014. “Gay Rights: Why Democracy Matters.” Journal of Democracy 25(3): 90–104.
Engeli, Isabelle. 2011. “Citizens but Not Parents? Comparing Same-Sex Union Policies in Western Europe.” Presented at the 18th Conference of Europeanists, Barcelona, Spain, June 21, 2011.
Euronews. 2012. “Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania Anti-Gay Criticism.” www.euronews.com/2012/05/25/hungary-latvia-lithuania-anti-gay-criticism/.
European Commission. 2009. Special Eurobarometer 317: Discrimination in the EU in 2009. 119.
European Parliament. 2006 . European Parliament Resolution on Homophobia in Europe. 2005/2666(RSP) www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P6-TA-2006-0018&language=EN&ring=B6-2006-0040.
European Parliament. 2010. “Polish Minister for Equal Treatment Sends Censorship Requests to Organisations and Media.” The European Parliament's Intergroup on LGBT Rights.
European Parliament. 2015a. European Parliament Resolution of 30 April 2015 on the 2014 Progress Report on Albania (2014/2951(RSP)). www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/ficheprocedure.do?lang=en&reference=2014/2951%28RSP%29.
European Parliament. 2015b. European Parliament Resolution of 30 April 2015 on the 2014 Progress Report on Bosnia and Herzegovina (2014/2952(RSP)). www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/popups/ficheprocedure.do?lang=en&reference=2014/2952%28RSP%29.
European Values Study. 2011 . European Values Study 1981–2008. www.europeanvaluesstudy.eu.
Evangelista, Matthew. 1999. Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Evans, Sara M., and Boyte, Harry C.. 1992. Free Spaces: The Sources of Democratic Change in America. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press.
Farrell, Henry, and Hardiman, Niamh. 2015. “Ireland's Voters Approve Same-Sex Marriage. Here's How That Happened.” Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2015/05/23/ireland-has-voted-yes-to-same-sex-marriage-how-did-it-happen/.
Fernández, Juan J., and Lutter, Mark. 2013. “Supranational Cultural Norms, Domestic Value Orientations and the Diffusion of Same-Sex Union Rights in Europe, 1988–2009.” International Sociology 28(1): 102–20.
Ferree, Myra Marx. 2004. “Soft Repression: Ridicule, Stigma, and Silencing in Gender-Based Movements.” In Authority in Contention (Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, Volume 25), eds. Meyers, Daniel and Cress, Daniel. London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 85–101.
Fetner, Tina. 2008. How the Religious Right Shaped Lesbian and Gay Activism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Finke, Roger, and Adamczyk, Amy. 2008. “Cross-National Moral Beliefs: The Influence of National Religious Context.” Sociological Quarterly 49(4): 617–52.
Finnemore, Martha. 1996. “Norms, Culture, and World Politics.” International Organization 50(2): 325–47.
Finnemore, Martha, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52(4): 887–917.
Flores, Andrew, and Ramakrishnan, Karthick. n.d. “Restrictive Attitudes towards Same Sex Marriage: The Varying Importance of Gender by Race.” http://karthick.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/AFKR-prop8-may2012.pdf.
Florini, Ann. 1996. “The Evolution of International Norms.” International Studies Quarterly 40(3): 363–89.
Frank, David John, Camp, Bayliss J., and Boutcher, Steven A. 2010. “Worldwide Trends in the Criminal Regulation of Sex, 1945 to 2005.” American Sociological Review 75(6): 867–93.
Frank, David John, and Mceneaney, Elizabeth. 1999. “The Individualization of Society and the Liberalization of State Policies on Same-Sex Sexual Relations, 1984–1995.” Social Forces 77(3): 911–43.
Friedman, Elisabeth Jay. 2012. “Constructing ‘the Same Rights with the Same Names’: The Impact of Spanish Norm Diffusion on Marriage Equality in Argentina.” Latin American Politics and Society 54(4): 29–59.
European Parliament. 2009a. The Social Situation concerning Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in Poland. Available at http://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/387-FRA-hdgso-part2-NR_PL.pdf.
European Parliament. 2009b. The Social Situation concerning Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in Slovenia. Available at http://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/392-FRA-hdgso-part2-NR_SI.pdf.
FRA (Fundamental Rights Agency). 2009c. The Social Situation concerning Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in Czech Republic.
Galkin, Matthew. 2007. I Am an Animal: The Story of Ingrid Newkirk and PETA. Stick Figure Productions. Documentary.
Garretson, Jeremiah J. 2015. “Exposure to the Lives of Lesbians and Gays and the Origin of Young People's Greater Support for Gay Rights.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 27(2): 277–88.
Gera, Vanessa. 2014. “Robert Biedron Becomes Poland's First Openly Gay Mayor.” Huffington Post. www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/01/robert- biedron-poland-gay-mayor-_n_6248648.html.
Gerhards, Jürgen. 2010. “Non-Discrimination towards Homosexuality: The European Union's Policy and Citizens’ Attitudes towards Homosexuality in 27 European Countries.” International Sociology 25(1): 5–28.
Gessen, Masha. 2015. “In Europe, Pride Is a Key Political Barometer. Budapest's Was Safe, at Times Even Joyful.” Slate. www.slate.com/blogs/ outward/2015/07/13/budapest_pride_2015_did_kennedy_s_gay_marriage_decision_keep_hungarian_marchers.html?wpsrc=sh_all_dt_tw_ru.
Gillion, Daniel Q. 2013. The Political Power of Protest: Minority Activism and Shifts in Public Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Givan, Rebecca Kolins, Roberts, Kenneth M., and Soule, Sarah A.. 2010. The Diffusion of Social Movements: Actors, Mechanisms, and Political Effects. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bruno, Gmünder, ed. 2003. Spartacus: International Gay Guide 2002/2003. Berlin: Bruno Gmünder Verlag GmbH.
Goodwin, Jeff, and Jasper, James M., eds. 2009. The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts. 2nd edn. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Götsch, Antonia. 2006. “Wenn Abartige Demonstrieren, Brauchen sie den Knüppel.” Spiegel Online. www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,420206,00.html.
Graff, Agnieszka. 2010. “Looking at Pictures of Gay Men: Political Uses of Homophobia in Contemporary Poland.” Public Culture 22(3): 583–603.
Graham, Erin R., Shipan, Charles R., and Volden, Craig. 2013. “The Diffusion of Policy Diffusion Research in Political Science.” British Journal of Political Science 43(3): 673–701.
Greenhill, Brian. 2015. Transmitting Rights: International Organizations and the Diffusion of Human Rights Practices. New York: Oxford University Press.
Greenhill, Brian. 2010. “The Company You Keep: International Socialization and the Diffusion of Human Rights Norms.” International Studies Quarterly 54(1): 127–45.
Greif, Tatjana. 2005. “The Social Status of Lesbian Women in Slovenia in the 1990s.” In Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia, ed. Aleksandar, Štulhofer. New York: The Haworth Press, 149–69.
Griffiths, Craig. 2015. “Gay Politics in 1970s West Germany.” PhD Dissertation. Queen Mary, University of London.
Grodzka, Anna. 2013. “As the World's Only Transgender MP, I Want to Ensure Our Voices Are Heard.” Guardian. www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/may/17/transgender-mp-voices-heard.
Gruszczyńska, Anna. 2007. “Living ‘La Vida’ Internet: Some Notes on the Cyberization of Polish LGBT Community.” In Beyond the Pink Curtain, eds. Kuhar, Roman and Takács, Judit. Ljubljana: Peace Institute, 95–115.
Grzymała-Busse, Anna. 2014. “Historical Roots of Religious Influence on Postcommunist Democratic Politics.” In Historical Legacies of Communism in Russia and Eastern Europe, eds. Mark, Beissinger and Stephen, Kotkin. New York: Cambridge University Press, 179–201.
Guilbert, Kieran. 2015. “Surgery and Sterilization Scrapped in Malta's Benchmark LGBTI Law.” New York Times. www.nytimes.com/reuters/2015/04/01/world/europe/01reuters-gay-rights-malta.html.
Gurowitz, Amy. 2006. “The Diffusion of International Norms: Why Identity Matters.” International Politics 43(3): 305–41.
Gwede, Wanga. 2016. “Mutharika Wants Gay Rights Protected, Says Viola: Law Experts Question Legality of Moratorium.” Malawi Nyasa Times. www.nyasatimes.com/2016/01/07/mutharika-wants-gay-rights-protected-says-viola-law-experts-question-legality-of-moratorium.
Haas, Ernst B. 1991. When Knowledge Is Power: Three Models of Change in International Organizations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hadler, Markus. 2012. “The Influence of World Societal Forces on Social Tolerance: A Time Comparative Study of Prejudices in 32 Countries.” The Sociological Quarterly 53(2): 211–37.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. 2013. Making Human Rights a Reality. Princeton University Press.
Hager, Mark A., Wilson, Sarah, Pollak, Thomas H., and Rooney, Patrick Michael. 2003. “Response Rates for Mail Surveys of Nonprofit Organizations: A Review and Empirical Test.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 32(2): 252–67.
Haines, Herbert H. 1984. “Black Radicalization and the Funding of Civil Rights: 1957–1970.” Social Problems 32(1): 31–43.
Hakim, Danny, and Dalby, Douglas. 2015. “Ireland Votes to Approve Gay Marriage, Putting Country in Vanguard.” New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2015/05/24/world/europe/ireland-gay-marriage-referendum.html.
Hancock, Ange-Marie. 2007. “Intersectionality as a Normative and Empirical Paradigm.” Politics & Gender 3(2): 248–54.
Harwood, Mark. 2015. “Adopting Same-Sex Unions in Catholic Malta: Pointing the Finger at ‘Europe.’South European Society and Politics 20(1): 113–31.
Hayes, Jarrod. 2000. Queer Nations: Marginal Sexualities in the Maghreb. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press.
Hekma, Gert. 2015. “Sodomy, Effeminacy, Identity: Mobilizations for Same-Sex Loves and Practices before the Second World War.” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Lesbian and Gay Activism, eds. Paternotte, David and Tremblay, Manon. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 15–29.
Hekma, Gert, and Duyvendak, Jan Willem. 2011. “Gay Men and Lesbians in the Netherlands.” In The Lesbian and Gay Movement and the State, eds. Tremblay, Manon, Paternotte, David, and Johnson, Carol. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Co., 103–18.
Helm, Toby. 2010. “Conservatives Ignored Secret Report on Extremist Polish Allies.” Guardian. www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/apr/11/conservatives- report-extremist-polish-allies.
Herek, Gregory. 1987. “Religious Orientation and Prejudice: A Comparison of Racial and Sexual Attitudes.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 13(1): 34–44.
Herek, Gregory. 2004. “Beyond ‘Homophobia’: Thinking about Sexual Prejudice and Stigma in the Twenty-First Century.” Sexuality Research and Social Policy 1(2): 6–24.
Heston, Alan, Summers, Robert, and Aten, Bettina. 2011. “Penn World Table Version 7.0, Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania.” www.rug.nl/research/ggdc/data/pwt/pwt-7.0?lang=en.
Hilgartner, Stephen, and Bosk, Charles L. 1988. “The Rise and Fall of Social Problems: A Public Arenas Model.” American Journal of Sociology 94(1): 53–78.
Hillhouse, Raelynn J. 1990. “Out of the Closet behind the Wall: Sexual Politics and Social Change in the GDR.” Slavic Review 49(4): 585–96.
Holzhacker, Ronald. 2012. “National and Transnational Strategies of LGBT Civil Society Organizations in Different Political Environments.” Comparative European Politics 10(1): 23–47.
Hooghe, Marc, and Meeusen, Cecil. 2013. “Is Same-Sex Marriage Legislation Related to Attitudes Toward Homosexuality?Sexuality Research and Social Policy 10(4): 258–68.
hooks, bell. 2001. All about Love: New Visions. New York: Harper Collins.
Htun, Mala, and Weldon, S. Laurel. 2012. “The Civic Origins of Progressive Policy Change: Combating Violence against Women in Global Perspective, 1975–2005.” American Political Science Review 106(3): 548–69.
Huber, Evelyne, and Stephens, John D. 2001. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. University of Chicago Press.
Imig, Doug, and Tarrow, Sidney. 2001. Contentious Europeans. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Ingebritsen, Christine. 2002. “Norm Entrepreneurs Scandinavia's Role in World Politics.” Cooperation and Conflict 37(1): 11–23.
Inglehart, Ronald. 1997. Modernization and Postmodernization. Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide. Cambridge University Press.
Ippolito, Nina. 2014. “20 Photos From Sochi's Biggest Gay Club – the One the Mayor Claims Doesn't Exist.” Mic. http://mic.com/articles/80391/20-photos-from-sochi-s-biggest-gay-club-the-one-the-mayor-claims-doesn-t-exist.
Irvine, Jill, Lang, Sabine, and Montoya, Celeste. 2015. “Gendered Mobilization in an Expanding Europe.” Presented at a conference workshop of the same name at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, May 1, 2015.
Jackson, Julian. 2015. “The Homophile Movement.” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Lesbian and Gay Activism, eds. Paternotte, David and Tremblay, Manon. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 31–45.
Johnson, Paul. 2012. Homosexuality and the European Court of Human Rights. New York: Routledge.
Jowitt, Kenneth. 1992. New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction. Oakland: University of California Press.
Judt, Tony. 2006. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. New York: Penguin Books.
KAI. 2000. “‘Nie Lękajcie Się Europy!’ – Przesłanie Przed Kongresem Kultury Chrześcijańskiej.” Katolicka Agencja Informacyjna.
Kane, Melinda. 2003. “Social Movement Policy Success: Decriminalizing State Sodomy Laws, 1969–1998.” Mobilization: An International Journal 8(3): 313–34.
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod, Ibrahim, Leila Mohsen, and Rubin, Katherine D.. 2010. “The Dark Side of American Liberalism and Felony Disenfranchisement.” Perspectives on Politics 8(4): 1035–54.
Katzenstein, Peter J. 1995. “Alternative Perspectives on National Security.” Items: Social Science Research Council 49(4): 89–93.
Katzenstein, Peter J. 1996. The Culture of National Security. New York: Columbia University Press.
Katzenstein, Peter J. 1997. “United Germany in an Integrating Europe.” In Tamed Power: Germany in Europe, ed. Katzenstein, Peter J.. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1–49.
Katzenstein, Peter J. 2003. “Same War: Different Views: Germany, Japan, and Counterterrorism.” International Organization 57(4): 731–60.
Katzenstein, Peter J. 2005. A World of Regions: Asia and Europe in the American Imperium. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Katzenstein, Peter J., and Byrnes, Timothy A.. 2006. “Transnational Religion in an Expanding Europe.” Perspectives on Politics 4(4): 679–94.
Kaufmann, Chaim D., and Pape, Robert A.. 1999. “Explaining Costly International Moral Action: Britain's Sixty-Year Campaign against the Atlantic Slave Trade.” International Organization 53(4): 631–68.
Kearney, Seamus. 2015. “Slovenia Becomes 11th EU Nation to Approve Gay Marriage.” Euronews. www.euronews.com/2015/03/04/slovenia-becomes- 11th-eu-nation-to-approve-gay-marriage/.
Keck, Margaret E., and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kellogg, Michael. 2001. “Putting Old Wine into New Bottles: The East German Protestant Church's Desire to Reform State Socialism, 1989–90.” Journal of Church and State 43(4): 747–72.
Kennedy, Jason. 2013. “75% Support Same-Sex Marriage: Poll.” Irish Times. www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/breaking/2013/0128/breaking25.html.
Keuzenkamp, Saskia, and Ross, Julian. 2010. Steeds Gewoner, Nooit Gewoon: Acceptatie van Homoseksualiteit in Nederland. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.
Khagram, Sanjeev, Riker, James, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 2002. Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks, And Norms. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Khazan, Olga. 2013. “Why Is Russia So Homophobic?Atlantic. www.theatlantic. com/international/archive/2013/06/why-is-russia-so-homophobic/276817/.
Klotz, Audie. 1995. Norms in International Relations: The Struggle Against Apartheid. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
KOF Method. 2013. “KOF Method 2013.” http://globalization.kof.ethz.ch/media/filer_public/2013/03/25/method_2013.pdf.
Kollman, Kelly. 2007. “Same-Sex Unions: The Globalization of an Idea.” International Studies Quarterly 51(2): 329–57.
Kollman, Kelly. 2013. The Same-Sex Unions Revolution in Western Democracies: International Norms and Domestic Policy Change. Manchester University Press.
Kollman, Kelly, and Waites, Matthew. 2009. “The Global Politics of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Human Rights: An Introduction.” Contemporary Politics 15(1): 1–37.
Kopstein, Jeffrey, and Reilly, David A. 2000. “Geographic Diffusion and the Transformation of the Postcommunist World.” World Politics 53(1): 1–37.
Kriesi, Hanspeter. 2004. “Political Context and Opportunity.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, eds. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah A., and Kriesi, Hanspeter. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 65–90.
Kristoffersson, Mattias, van Roozendaal, Bjoern and Poghosyan, Lilit. in press. “European Integration and LGBT Activism – Partners in Realizing Change?” In The EU Enlargement and Gay Politics, eds. Slootmaeckers, Koen, Touquet, Heleen, and Vermeersch, Peter. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Krzeminski, I. 2008. The Situation Concerning Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in Poland. European Fundamental Rights Agency.
Kubica, Grażyna. 2009. “A Rainbow Flag against the Krakow Dragon: Polish Responses to the Gay and Lesbian Movement.” In Postsocialist Europe: Anthropological Perspectives from Home, eds. Kürti, Laszlo and Skalnik, Peter. New York: Berghahn Books, 119–49.
Kuhar, Roman. 2003. Media Representations of Homosexuality: An Analysis of Print Media in Slovenia, 1970–2000. Ljubljana: Mediawatch. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00001509/.
Kuhar, Roman. 2008. The Situation Concerning Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in Slovenia. European Fundamental Rights Agency.
Kuhar, Roman. 2011. “Use of the Europeanization Frame in Same Sex Partnership Issues across Europe.” In The Europeanization of Gender Equality Policies: A Discursive Sociological Approach, eds. Lombardo, Emanuela and Forest, Maxime. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 168–91.
Kulpa, Robert, and Mizielińska, Joanna. 2011. De-Centring Western Sexualities: Central and Eastern European Perspectives. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
LaMar, Lisa, and Kite, Mary. 1998. “Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians: A Multidimensional Perspective.” The Journal of Sex Research 35(2): 189–96.
Landolt, Laura. 2004. “(Mis)constructing the Third World? Constructivist Analysis of Norm Diffusion.” Third World Quarterly 25(3): 579–91.
Langlois, Anthony, and Wilkinson, Cai. 2014. “Not Such an International Human Rights Norm? Local Resistance to LGBT Rights.” Journal of Human Rights 13(3): 249–55.
Lang, Sabine. 2013. NGOs, Civil Society, and the Public Sphere. Cambridge University Press.
Lax, Jeffrey R., and Phillips, Justin H. 2009. “Gay Rights in the States: Public Opinion and Policy Responsiveness.” American Political Science Review 103(3): 367–86.
Legro, Jeffrey W. 1997. “Which Norms Matter? Revisiting the ‘Failure’ of Internationalism.” International Organization 51(1): 31–63.
Lieberman, Evan S. 2005. “Nested Analysis as a Mixed-Method Strategy for Comparative Research.” American Political Science Review 99(3): 435–52.
Lind, Amy. 2014. “‘Out’ in International Relations: Why Queer Visibility Matters.” International Studies Review 16(4): 601–4.
Linz, Juan J., and Stepan, Alfred. 2011. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lipsky, Michael. 1968. “Protest as a Political Resource.”The American Political Science Review 62(4): 1144–58.
Lloyd, Paulette, Simmons, Beth, and Stewart, Brandon. 2012. “The Global Diffusion of Law: Transnational Crime and the Case of Human Trafficking.” Paper presented at the University of California, Irvine, March 1, 2012. http://archives.cerium.ca/IMG/pdf/Lloyd_Simmons_Stewart_2012.pdf.
Lohmann, Susanne. 1993. “A Signaling Model of Informative and Manipulative Political Action.” American Political Science Review 87(2): 319–33.
Mackey, Robert. 2014. “Latvian Minister Declares He's Gay, Exposing Fault Lines of New Culture War in Europe.” New York Times. www.nytimes. com/2014/11/08/world/europe/after-latvian-minister-declares-hes-gay-new- front-opens-in-europes-cultural-war.html.
Makers.com. 2014. “Gloria Steinem: Feminist Activist,” Youtube video, 4:12, posted on March 3, 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zl5qeF0aqs&feature= youtube_gdata_player.
Manalansan, Martin. 1995. “In the Shadows of Stonewall.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 2(4): 425–38.
Maneo-Tolerancja, . 2005. “Press Release; Grundrechte gelten auch für Lesben und Schwule!” www.maneo.de/infopool/flyer-und-infopakete.html?eID=dam_frontend_push&docID=288.
Maneo-Tolerancja, . 2006. “Press Release; Europäische Solidarität gegen Homophobie in Polen.” Berlin, Germany. www.maneo.de/infopool/flyer-und-infopakete. html?eID=dam_frontend_push&docID=288.
Maresca, Thomas. 2013. “Vietnam: Flawed on Human Rights, but a Leader in Gay Rights.” Atlantic. www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/04/vietnam-flawed-on-human-rights-but-a-leader-in-gay-rights/275413/.
Marks, Gary, and McAdam, Doug. 1996. “Social Movements and the Changing Structure of Political Opportunity in the European Union.” West European Politics 19(2): 249–78.
Marshall, Monty, Jaggers, Keith, and Gurr, Ted Robert. 2010. “POLITY IV PROJECT Dataset Users’ Manual: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2010.” www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/p4manualv2012.pdf.
Martin, Lisa L., and Simmons, Beth. 1998. “Theories and Empirical Studies of International Institutions.” International Organization 52(4): 729–58.
Mastenbroek, Ellen. 2003. “Surviving the Deadline: The Transposition of EU Directives in the Netherlands.” European Union Politics 4(4): 371–95.
Mazziotta, Agostino, Mummendey, Amélie, and Wright, Stephen C.. 2011. “Vicarious Intergroup Contact Effects Applying Social-Cognitive Theory to Intergroup Contact Research.” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 14(2): 255–74.
McAdam, Doug. 1988. Freedom Summer. Oxford University Press.
McAdam, Doug. 1999. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970. 2nd edn. University of Chicago Press.
McAdam, Doug. 2013. “Cognitive Liberation.” In The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements, eds. Snow, David A., Porta, Donatella della, Klandermans, Bert, and McAdam, Doug. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470674871.wbespm030/abstract.
McAdam, Doug, and Su, Yang. 2002. “The War at Home: Antiwar Protests and Congressional Voting 1965–1973.” American Sociological Review 67(5): 696–721.
McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles. 2001. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge University Press.
McCajor Hall, Timothy. 2009. “Stories from the Second World: Narratives of Sexual Identity in the Czech Republic across Three Generations of Men Who Have Sex with Men.” In The Story of Sexual Identity: Narrative Perspectives on the Gay and Lesbian Life Course, eds. Hammack, Phillip L. and Cohler, Bertram J.. New York: Oxford University Press, 51–79.
McCarthy, John, and Zald, Mayer N. 1977. The Dynamics of Social Movements. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop Publishers.
McConahay, John B., and Hough, Joseph C.. 1976. “Symbolic Racism.” Journal of Social Issues 32(2): 23–45.
McDonald, James. 2015. “Ugandan Presidential Candidate Comes Out Against Homophobia.” Advocate. www.advocate.com/world/2015/07/22/ugandan-presidential-candidate-comes-out-against-homophobia.
McGarry, Aidan. in press. “Parades, Pride and Prejudice: Roma and LGBTI Communities and Public Space in Post-Socialist Europe.” Communist and Post Communist Studies.
Mepschen, Paul, Duyvendak, Jan Willem, and Tonkens, Evelien H. 2010. “Sexual Politics, Orientalism and Multicultural Citizenship in the Netherlands.” Sociology 44(5): 962–79.
Meyer, Christoph O. 2009. “International Terrorism as a Force of Homogenization? A Constructivist Approach to Understanding Cross-National Threat Perceptions and Responses.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22(4): 647–66.
Meyer, David S. 2003. “How Social Movements Matter.” Contexts 2(4): 30–5.
Meyer, John W., Boli, John, Thomas, George M., and Ramirez, Francisco O.. 1997. “World Society and the Nation-State.” American Journal of Sociology 103(1): 144–81.
Michels, Mindy. 2012. “Albania: The Gay Movement You Never Imagined.” Huffington Post. www.huffingtonpost.com/american-anthropological- association/albania-gay-rights_b_1497865.html.
Miller, Wentworth. 2013. “Re: St. Petersburg International Film Festival/’Guest of Honor’ Invitation.” www.glaad.org/blog/wentworth-miller-rejects-russian- film-festival-invitation-gay-man-i-must-decline.
Minkoff, Debra C. 1994. “From Service Provision to Institutional Advocacy: The Shifting Legitimacy of Organizational Forms.” Social Forces 72(4): 943–69.
Mizielińska, Joanna. 2010. “Poland.” In The Greenwood Encyclopedia of LGBT Issues Worldwide, ed. Stewart, Chuck. Westport, CT: ABC-CLIO/Greenwood, 321–37.
Mole, Richard. 2011. “Nationality and Sexuality: Homophobic Discourse and the ‘national Threat’ in Contemporary Latvia.” Nations and Nationalism 17(3): 540–60.
Montoya, Celeste. 2008. “The European Union, Capacity Building, and Transnational Networks: Combating Violence Against Women Through the Daphne Program.” International Organization 62(2): 359–72.
Montoya, Celeste. 2013. From Global to Grassroots: The European Union, Transnational Advocacy, and Combating Violence against Women. Oxford University Press.
Morgan, Joe. 2014. “Russia's Biggest Gay Rights Protest Held since Anti-Gay Laws Were Enforced.” Gay Star News. www.gaystarnews.com/article/russias-biggest-gay-rights-protest-anti-gay-laws-were-enforced020514.
Mos, Martijn. 2014. “Of Gay Rights and Christmas Ornaments: The Political History of Sexual Orientation Non-Discrimination in the Treaty of Amsterdam.” Journal of Common Market Studies 52(3): 632–49.
Moscow Times. 2013. “87% of Russians Oppose Gay Parades.” www. themoscowtimes.com/news/article/over-80-of-russians-oppose-same- sex-marriage-and-gay-parades/476773.html?.
Murai, Shusuke. 2015. “Tokyo's Shibuya and Setagaya Wards Issue First Same-Sex Partnership Papers.” Japan Times. www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/11/05/national/social-issues/shibuya-set-issue-first-certificates-recognizing-sex-couples/#.VqZS_1KRLYd.
Nadelmann, Ethan A. 1990. “Global Prohibition Regimes: The Evolution of Norms in International Society.” International Organization 44(4): 479–526.
Negro, Giacomo, Perretti, Fabrizio, and Carroll, Glenn R.. 2013. “Challenger Groups, Commercial Organizations, and Policy Enactment: Local Lesbian/Gay Rights Ordinances in the United States from 1972 to 2008.” American Journal of Sociology 119(3): 790–832.
Newton, Huey. 1970. “A Letter from Huey Newton to the Revolutionary Brothers and Sisters about the Women's Liberation and Gay Liberation Movements.” The Black Panther, August 21, 1970.
Nielsen, Nikolaj. 2014. “Malta Legalises Same-Sex Unions and Adoption.” EUobserver.com. http://euobserver.com/social/123858.
NOP. 2011. “Historia NOP.” www.nop.org.pl/historia-nop/.
Novak, Marja. 2015. “Slovenia Rejects Same-Sex Marriage Again.” Huffington Post. www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/slovenia-gay-marriage_us_5678211fe4b0 6fa6887de364.
Nussbaum, Martha Craven. 2010. From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law. New York: Oxford University Press US.
“ODWAGA.” 2012. ODWAGA. www.odwaga.oaza.org.pl/homepage.html.
O'Dwyer, Conor. 2010. “From Conditionality to Persuasion? Europeanization and the Rights of Sexual Minorities in Post-Accession Poland.” Journal of European Integration 32(3): 229.
O'Dwyer, Conor. 2012. “Does the EU Help or Hinder Gay-Rights Movements in Post-Communist Europe? The Case of Poland.” East European Politics 28(4): 332–52.
O'Dwyer, Conor, and Schwartz, Katrina. 2010. “Minority Rights After EU Enlargement: A Comparison of Antigay Politics in Poland and Latvia.” Comparative European Politics 8(2): 220–43.
Okeowo, Alexis. 2012. “Gay and Proud in Uganda.” New Yorker. www. newyorker.com/online/blogs/newsdesk/2012/08/gay-and-proud-in-uganda. html#slide_ss_0=1.
Olzak, Susan. 2011. “Does Globalization Breed Ethnic Discontent?Journal of Conflict Resolution 55(1): 3–32.
Owczarzak, Jill. 2009. “Defining Democracy and the Terms of Engagement with the Postsocialist State: Insights from HIV/AIDS.” East European Politics and Societies 23(3): 421–45.
Pasek, Beata. 2003. “Polish Campaign Sparks Debate Over Gays.” Star Tribune, Associated Press (AP). http://niechnaszobacza.queers.pl/strony/prasa/27.05.03_en_a.htm.
Paternotte, David. 2011. Revendiquer le “mariage gay”: Belgique, France, Espagne. Brussels: Université de Bruxelles.
Paternotte, David. 2012. “Back into the Future: ILGA-Europe before 1996.” Destination Equality: Magazine of ILGA-Europe 11(1): 5–8.
Paternotte, David. 2015. “Global Times, Global Debates? Same-Sex Marriage Worldwide.” Social Forces (first view).
Paternotte, David. in press. “The NGOization of LGBT Activism: ILGA-Europe and the Treaty of Amsterdam.” Social Movement Studies Online First(0): 1–15.
Paternotte, David, and Kollman, Kelly. 2013. “Regulating Intimate Relationships in the European Polity: Same-sex Unions and Policy Convergence.” Social politics 20(4): 510–33.
Pattillo, Mary E., Weiman, David F., and Western, Bruce. 2004. Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Petrova, Tsveta. 2012. “How Poland Promotes Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 23(2): 133–47.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1998. “Intergroup Contact Theory.” Annual Review of Psychology 49(1): 65–85.
Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Tropp, Linda R. 2006. “A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90(5): 751–83.
Philpott, Daniel. 2007. “Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion.” The American Political Science Review 101(3): 505–25.
Picq, Manuela Lavinas, and Thiel, Markus, eds. 2015. Sexualities in World Politics: How LGBTQ Claims Shape International Relations. New York: Routledge.
Pinderi, Kristi. 2013. “Interview Transcript: ‘Unbiased Voices of Reason in Albania Have No Outlet’, Says US Ambassador.” Historia Ime. http://historia-ime.com/en/english/135-%E2%80%9Cunbiased-voices-of-reason-in-albania-have-no-outlet%E2%80%9D,-says-us-ambassador.html.
Piven, Frances Fox, and Cloward, Richard A. 1977. Poor People's Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail. 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books.
Polletta, Francesca. 1999. “‘Free Spaces’ in Collective Action.” Theory and Society 28(1): 1–38.
Polskie Radio. 2011. “Germans to Protest Nationalist Warsaw Independence Day Demo.” Polskie Radio dla Zagranicy. www.thenews.pl/1/10/Artykul/57584,Germans-to-protest-nationalist-Warsaw-Independence-Day-demo.
Price, Richard. 2003. “Transnational Civil Society and Advocacy in World Politics.” World Politics 55(4): 579–606.
Princen, Sebastiaan, and Kerremans, Bart. 2008. “Opportunity Structures in the EU Multi-Level System.” West European Politics 31(6): 1129–46.
Puar, Jasbir K. 2007. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. Durham: Duke University Press.
Public Broadcasting of Latvia. 2014. “Former Unity Board Member Provokes Storm with Twitter Rant.” www.lsm.lv/en/article/politics/unity-councillor-quits-after-shocking-twitter-rant.a108522/.
Putnam, Robert D. 1988. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games.” International Organization 42(3): 427–60.
Radaelli, Claudio M. 2004. “Europeanisation: Solution or Problem?European Integration online Papers (EIoP) 8(16): 1–26.
Radeljić, Branislav. 2011. “Blessing the Collapse of Yugoslavia: The Vatican's Role in EC Policy-Making.” Serbian Studies Research 2(1): 177–204.
Radio Poland. 2014. “Equality Parade Demands Civil Partnerships.” www. thenews.pl/1/9/Artykul/173878,Equality-Parade-demands-civil-partnerships.
Rahman, Momin. 2014. “Sexual Diversity.” In Routledge International Handbook of Diversity Studies, ed. Vertovec, Steven. New York: Routledge, 75–82.
Ramet, Sabrina. 1982. “Catholicism and Politics in Socialist Yugoslavia.” Religion in Communist Lands 10(3): 256–74.
Ramet, Sabrina. 1998. Nihil Obstat: Religion, Politics, and Social Change in East-Central Europe and Russia. Durham: Duke University Press Books.
Ramet, Sabrina. 2006. “Thy Will Be Done: The Catholic Church and Politics in Poland since 1989.” In Religion in an Expanding Europe, eds. Katzenstein, Peter J. and Byrnes, Timothy A.. Cambridge University Press, 117–47.
Ratzinger, Joseph. 1986. “Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons.” www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_19861001_ homosexual-persons_en.html.
Raudenbush, Stephen W., and Bryk, Anthony. 2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Redakcja Fronda.pl. 2010. “Homoparady W Europie.” www.fronda.pl/a/homoparady-w-europie,7161.html.
Reynolds, Andrew. 2013. “Representation and Rights: The Impact of LGBT Legislators in Comparative Perspective.” American Political Science Review 107(2): 259–74.
Riabov, Oleg, and Riabova, Tatiana. 2014. “The Decline of Gayropa? – How Russia Intends to Save the World.” Eurozine. www.eurozine.com/articles/2014-02-05-riabova-en.html.
Rimmerman, Craig A. 2014. The Lesbian and Gay Movements: Assimilation or Liberation? 2nd edn. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Ring, Trudy. 2014. “World Bank Delays Uganda Loan Due to Antigay Law.” Advocate. www.advocate.com/world/2014/02/27/world-bank-delays-uganda-loan-due-antigay-law.
Risse-Kappen, Thomas, ed. 1995. Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures and International Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Risse, Thomas. 2000. “‘Let's Argue!’: Communicative Action in World Politics.” International Organization 54(1): 1–39.
Risse, Thomas., ed. 2014. European Public Spheres. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen, and Sikkink, Kathryn, eds. 2013. The Persistent Power of Human Rights: From Commitment to Compliance. New York: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roggeband, Conny. 2010. “Transnational Networks and Institutions.” In The Diffusion of Social Movements, eds. Rebecca, Givan, M., Roberts Kenneth, and A., Soule Sarah. Cambridge University Press, 19–33.
Rose, Deondra Eunique. 2012. “The Development of US Higher Education Policy and Its Impact on the Gender Dynamics of American Citizenship.” PhD Dissertation. Cornell University.
Ross, Alex. 2015. “Berlin Story: How the Germans Invented Gay Rights–More than a Century Ago.” New Yorker: 73–7.
Rousseau, David. 2006. Identifying Threats and Threatening Identities: The Social Construction of Realism and Liberalism. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Rupp, Leila J. 2011. “The Persistence of Transnational Organizing: The Case of the Homophile Movement.” The American Historical Review 116(4): 1014–39.
Rydström, Jens. 2008. “Legalizing Love in a Cold Climate: The History, Consequences and Recent Developments of Registered Partnership in Scandinavia.” Sexualities 11(1–2): 193–226.
Sandro, Scabello. 2007. “Visite Dal Veterinario E Persecuzioni Essere Gay Al Tempo Dei Kaczyński.” Corriere della Sera: 13.
Saner, Emine. 2013. “Gay Rights around the World: The Best and Worst Countries for Equality.” Guardian. www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/30/gay-rights-world-best-worst-countries.
Sansalone, Dom. 2013. “Poll: Almost a Quarter of Russians Want ‘Compulsory Treatment’ for Gays and 5% Think Gay People Should Be ‘Liquidated.’” Pink News. www.pinknews.co.uk/2013/03/12/poll-almost- a-quarter-of-russians-want-compulsory-treatment-for-gays-and-5-think- gay-people-should-be-liquidated/.
Scally, Derek. 2015. “German Politicians Demand Moves to Follow Irish Referendum.” Irish Times. www.irishtimes.com/news/world/europe/german-politicians-demand-moves-to-follow-irish-referendum-1.2226873.
Schimmelfennig, Frank. 2007. “European Regional Organizations, Political Conditionality, and Democratic Transformation in Eastern Europe.”East European Politics and Societies 21(1): 126–41.
Schmitt, Carl. 1996. The Concept of the Political. University of Chicago Press.
Schulenberg, Shawn. 2013. “LGBT Rights in Chile: On the Verge of a Gay-Rights Revolution?” Presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, Ill, August 30, 2013.
Scott, James C. 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Sears, David. 1988. “Symbolic Racism.” In Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy, eds. Katz, Phyllis and Taylor, Dalmas. New York: Plenum Press, 53–84.
Seckinelgin, Hakan. 2009. “Global Activism and Sexualities in the Time of HIV/AIDS.” Contemporary Politics 15(1): 103–18.
Seidman, Steven. 2004. Contested Knowledge: Social Theory Today. 3rd edn. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Seybert, Lucia. 2012. “The Trouble with ‘Returning to Europe’: New European Union Members’ Reluctant Embrace of Nuclear Safety and Minority Rights.” PhD Dissertation. Cornell University.
Shevtsova, Lilia. 2007. “Post-Communist Russia: A Historic Opportunity Missed.” International Affairs 83(5): 891–912.
Sikkink, Kathryn. 2005. “Patterns of Dynamic Multilevel Governance and the Insider–outsider Coalitions.” In Transnational Protest and Global Activism, eds. della Porta, Donatella and Tarrow, Sidney. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 151–74.
Sil, Rudra, and Katzenstein, Peter J.. 2010. Beyond Paradigms: Analytic Eclecticism in the Study of World Politics. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Simmons, Beth A. 2009. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Skrentny, John David. 2002. The Minority Rights Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Slootmaeckers, Koen, and Touquet, Heleen. in press. “The Co-evolution of EU's Eastern Enlargement and LGBT politics: An Ever Gayer Union?” In TheEU Enlargement and Gay Politics, eds. Slootmaeckers, Koen, Touquet, Heleen, and Vermeersch, Peter. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Smith, Anna Marie. 1994. New Right Discourse on Race and Sexuality: Britain, 1968–1990. Cambridge University Press.
Smith, David. 2013. “Ugandan MPs Rush through Draconian Laws against Homosexuality.” Guardian. www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/20/uganda-mps-laws-homosexuality.
Smith, Tom W. 2011. Cross-National Differences in Attitudes towards Homosexuality. The Williams Institute. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/81m7x7kb#page-5.
Snijders, Tom A. B., and Bosker, Roel J.. 1999. Multilevel Analysis. London: Sage Publications.
Snow, David A., and Benford, Robert D.. 1992. Master Frames and Cycles of Protest. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Soss, Joe, Fording, Richard, and Schram, Sanford. 2011. Disciplining the Poor: Neoliberal Paternalism and the Persistent Power of Race. University of Chicago Press.
Soule, Sarah A. 1997. “The Student Divestment Movement in the United States and Tactical Diffusion: The Shantytown Protest.” Social Forces 75(3):855–82.
Soule, Sarah A. 2004a. “Diffusion Processes within and across Movements.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, eds. Snow, David A., Kriesi, Hanspeter, and Soule, Sarah A.. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 294–311.
Soule, Sarah A. 2004b. “Going to the Chapel? Same-Sex Marriage Bans in the United States, 1973–2000.” Social Problems 51(4): 453–77.
Soule, Sarah A., and Earl, Jennifer. 2001. “The Enactment of State-Level Hate Crime Law in the United States: Intrastate and Interstate Factors.” Sociological Perspectives 44(3): 281–305.
Soule, Sarah A., and King, Brayden G. 2006. “The Stages of the Policy Process and the Equal Rights Amendment, 1972–1982.” American Journal of Sociology 111(6): 1871–1909.
Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu. 1994. Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. University of Chicago Press.
Stathi, Sofia, and Crisp, Richard J.. 2008. “Imagining Intergroup Contact Promotes Projection to Outgroups.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44(4): 943–57.
Stepan, Alfred. 2000. “Religion, Democracy, and the Twin Tolerations.” Journal of Democracy 11(4): 37–57.
Stockdill, Brett C. 2003. Activism against AIDS: At the Intersection of Sexuality, Race, Gender, and Class. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Pub.
Stoeckl, Kristina. 2014. The Russian Orthodox Church and Human Rights. London; New York: Routledge.
Strang, David. 1990. “From Dependency to Sovereignty: An Event History Analysis of Decolonization 1870–1987.” American Sociological Review 55(6): 846.
Strang, David, and Meyer, John W.. 1993. “Institutional Conditions for Diffusion.” Theory and Society 22(4): 487–511.
Strehovec, Tadej. 2012. “Marriages and Cohabitations from Theological, Demographic and Social Perspective.” Pregledni znanstveni članek 1(2): 195–203.
Strolovitch, Dara Z. 2007. Affirmative Advocacy: Race, Class, and Gender in Interest Group Politics. University of Chicago Press.
Strolovitch, Dara Z. 2012. “Intersectionality in Time: Sexuality and the Shifting Boundaries of Intersectional Marginalization.” Politics & Gender 8(3): 386–96.
Stychin, Carl Franklin. 1998. A Nation by Rights: National Cultures, Sexual Identity Politics, and the Discourse of Rights. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Swiebel, Joke. 2009. “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Human Rights: The Search for an International Strategy.” Contemporary Politics 15(1): 19–35.
Swimelar, Safia. in press. “The Struggle for Visibility and Equality: Bosnian LGBT Rights Developments.” In The EU Enlargement and Gay Politics, eds. Slootmaeckers, Koen, Touquet, Heleen, and Vermeersch, Peter. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.
Symons, Jonathan, and Altman, Dennis. 2015. “International Norm Polarization: Sexuality as a Subject of Human Rights Protection.” International Theory 7(1): 61–95.
Takács, Judit, and Szalma, Ivett. 2011. “Homophobia and Same-Sex Partnership Legislation in Europe.” Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal 30(5): 356–78.
Tarrow, Sidney. 2005a. “Rooted Cosmopolitans and Transnational Activism.” http://government.arts.cornell.edu/assets/faculty/docs/tarrow/rooted_cosmopolitans.pdf.
Tarrow, Sidney. 2005b. The New Transnational Activism. Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 2011. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney, and McAdam, Doug. 2005. “Scale Shift in Transnational Contention.” In Transnational Protest and Global Activism, eds. Porta, Donatella della and Tarrow, Sidney. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 121–50.
Taylor, Adam. 2015. “A New Swedish Message to Russian Submarines: ‘This Way If You Are Gay.’Washington Post. www.washingtonpost .com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2015/05/12/swedens-new-message-to-russian- submarines-this-way-if-you-are-gay/.
Taylor, Verta. 1989. “Social Movement Continuity: The Women's Movement in Abeyance.” American Sociological Review 54(5): 761–75.
Taylor, Verta, Rupp, Leila J, and Gamson, Joshua. 2004. “Performing Protest: Drag Shows as Tactical Repertoire of the Gay and Lesbian Movement.” In Authority in Contention, eds. Myers, Daniel and Cress, Daniel. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 105–37. www.emeraldinsight.com/books.htm?chapterid=1758236&show=pdf.
Terkel, Amanda. 2015. “Marriage Equality In Germany ‘Not A Goal’ For Angela Merkel.” Huffington Post. www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/05/27/angela-merkel-marriage-equality_n_7454090.html.
Thoreson, Ryan R. 2014. Transnational LGBT Activism: Working for Sexual Rights Worldwide. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Tolbert, Pamela, and Zucker, Lynne. 1983. “Institutional Sources of Change in the Formal Structure of Organizations: The Diffusion of Civil Service Reform, 1880–1935.” Administrative Science Quarterly 28(1): 22–39.
Tolerantia Declaration. 2010. “Tolerantia Declaration.” Maneo/Tolerantia Archive, Schwules Museum, Berlin, Germany.
Torstendahl, Rolf, ed. 1999. State Policy and Gender System in the Two German States and Sweden 1945–1989. Uppsala: Distribution, Dept. of History [Uppsala universitet].
Toshkov, Dimiter. 2008. “Embracing European Law: Compliance with EU Directives in Central and Eastern Europe.” European Union Politics 9(3): 379–402.
Towns, Ann E. 2010. Women and States: Norms and Hierarchies in International Society. Cambridge University Press.
Towns, Ann E. 2012. “Norms and Social Hierarchies: Understanding International Policy Diffusion ‘From Below.’” International Organization 66(2): 179–209.
Tremblay, Manon, David, Paternotte, and Johnson, Carol, eds. 2011. The Lesbian and Gay Movement and the State. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Trplan, Tomaz. 2005. “Slovenia.” In Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe, ed. Mudde, Cas. New York: Routledge, 225–46.
Turner, Rhiannon N., Crisp, Richard J., and Lambert, Emily. 2007. “Imagining Intergroup Contact Can Improve Intergroup Attitudes.” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 10(4): 427–41.
Vachudova, Milada Anna. 2005. Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration After Communism. Oxford University Press.
van der Vleuten, Anna. 2014. “Transnational LGBTI Activism and the European Courts: Constructing the Idea of Europe.” In LGBT Activism and the Making of Europe: A Rainbow Europe?, eds. Ayoub, Phillip M. and Paternotte, David. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 119–44.
Vogt, Andrea. 2015. “‘We're next’ Says Italy after Irish Gay Marriage Vote.” Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/11627693/Were-next-says-Italy-after-Irish-gay-marriage-vote.html.
Voxerbrant, Diana. 2004. Tolerancja! Who Would Have Thought Tolerance Could Be So Controversial. Blackraw Productions. Documentary.
Waaldijk, Kees. 2000. “Civil Developments: Patterns of Reform in the Legal Position of Same-Sex Partners in Europe.” Canadian Journal of Family Law 17(1): 62–88.
Waaldijk, Kees. 2009. “Legal Recognition of Homosexual Orientation in the Countries of the World.” Presented at The Global Arc of Justice Conference, Los Angeles, CA, March 11, 2009.
Waaldijk, Kees, and Bonini-Baraldi, M. T.. 2006. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union: National Laws and the Employment Equality Directive. T.M.C. The Hague: Asser Press. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/16528.
Waever, Ole. 1993. “Societal Security: The Concept.” In Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, eds. Waever, Ole, Buzan, Barry, Kelstrup, Morten, and Lemaitre, Pierre. New York: St. Martin's Press, 17–40.
Waites, Matthew. 2009. “Critique of ‘Sexual Orientation’ and ‘Gender Identity’ in Human Rights Discourse: Global Queer Politics beyond the Yogyakarta Principles.” Contemporary Politics 15(1): 137–56.
Wald, Kenneth. 2013. “The State as a Religious Actor: New Thoughts on an Old Variable.” Presented at the Religion, Identity, and Politics Conference, University of Michigan.
Warschauerpakt. 2007. “Warschauerpakt: Europa=Tolerancja.” Warschauerpakt: Europa=Tolerancja. http://warschauerpakt2007.de/.
Way, Lucan and Levitsky, Steven. 2007. “Linkage, Leverage, and the Post-Communist Divide.” East European Politics and Societies 21(1): 48–66.
Weber, Cynthia. 2015. “Why Is There No Queer International Theory?European Journal of International Relations 21(1): 27–51.
Weeks, Jeffrey. 2000. Making Sexual History. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Weeks, Jeffrey. 2007. The World We Have Won: The Remaking of Erotic and Intimate Life. London: Routledge.
Weeks, Jeffrey. 2015. “Gay Liberation and Its Legacies.” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Lesbian and Gay Activism, eds. Paternotte, David and Tremblay, Manon. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 45–58.
Weiss, Meredith L., and Bosia, Michael J.. 2013. Global Homophobia: States, Movements, and the Politics of Oppression. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Wendt, Alexander. 1999. Social Theory of International Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Whittier, Nancy. 2010. Feminist Generations: The Persistence of the Radical Women's Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Wilkinson, Cai. 2014. “Putting ‘Traditional Values’ into Practice: The Rise and Contestation of Anti-Homopropaganda Laws in Russia.” Journal of Human Rights 13(3): 363–79.
Wilson, Angelia R. 2013. Why Europe Is Lesbian and Gay Friendly (and Why America Never Will Be). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Wright, Stephen C., Aron, Arthur, McLaughlin-Volpe, Tracy, and Ropp, Stacy A.. 1997. “The Extended Contact Effect: Knowledge of Cross-Group Friendships and Prejudice.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73(1): 73–90.
Yeo, Andrew. 2011. Activists, Alliances, and Anti-U.S. Base Protests. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zapryanova, Galina M., and Surzhko-Harned, Lena. 2015. “The Effect of Supranational Identity on Cultural Values in Europe.” European Political Science Review First View (1): 1–20.
Zaretsky, Robert. 2013. “Tocqueville and France's Gay Marriage Debate.” New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2013/05/02/opinion/global/Tocqueville- and-Frances-Gay-Marriage-debate.html.
Zepeda-Millán, Chris. 2011. “Dignity's Revolt: Threat, Identity, and Immigrant Mass Mobilization.” PhD Dissertation. Cornell University.
Zepeda-Millán, Chris. 2016. “Weapons of the (Not So) Weak: Immigrant Mass Mobilization in the US South.” Critical Sociology 42(2): 269–287.
Ziliak, Stephen Thomas, and McCloskey, Deirdre N.. 2008. The Cult of Statistical Significance: How the Standard Error Costs Us Jobs, Justice, and Lives. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Zito, Anthony R. 2009. “European Agencies as Agents of Governance and EU Learning.” Journal of European Public Policy 16(8): 1224–43.
Zivi, Karen. 2012. Making Rights Claims: A Practice of Democratic Citizenship. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zürn, Michael, and Checkel, Jeffrey T.. 2005. “Getting Socialized to Build Bridges: Constructivism and Rationalism, Europe and the Nation-State.” International Organization 59(4): 1045–79.