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W. H. Auden in Context
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W. H. Auden is a giant of twentieth-century English poetry whose writings demonstrate a sustained engagement with the times in which he lived. But how did the century's shifting cultural terrain affect him and his work? Written by distinguished poets and scholars, these brief but authoritative essays offer a varied set of coordinates by which to chart Auden's continuously evolving career, examining key aspects of his environmental, cultural, political and creative contexts. Reaching beyond mere biography, these essays present Auden as the product of ongoing negotiations between himself, his time and posterity, exploring the enduring power of his poetry to unsettle and provoke. The collection will prove valuable for scholars, researchers and students of English literature, cultural studies and creative writing.


'A valuable addition to Auden studies, this book opens many windows to this quintessential 20th-century author … required reading for scholars and Auden aficionados. Highly recommended. All readers.'

B. Wallenstein Source: Choice

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Guide to Further Reading

Sources already referenced in the list of Abbreviations are generally not repeated here, except for the citation of specific content. Thus, the critical studies by John Fuller and Edward Mendelson, widely regarded as indispensable, are referenced there but not here.

The abbreviations are used, where appropriate, in what follows.

Auden’s Northerliness

Bucknell, Katherine (ed.), ‘Phantasy and Reality in Poetry (1971)’, AS III, pp. 139–206 [consists of her introduction, Auden’s lecture, her appendix ‘Auden’s Nursery Library’].
Bucknell, Katherine (ed.), Juvenilia [informative annotation of some north-related poems].
Myers, Alan, andRobert Forsythe, W. H. Auden: Pennine Poet, North PenninesHeritage Trust, 1999.
Sharpe, Tony, ‘“The North, My World”: W. H. Auden’s Pennine Ways’, in Katharine Cockin (ed.), The Literary North, Palgrave (2012), pp. 107–24.
Sharpe, Tony, ‘Paysage Moralisé: W.H. Auden and Maps’, AN 29, December 2007, pp. 5–12.

Two Cities: Berlin and New York

Bozorth, Richard R., Auden’s Games of Knowledge: Poetry and the Meanings of Homosexuality. Columbia University Press, 2001.
Chauncey, George, Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940, Basic Books, 1995.
Page, Norman, Auden and Isherwood: The Berlin Years, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.
Roberts, Beth, ‘W. H. Auden and the Jews’, Journal of Modern Literature 28. 3 Spring 2005, pp. 87–108.
Scott, William B., and Peter M. Rutkoff, New York Modern: The Arts and the City, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Sharpe, Tony, W. H. Auden, Routledge, 2007.
Smith, Stan, W. H. Auden, Basil Blackwell, 1985.
Tippins, Sherill, February House: The Story of W. H. Auden, Carson McCullers, Jane and Paul Bowles, Benjamin Britten, and Gypsy Rose Lee, Under One Roof in Brooklyn, Mariner Books, 2006.
Weitz, Eric D., Weimar Germany: Promise and Tragedy. Princeton University Press, 2007.

Ideas about England

Deane, Patrick, ‘Auden’s England’, CCWHA, pp. 25–38.
Jenkins, Nicholas, The Island: W. H. Auden and the Regeneration of England (forthcoming from Harvard University Press and Faber and Faber).
Smith, Stan, W. H. Auden, Basil Blackwell, 1985.

Ideas of America

Auden, W. H., ‘Whitman and Arnold’, P II, pp. 11–13.
Auden, W.H., ‘Opera on an American Legend’, P II, pp. 129–31.
Auden, W.H., ‘AMERICANA’, DH, pp. 309–68.
Jenkins, Nicholas, ‘Auden in America’, CCWHA, pp. 39–54.

At Home in Italy and Austria

Brodsky, Joseph, ‘To Please a Shadow’, in Less Than One: Selected Essays, Penguin, 1987.
Mendelson, Edward, ‘The European Auden’, CCWHA, pp. 55–67.
Musulin, Stella, ‘Auden in Kirchstetten’, AS III, pp. 207–33.

See also relevant passages in Carpenter and RD-H 1995.

Auden and the Class System

Caesar, Adrian, Dividing Lines: Poetry, Class and ideology in the 1930s, Manchester University Press, 1991.
Williams, Raymond, Culture and Society 1780–1950, Penguin, 1979.

The Church of England: Auden’s Anglicanism

Bridgen, John, ‘My Meeting with Dr John and Sheila Auden’, AN 25, January 2005, pp. 7–18.
Hillier, Bevis, John Betjeman: New Fame, New Love, John Murray, 2002.
Kirsch, Arthur, Auden and Christianity, Yale University Press, 2005.
MacCulloch, Diarmaid, A History of Christianity, Allen Lane, 2009.
Mendelson, Edward, ‘Auden and God’, New York Review of Books, 6 December 2007, pp. 70–74.
Sharpe, Tony, ‘Final Beliefs: Stevens and Auden’, Literature and Theology, 25: 1, March 2011, pp. 64–78.
Sykes, S. W., The Integrity of Anglicanism, Mowbrays, 1978.

British Homosexuality, 1920–1939

Bozorth, Richard R., ‘Auden: love, sexuality, desire’, CCWHA, pp. 175–77.
Woods, Gregory, Articulate Flesh: Male Homo-eroticism and Modern Poetry, Yale University Press, 1987.
Woods, Gregory, A History of Gay Literature: The Male Tradition, Yale University Press, 1998.

American Homosexuality, 1939–1972

Bozorth, Richard R., Auden’s Games of Knowledge: Poetry and the Meanings of Homosexuality, Columbia University Press, 2001.
Caserio, Robert, ‘Auden’s New Citizenship’, Raritan 17, 1997, pp. 90–103.
Farnan, Dorothy J., Auden In Love, Simon and Schuster, 1984.
Kaiser, Charles, The Gay Metropolis, 1940–1996, Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
Newton, Esther, Cherry Grove, Fire Island: Sixty Years in America’s First Gay and Lesbian Town, Beacon, 1993.
Norse, Harold, Memoirs of a Bastard Angel, Morrow, 1989.

Auden among Women

Farnan, Dorothy J., Auden In Love, Simon and Schuster, 1984.
Fuller, John, ‘Pleasing Ma: the poetry of W. H. Auden’, Kenneth Allott Memorial Lecture no. 9, Liverpool Classical Monthly 20, 1995.
Montefiore, Janet, Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The Dangerous Flood of History, Routledge, 1996.

Auden and the American Literary World

Cowley, Malcolm, The Flower and the Leaf: A Contemporary Record of American Writing Since 1941, Viking, 1985.
Wasley, Aidan, The Age of Auden: Postwar Poetry and the American Scene, Princeton University Press, 2011.

Communism and Fascism in 1920s and 1930s Britain

Collini, Stefan, Absent Minds: Intellectuals in Britain, Oxford University Press, 2007.
Griffiths, Richard, Fellow Travellers of the Right: British Enthusiasts for Nazi Germany, 1933–39, Oxford University Press, 1983.
Linehan, Thomas, British Fascism, 1918–39: Parties, Ideology and Culture, Manchester University Press, 2000.
Overy, Richard, The Morbid Age: Britain Between the Wars, Allen Lane, 2009.
Pugh, M., Hurrah for the Blackshirts: Fascists and Fascism in Britain between the Wars, Jonathan Cape, 2005.
Taylor, D. J., Bright Young People: The Rise and Fall of a Generation, 1918–40, Chatto & Windus, 2007.
Worley, Matthew, Oswald Mosley and the New Party, Palgrave, 2010.

Auden and Wars

Auden, W. H., ‘W. H. Auden Speaks of Poetry and Total War’, P II, pp. 152–53.
Bolton, Jonathan, ‘“Lucid Song”: The Poetry of the Second World War’, The Edinburgh Companion to Twentieth-century British and American War Literature, eds. Adam Piette and Mark Rawlinson, Edinburgh University Press, 2012.
Deer, Patrick, Culture in Camouflage: War, Empire, and Modern British Literature, Oxford University Press, 2009.
Kendall, Tim, Modern English War Poetry, Oxford University Press, 2006.
Sharpe, Tony, W. H. Auden, Routledge, 2007.
Smith, Stan, W. H. Auden, Basil Blackwell, 1985.
Stern, James, ‘The Indispensable Presence’, Tribute, pp. 123–27.

Auden & Freud: The Psychoanalytic Text

Auden, W. H., ‘Psychology and Art To-day’, EA, pp. 332–42.
Auden, W. H., ‘Sigmund Freud’, P III, pp. 340–44.
Auden, W. H., ‘The Greatness of Freud’, P III, pp. 385–88.
Rank, Otto, Das Trauma der Geburt und seine Bedeutung für die Psychoanalyse, Verlag, 1924; English translation, The Trauma of Birth, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1929; repr. Dover, 1993.

Auden’s Theology

Fremantle, Anne, ‘Reality and Religion’, Tribute, pp. 79–92.
Kierkegaard, Søren, Either/Or: a Fragment of Life, trans. Alastair Hannay, Penguin, 1992.
Kierkegaard, Søren.Papers and Journals: A Selection, trans. Alastair Hannay, Penguin, 1996.
Poole, Roger, ‘The unknown Kierkegaard: Twentieth-century receptions’, The Cambridge Companion to Kierkegaard, ed. Alastair Hannay and GordonD.Marino, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 48–75.

Auden in History

Arendt, Hannah, The Human Condition, University of Chicago Press, 1958.
Aristotle, The Basic Works of Aristotle, trans. Richard McKeon, Random House, 1966.
Auden, W. H., ‘Thinking What We are Doing’, Encounter 12: 6, June, 1959, pp. 72–76.
Camus, Albert, The Rebel: An Essay on Man in Revolt, trans. Anthony Bower, Knopf, 1954.
Cochrane, Charles Norris, Christianity and Classical Culture: A Study of Thought and Action from Augustus to Augustine, Clarendon Press, 1940.
de Rougemont, Denis, Love in the Western World, Harcourt Brace and Co., 1940.
Kierkegaard, Søren, Either/Or, A Fragment of Life, trans. David Swenson and Lilian Swenson, Princeton University Press, 1944.
Kierkegaard, Søren, Fear and Trembling, Sickness unto Death, trans. Walter Lowrie, Princeton University Press, 1941.
Nietzsche, Friedrich, Thoughts out of Season, trans. A. M. Ludovici and Adrian Collins, Allen and Unwin, 1937.
Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Twilight of the Idols, The Antichrist; Notes to Zarathustra, and Eternal Recurrence, trans. A. M. Ludovici, Allen and Unwin, 1927.
Orwell, George, Homage to Catalonia, Secker & Warburg, 1938.
Orwell, George, All Art Is Propaganda, Harcourt, 2008.
Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen, Out of Revolution: Autobiography of Western Man, Berg, 1993.
Wilson, Edmund, To the Finland Station: A Study in the Writing and Acting of History, Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1940.

The Cinema

Bluemel, Kristin (ed.), Intermodernism: Literary Culture in Mid-Twentieth-Century Britain, Edinburgh University Press, 2009.
Bryant, Marsha, Auden and Documentary in the 1930s, University of Virginia Press, 1997.
Feigel, Lara, Literature, Cinema and Politics 1930–1945: Reading Between the Frames, Edinburgh University Press, 2010.
Marwick, Arthur, Class, Image and Reality in Britain, France and the USA since 1930, Collins, 1980.
Richards, Jeffrey, and Anthony Aldgate, Best of British: Cinema and Society 1930–1970, Blackwell, 1983.
Williams, Keith, British Writers and the Media, 1930–45, Macmillan, 1996.

1930s British Drama

Innes, Christopher, ‘Auden’s plays and dramatic writings: theatre film and opera’, CCWHA, pp. 82–95.
Query, Patrick, ‘Crooked Europe: The Verse Drama of W. H. Auden (and Company)’, Modern Drama 51, 2008, pp. 579–604.
Sidnell, Michael, Dances of Death: The Group Theatre of London in the Thirties, Faber and Faber, 1984.

The Documentary Moment

Anthony, Scott, Night Mail, British Film Institute, 2007.
Bryant, Marsha, Auden and Documentary in the 1930s, University of Virginia Press, 1997.
Mitchell, Donald, Britten and Auden in the Thirties: the year 1936, Faber and Faber, 1981.

Travel Writing

Branson, Noreen, and Margot Heinemann, Britain in the Nineteen Thirties, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971.
Bryant, Marsha, ‘Auden and the “Arctic Stare”: Documentary as Public Collage inLetters from Iceland’, Journal of Modern Literature, XVII: 4, 1991, pp. 537–65.
Buell, Frederick, W. H. Auden as a Social Poet, Cornell University Press, 1973.
Burdett, Charles, and Derek Duncan, eds. Cultural Encounters: European Travel Writing in the 1930s, Berghahn Books, 2002.
Carr, Helen, ‘Modernism and travel (1880–1940)’, in The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing, eds. Peter Hulme and Tim Youngs, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Fussell, Paul, Abroad: British Literary Traveling between the Wars, Oxford University Press, 1980.
Jenkins, Nicholas, ‘The Traveling Auden’, AN 24, July 2004, pp. 7–14.
Stan Smith, ‘Burbank with a Baedeker: Modernism’s Grand Tours’, Studies in Travel Writing, 8: 1 (2004), pp. 1–18.
Youngs, Tim, ‘Auden’s travel writings’, CCWHA, pp. 68–81.
Youngs, Tim, ‘Travelling Modernists’, in The Oxford Handbook of Modernisms, ed. Peter Brooker et al., Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 267–81.
Youngs, Tim, ‘Following the progress of the mountain mission: the critique of heroism and nationalism in Auden and Isherwood’s The Ascent of F6’, in Mountains Figured and Disfigured in the English-Speaking World, ed. Françoise Besson, Cambridge Scholars Press, 2010.

Auden and Post-war Opera

Auden, W. H., ‘Opera Addict’, Prose II, pp. 400–02.
Auden, W. H., ‘Some Reflections on Music and Opera’, Prose III, pp. 296–302.
Auden, W. H., ‘Reflections on The Magic Flute’, Prose III, pp. 604–08.
Auden, W. H., ‘HOMAGE TO IGOR STRAVINSKY’, DH, pp. 465–527.

Earlier English Influences

Bloomfield, Morton, ‘“Doom is Dark and Deeper than any Sea-Dingle”: W. H. Auden and Sawles Warde’, Modern Language Notes, 63, 1948, pp. 548–52.
Howe, Nicholas, ‘Praise and Lament: The Afterlife of Old English Poetry in Auden, Hill and Gunn’, in Words and Works: Studies in Medieval English Language and Literature in Honour of Fred C. Robinson, ed. Peter S. Baker and Nicholas Howe, University of Toronto Press, 1998, pp. 293–310.
Jones, Chris, ‘W. H. Auden and “The ‘Barbaric’ Poetry of the North”: Unchaining One’s Daimon’, Review of English Studies, 53, 2002, pp. 167–85.
Jones, Chris, ‘“One Can Emend a Mutilated Text”: Auden’s The Orators and the Old English Exeter Book’, TEXT, 15, 2002, pp. 261–75.
Jones, Chris, Strange Likeness: the use of Old English in twentieth-century Poetry, Oxford University Press, 2006.
O’Donoghue, Heather, ‘Owed to Both Sides: W. H. Auden’s Double Debt to the Literature of the North’, in Anglo-Saxon Culture and the Modern Imagination, ed. David Clark and Nicholas Perkins, D. S.Brewer, 2010, pp. 51–69.
Phelpstead, Carl, ‘Auden and the Inklings: An Alliterative Revival’, Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 103, 2004, pp. 433–57.
Salus, Per H., ‘Englishing the Edda’, Comparative Criticism, A Yearbook, ed. Elinor Shaffer, Cambridge University Press, 1979, pp. 141–52.
Toswell, M. J., ‘Auden and Anglo-Saxon’, Medieval English Studies Newsletter, 37 1997, pp. 21–28.

Auden and Shakespeare

Boly, John R., Reading Auden: The Returns of Caliban, Cornell University Press, 1991. Corcoran, Neil, Shakespeare and the Modern Poet, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Fenton, James, ‘Auden’s Shakespeare’, New York Review of Books, 23 March 2000, pp. 24–29.
Kermode, Frank, ‘Maximum Assistance from Good Cooking, Good Clothes, Good Drink’ [Review of Lectures on Shakespeare, by W. H. Auden, ed. Arthur Kirsch], London Review of Books, 22 February 2001, pp. 10–11.
Kirsch, Arthur, ‘Auden’s Faith and his Response to Shakespeare’, Literary Imagination, 2004, pp. 96–111.
Reeves, Gareth, ‘Auden and Religion’, CCWHA, pp. 188–99.
Snyder, Susan, ‘Auden, Shakespeare, and the Defence of Poetry’, Shakespeare Survey 1983, pp. 29–37.


Ellmann, Richard, Eminent Domain: Yeats among Wilde, Joyce, Pound, Eliot and Auden, Oxford University Press, 1967.
MacNeice, Louis, The Poetry of W. B. Yeats, with a foreword by Richard Ellmann, Faber and Faber, 1967.
O’Neill, Michael, ed., The Poems of W. B. Yeats: A Sourcebook, Routledge, 2004.
Smith, Stan, ‘Persuasions to Rejoice: Auden’s Oedipal Dialogues with W. B. Yeats’, AS II, pp. 155–63.
Yeats, W. B., Yeats’s Poems, ed. and annotated A. Norman Jeffares, with an Appendix by Warwick Gould, (1989) Macmillan, 1991.


MacKinnon, Lachlan, Eliot, Auden, Lowell: Aspects of the Baudelairean Inheritance, Macmillan, 1983.
McDiarmid, Lucy, Saving Civilization: Yeats, Eliot and Auden between the Wars, Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Some Modernists in Early Auden

Emig, Rainer, W. H. Auden: Towards a Postmodern Poetics, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000.
Everett, Barbara, Auden, Oliver and Boyd, 1964.
Graves, Robert, The Crowning Privilege, Cassell, 1955.
Lawrence, D. H., Fantasia of the Unconscious (1923) rpt London: Secker, 1933.
O’Neill, Michael, and Gareth Reeves, Auden, MacNeice, Spender: The Thirties Poetry,Macmillan, 1992.
Riding, Laura, The Poems of Laura Riding: A New Edition of the 1938 Collection, Carcanet, 1980.
Riding, Laura, Preface’, Selected Poems: In Five Sets, Faber, 1970 and Robert Graves, A Survey of Modernist Poetry, Heinemann, 1927.
Saint-John Perse, Anabasis: A Poem, with a translation into English by T. S. Eliot, Faber and Faber, 1930.
Spender, Stephen, The Destructive Element: A Study of Modern Writers and Beliefs, Cape, 1935.

Auden In German

Bloom, Robert, ‘The Humanization of Auden’s Early Style’, PMLA 83:2, 1968, pp. 443–54.
Brecht, Bertolt, Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic, ed. and trans. John Willett, Methuen, 1964.
Constantine, David, ‘The German Auden: Six Early Poems’, AS I, pp. 1–15.
Emig, Rainer, W. H. Auden: Towards a Postmodern Poetics, Macmillan, 1999.
Emig, Rainer, ‘“All the Others Translate”: W. H. Auden’s Poetic Dislocations of Self, Nation, and Culture’, in Translation and Nation: Towards a Cultural Poetics of Englishness, eds. Roger Ellis and Liz Oakley-Brown, Multilingual Matters, 2001, pp. 167–204.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, Berliner Ausgabe: Poetische Werke, ed. Siegfried Seidel, 16 vols. 1965–78, Vol. 1, Verlag Innes, Christopher, ‘Auden’s Plays and Dramatic Writings: Theatre, Film and Opera’, CCWHA, pp. 82–95.
Rilke, Rainer Maria, Duino Elegies, trans. Stephen Cohn, Northwestern University Press, 1998.
Rilke, Rainer Maria, The Best of Rilke, trans. Walter Arndt, Dartmouth College Press, 1989.
Thomson, Peter, and Glendyr Sachs, The Cambridge Companion to Brecht, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Valgemae, Mardi, ‘Auden’s Collaboration with Isherwood onThe Dog beneath the Skin’, The Huntington Library Quarterly 31:4, 1968, pp. 373–83.
Waidson, H. M., ‘Auden and German Literature’, The Modern Language Review 70:2, 1975, pp. 347–65.
Willett, John, The Theatre of Bertolt Brecht: A Study from Eight Aspects, Methuen, 1959.
Womack, James, ‘Auden’s Goethe’, Essays in Criticism 58, 2008, pp. 333–54.

Auden and Isherwood

Berg, James J., andChris Freeman, eds. The Isherwood Century: Essays on the Life and Work of Christopher Isherwood, University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.
Canning, Richard, Brief Lives: E.M. Forster, Hesperus Press, 2009.
Innes, Christopher, ‘Auden’s plays and dramatic writings: theatre, film, and opera’, CCWHA, pp. 82–95.
Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, University of Minnesota Press, 2001 (1976).
Isherwood, Christopher, My Guru and His Disciple, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1980.
Isherwood, Christopher, Diaries, Volume 1, 1939–1960, ed. Katherine Bucknell, HarperCollins, 1996.
Isherwood, Christopher, Diaries, Volume 2, The Sixties, ed. Katherine Bucknell, HarperCollins, 2010.
Isherwood, Christopher, Lost Years: A Memoir, 1945–1951, ed. Katherine Bucknell, HarperCollins, 2000.
Isherwood, Christopher, Lions and Shadows: an Education in the Twenties, New Directions, 1947 (1938).
Isherwood, Christopher, ‘Some Notes on the Early Poetry of W. H. Auden’, ‘Postscript to “Some Notes on the Early Poetry of W. H. Auden”’, Tribute, pp. 74–79.
Isherwood, Christopher, and Edward Upward, The Mortmere Stories, Enitharmon Press, 1994.
Parker, Peter, Isherwood: A Life, Picador, 2004.
Spender, Stephen, ‘Isyyvoo’s Conversion’, New York Review of Books, 27.13, 14, August 1980.
Zeikowitz, Richard, ed. Letters Between Forster and Isherwood on Homosexuality and Literature, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Auden in Prose

Sharpe, Tony, ‘Auden’s Prose’, CCWHA, pp. 110–22.

See also Edward Mendelson’s introductions to the individual volumes of Prose published in the Collected Works.

Auden and Little Magazines

Brooker, Peter, and Andrew Thacker, (eds.), The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines, Vol.1: Britain and Ireland 1880–1955, Oxford University Press, 2009.
Caesar, Adrian, Dividing Lines: Poetry, Class and Ideology in the 1930s, Manchester University Press, 1991.
Smith, Stan, ‘Poetry Then: Geoffrey Grigson and New Verse (1933–9), Julian Symons and Twentieth Century Verse (1937–9)’ in Brooker and Thacker (eds.), Modernist Magazines vol. I.

Double Take: Auden in Collaboration

Barzun, Jacques, ‘Foreword: Three Men and a Book’, in A Company of Readers: Uncollected Writings of W. H. Auden, Jacques Barzun, and Lionel Trilling from The Readers’ Subscription and Mid-Century Book Clubs, ed. Arthur Krystal, The Free Press, 2001, pp. ix–xvii.
Bryant, Marsha, Auden and Documentary in the 1930s, University of Virginia Press, 1997.
Fenton, James, Introduction to Wystan and Chester: A Personal Memoir of W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman by Thekla Clark, Faber and Faber, 1995, pp. ixxii.
Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind 1929–1939, Farrar Straus Giroux, 1976.
Isherwood, Christopher, Lions and Shadows: An Education in the Twenties (1947), Pegasus, 1969.
Kerr, Douglas, ‘Disorientations: Auden and Isherwood’s China’, Literature and History 5.2, 1996, pp. 53–67.
Koestenbaum, Wayne, Double Talk: The Erotics of Male Literary Collaboration, Routledge, 1989.
Mendelson, Edward, ‘The Two Audens and the Claims of History’, Representing Modernist Texts: Editing as Interpretation, ed. George Bornstein, University of Michigan Press, 1991, pp. 157–70.
Query, Patrick, ‘Crooked Europe: The Verse Drama of W. H. Auden (and Company)’, Modern Drama 51, 2008, pp. 579–604.
Sidnell, Michael, Dances of Death: The Group Theatre of London in the Thirties,Faber and Faber, 1984.

Auden and Prosody

AudenW. H., ed., de la Mare, Walter, A Choice of de la Mare’s Verse, Faber, 1963.
Corn, Alfred, The Poem’s Heartbeat: A Manual of Prosody, Copper Canyon Press, 2008.
MacNeice, Louis, Varieties of Parable, Faber and Faber, 1965.

Auden’s Forms

Bayley, John, The Romantic Survival: A Study in Poetic EvolutionConstable, 1957.
Everett, Barbara, Auden, Oliver and Boyd, 1964.
Leighton, Angela, On Form: Poetry, Aestheticism, and the Legacy of a Word, Oxford University Press, 2007.
Read, Herbert, Form in Modern Poetry, Sheed and Ward, 1932; 1948.


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