Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: May 2015

6 - Extracranial occlusive disease

from Section II - Posterior Circulation Ischemia: Specific Vascular Sites and Conditions
1.Davy, J. Notice of case in which arteria innominata and left subclavian arteries were closed during life. In Researches, physiological and anatomical, 2 Vols., Smith Elder and Co., London, 1839.
2.Broadbent, WH. Absence of pulsation in both radial arteries, vessels being full of blood. Trans Clin Soc London 1875;8:165168.
3.Ross, RS, McKusick, V. Aortic arch syndromes: diminished or absent pulses in arteries arising from arch of aorta. Arch Intern Med 1953;92:701740.
4.Gould, AP. A case of spreading obliterative arteritis. Trans Clin Soc London 1884;17:95.
5.Gould, AP. Further notes of a case of obliterative arteritis. Trans Clin Soc London 1987;20:252.
6.Fields, WS, Lemak, NA, Ben Menachem, Y. Thoracic outlet syndrome: review and reference to stroke in a major league pitcher. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1986;7:7378.
7.Hoobler, SW. The syndrome of cervical rib with subclavian arterial thrombosis and hemiplegia due to cerebral embolism. N Engl J Med 1942;226:942944.
8.Keen, WW. The symptomatology, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of cervical ribs. Am J Med Sci 1907;133:173218.
9.Halstead, WS. An experimental study of circumscribed dilatation of an artery immediately distal to a partially occluding band and its bearing on the dilatation of the subclavian artery observed in certain cases of cervical rib. J Exp Med 1916;24:271286.
10.Symonds, CP. Two cases of thrombosis of subclavian artery with contralateral hemiplegia of sudden onset, probably embolic. Brain 1927;50:259260.
11.Chiari, H. Uber das Verhalten des Teilungswinkels der Carotid communis bei der Endarteritis chronica deformans. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol 1905;9:326.
12.Yates, AG, Guest, D. Cerebral embolism due to an ununited fracture of the clavicle and subclavian thrombosis. Lancet 1928;2:225.
13.Lewis, T, Pickering, GW. Observations upon maladies in which the blood supply to digits ceases intermittently or permanently and upon bilateral gangrene of digits: observations relevant to so-called “Raynaud’s disease”. Clin Sci 1934;1:327366.
14.Adson, AW, Coffey, JR. Cervical rib. Ann Surg 1927;85:839857.
15.Streibel, RJ, Garricl, JG. Thoracic outlet compression in athletes. A report of five cases. Am J Sports Med 1978;6:3539.
16.Fields, WS. Neurovascular syndromes of the neck and shoulders. Semin Neurol 1981;1:301309.
17.Reivich, M, Holling, E, Roberts, B, Toole, JF. Reversal of blood flow through the vertebral artery and its effects on cerebral circulation. N Engl J Med 1961;265:878885.
18.Contorni, L. El circoto collateralle vertebral-vertebrale nella obliterazione dell’ arteria subclavia alle sue origine. Minerva Chir 1960;15:218271.
19.Siekert, RG, Millikan, CH, Whisnant, JP. Reversed blood flow in the vertebral arteries. Ann Intern Med 1964;61:6472.
20.Millikan, CH, Siekert, RG, Whisnant, JP. Cerebral vascular diseases, third conference. Grune and Stratton, New York, 1961, pp. 2639.
21.Fisher, CM. A new vascular syndrome – “the subclavian steal”. N Engl J Med 1961;265: 912913.
22.Mannick, JA, Suter, CG, Hume, DM. The “subclavian steal” syndrome: a further documentation. JAMA 1962;182:254258.
23.North, RR, DeBakey, ME, Fields, WS, Crawford, ES. Brachial-basilar insufficiency syndrome. Neurology 1962;12:810820.
24.Williams, CL, Scott, SM, Takaro, T. Subclavian steal. Circulation 1963; 28:1419.
25.Patel, A, Toole, JF. Subclavian steal syndrome-reversal of cephalic blood flow. Medicine 1965;44:289303.
26.Conrad, MC, Toole, JF, Janeway, R. Hemodynamics of the upper extremities in subclavian steal syndrome. Circulation 1965;32:346351.
27.Heyman, A, Young, WG, Dillon, M et al. Cerebral ischemia caused by occlusive lesions of the subclavian or innominate arteries. Arch Neurol 1964;10:581589.
28.Folger, GM, Shah, KD. Subclavian steal in patients with Blalock-Taussig anastomosis. Circulation 1965;31:241248.
29.Kurlan, R, Krall, RL, Dervure, JA. Vertebrobasilar ischemia after total repair of tetralogy of Fallot: significance of subclavian steal created by Blalock-Taussig anastomosis. Stroke 1984;15:359362.
30.Riehl, J-L. The idiopathic arteritis of Takayasu. Neurology 1963;13:873884.
31.Yoneda, S, Nukada, T, Tada, K et al. Subclavian steal in Takayasu’s arteritis. Stroke 1977; 8:264268.
32.Pollock, M, Blennerhassett, J, Clark, A. Giant cell arteritis and the subclavian steal syndrome. Neurology 1973;23:653657.
33.Caplan, LR, Wolpert, SM. Angiography in patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease: a stroke neurologist and neuroradiologist’s views. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1991;12:593601.
34.Akers, DL, Markowitz, IA, Kerstein, MD. The value of aortic arch study in the evaluation of cerebrovascular insufficiency. Am J Surg 1987;154:230232.
35.Pourcelot, L, Ribadeau-Dumas, JL, Fagret, D, Planiol, T. Rapport de l’examen Doppler dans le diagnostic der vol sous-clavier. Rev Neurol 1977;133:309323.
36.von Reutern, GM, Pourcelot, L. Cardiac cycle-dependent alternating flow in vertebral arteries with subclavian artery stenosis. Stroke 1978;9:229236.
37.White, DN, Ketelaars, EJ, Cledgett, PR. Noninvasive techniques for the recording of vertebral artery flow and their limitations. Ultrasound Med Biol 1980;6:315327.
38.Berguer, R, Higgins, R, Nelson, R. Noninvasive diagnosis of reversal of vertebral artery blood flow. N Engl J Med 1980;302:13491351.
39.Liljequist, L, Ekestrom, S, Nordhus, O. Monitoring direction of flow by Doppler shift ultrasound in patients with suspected subclavian steal. Acta Chir Scand 1981;147:421424.
40.Hennerici, M, Klemm, C, Rautenberg, W. The subclavian steal phenomenon: a common vascular disorder with rare neurologic deficits. Neurology 1988;38:669673.
41.Hutchinson, EC, Yates, PO. The cervical portion of the vertebral artery, a clinicopathological study. Brain 1956;79:319331.
42.Yates, PO, Hutchinson, EC. Carotico-vertebral stenosis. Lancet 1957;1:28.
43.Fisher, CM. Occlusion of the vertebral arteries. Arch Neurol 1970;22:1319.
44.Fisher, CM, Gore, I, Okabe, N, White, PD. Atherosclerosis of the carotid and vertebral arteries – extracranial and intracranial. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1965;24:455476.
45.Fisher, CM, Karnes, WE. Local embolism. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1965;24:174175.
46.George, B, Laurian, C. Vertebro-basilar ischemia with thrombosis of the vertebral artery: report of 2 cases with embolism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982;45:9193.
47.Pessin, MS, Daneault, N, Kwan, ES et al. Local embolism from vertebral artery occlusion. Stroke 1988;19:112115.
48.Koroshetz, WJ, Ropper, AH. Artery-to-artery embolism causing stroke in the posterior circulation. Neurology 1987;37:292296.
49.Pelouze, G-A. Plaque ulceree emboligene de l’ostium de l’artere vertebrale. Rev Neurol 1989;145:478481.
50.Caplan, LR, Amarenco, P, Rosengart, A et al. Embolism from vertebral artery origin occlusive disease. Neurology 1992;42:15051512.
51Caplan, LR. The E Graeme Robertson lecture: Vertebrobasilar embolism. Clin Exp Neurol 1991;28:123.
52.Caplan, LR, Tettenborn B. Vertebrobasilar occlusive disease: review of selected aspects: 2. Posterior circulation embolism. Cerebrovasc Dis 1992;2:320326.
53.Caplan, LR, Zarins, C, Hemmati, M. Spontaneous dissection of the extracranial vertebral artery. Stroke 1985;16:10301036.
54.Caplan, LR, Tettenborn, B. Vertebrobasilar occlusive disease: review of selected aspects. 1. Spontaneous dissection of extraxcranial and intracranial posterior circulation arteries. Cerebrovasc Dis 1992;2:256265.
55.Thompson, JE, Eilber, F, Baker, JD. Vertebral artery aneurysm: case report and review of the literature. Surgery 1979;85:583585.
56.Catala, M, Rancurel, G, Koskas, F et al. Ischemic stroke due to spontaneous extracranial giant aneurysm. Cerebrovasc Dis 1993;3:322326.
57.Okawaras, S, Nibbelink, D. Vertebral artery occlusion following hyperextension and rotation of the head. Stroke 1974;5:640642.
58.Hanus, SH, Homer, TD, Harter, DH. Vertebral artery occlusion complicating yoga exercises. Arch Neurol 1977;34:574575.
59.de Keyser, J, Herroclen, L, van Langenhove, L. Vertebral artery occlusion complicating perimetry. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;111:516517.
60.Tramo, MJ, Hainline, B, Petito, F et al. Vertebral artery injury and cerebellar stroke while swimming: case report. Stroke 1985;16:10391042.
61.Tettenborn, B, Caplan, LR, Sloan, MA et al. Postoperative brainstem and cerebellar infarcts. Neurology 1993;43:471477.
62.Hennerici, M, Aulich, A, Sandemann, W, Freund, H-J. Incidence of asymptomatic extracranial occlusive disease. Stroke 1981;12:750758.
63.Hass, WK, Fields, WS, North, R et al. Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion. II. Arteriography, techniques, sites, and complications. JAMA 1968;203:961968.
64.Fields, WS, Lemak, NA. Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occusion. VII. Subclavian steal–a review of 168 cases. JAMA 1972;222:11391143.
65.Harris, R, Andros, G, Dulawa, L et al. Large vessel arterial occlusive disease in symptomatic upper extremity. Arch Surg 1984;119:12771282.
66.Gorelick, PB, Caplan, LR, Hier, DB et al. Racial differences in the distribution of posterior circulation occlusive disease. Stroke 1985;16:785790.
67.Gorelick, PB, Caplan, LR, Hier, DB et al. Racial differences in the distribution of anterior circulation occlusive disease. Neurology 1984;34:5459.
68.Gorelick, PB, Caplan, LR, Langenberg, P et al. Clinical and angiographic comparison of asymptomatic occlusive disease. Neurology 1988;38:852858.
69.Caplan, LR, Gorelick, PB, Hier, DB. Race, sex, and occlusive cerebrovascular disease: a review. Stroke 1986;17:648655.
70.Feldmann, E, Daneault, N, Kwan, E et al. Chinese-white differences in the distribution of occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Neurology 1990;40:15411545.
71.Drury, JK, Pollock, JG. Subclavian arteriopathy in the young patient. Br J Surg 1981;68:617620.
72.Gotsman, MS, Beck, W, Schrire V. Selective angiography in arteritis of the aorta and its major branches. Radiology 1967;88:232248.
73.Kerr, GS, Hallahan, CW, Giordano, J et al. Takayasu arteritis. Ann Intern Med 1994;120:919929.
74.Gerber, N. Congenital atresia of the subclavian artery producing “subclavian steal syndrome”. Am J Dis Child 1967;88:232248.
75.Lochava, S, Kaplan, B, Shaffer, AB. Pseudocoarctation of the aorta with bicuspid aortic valve and kinked left subclavian artery, a possible cause of subclavian steal. Am Heart J 1967; 113:709713.
76.Brewster, DC, Moncure, AC, Darling, C et al. Innominate artery lesions: problems encountered and lessons learned. J Vasc Surg 1985;2:99112.
77.Roberts, WC, Lensing, FD, Kourlis, H et al. Full blown cardiovascular syphilis with aneurysm of the innominate artery. Am J Cardiol 2009;104: 15951600.
78.Martin, R, Bogousslavsky, J, Miklossy, J et al. Floating thrombus in the innominate artery as a cause of cerebral infarction in young adults. Cerebrovasc Dis 1992;2:177181.
79.Ferriere, M, Negre, G, Bellecoste, JF et al. Thrombus flottant sous-clavier responsable d’un syndrome encephalo-digital, deux observations. La Presse Med 1984;13:2729.
80.Nakajima, M, Yasaka, M, Minematsu, K. Mobile thrombus from a ruptured plaque in the brachiocephalic artery. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2008;17:423425.
81.LaBauge, R, Boukobza, M, Pages, M et al. Occlusion de l’artere vertebrale. Rev Neurol 1987;143:490509.
82.Moosy, J. Morphology, sites, and epidemiology of cerebral atherosclerosis. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 1966;51:122.
83.Mapstone, T, Spetzler, RF. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to vertebral artery occlusion from a fibrous band. J Neurosurg 1982;56:581583.
84.Caplan, LR. Dissection of brain-supplying arteries. Nat Clin Practice Neurol 2008;4:3442.
85.Chiras, J, Marciano, S, Vega, Molina J et al. Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery (20 cases). Neuroradiology 1985;27:327333.
86.Mas, JL, Bousser, M-G. Hasboun, D, Laplane, D. Extracranial vertebral artery dissection. A review of 13 cases. Stroke 1987;18:10371047.
87.Mokri, B, Houser, OW, Sandok, BA, Piepgras, DG. Spontaneous dissections of the vertebral arteries. Neurology 1988;38:880885.
88.Saeed, AB, Shuaib, A, Al-Sulaiti, G, Emery, D. Vertebral artery dissection: warning symptoms, clinical features, and prognosis in 26 patients. Can J Neurol Sci 2000; 27: 292296.
89.Arnold, M and Bousser, MG. Clinical manifestations of vertebral artery dissection. In Baumgartner, RW et al. (eds.), Handbook on cerebral artery dissection. Karger, Basel, 2005, pp. 7786.
90.Arnold, M, Bousser, M-G, Fahmi, G et al. Vertebral artery dissection: presenting findings and predictors of outcome. Stroke 2006;37:24992503.
91.Fisher, CM. Basilar artery embolism after surgery under general anesthesia: a case report. Neurology 1993;43:1856.
92.Okawara, S, Nibbelink, D. Vertebral artery occlusion following hyperextention and rotation of the head. Stroke 1974;5:640642.
93.Hope, EE, Bordensteiner, JB. Cerebral infarction related to neck position in an adolescent. Pediatrics 1983;72:335337.
94.Tramo, MJ, Hainline, B, Petito, F et al. Vertebral artery injury and cerebellar stroke while swimming: case report. Stroke 1985;16:10391042.
95.Rogers, L, Sweeney, PJ. Stroke: a neurologic complication of wrestling: a case of brainstem stroke in a 17-year-old athlete. Am J Sports Med 1979;7:352354.
96.Hannus, SH, Homer, TD, Harter, DH. Vertebral artery occlusion complicating yoga exercises. Arch Neurol 1977;34:574575.
97.Pryse-Phillips, W. Infarction of the medulla and cervical cord after fitness exercises. Stroke 1989;20:292294.
98.de Keyser, J, Henrollen, L, van Langenhove, L. Vertebral artery occlusion complicating perimetry. Am J Ophthalmol 1991;11:516517.
99.Wilkinson, I, Russel, R. Arteries of the head and neck in giant cell arteritis. Arch Neurol 1972;27:378391.
100.Thielen, KR, Wijdicks, EFM, Nichols, DA. Giant cell (temporal) arteritis: involvement of the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Mayo Clin Proc 1998;73:444446.
101.Caplan, LR. Fibromuscular dysplasia. In Caplan, LR (ed.), Uncommon causes of Stroke, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 491495.
102.Pratt-Thomas, HR, Berger, KE. Injuries after chiropractic manipulation. JAMA 1947;133:600603.
103.Ford, FR, Clark, D. Thrombosis of the basilar artery with softenings in the cerebellum and brain stem due to manipulation of the neck: a report of two cases with one post-mortem examination. Reasons are given to prove that damage to the vertebral arteries is responsible. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1956;98:3742.
104.Green, D, Joynt, RJ. Vascular accidents to the brain stem associated with neck manipulation. JAMA 1959;140:522524.
105.Kanshepolsky, J, Danielson, H, Flynn, RE. Vertebral artery insufficiency and cerebellar infarct due to manipulation of the neck. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 1972;27:6265.
106.Mueller, S, Sahs, AL. Brain stem dysfunction related to cervical manipulation, Neurology 1976;26:547550.
107.Easton, JD, Sherman, DG. Cervical manipulation and stroke. Stroke 1977;8:594597.
108.Kreuger, BR, Okazaki, H. Vertebral-basilar distribution infarction following chiropractic cervical manipulation. Mayo Clin Proc 1980;55:322332.
109.Sherman, DG, Hart, RG, Easton, JD. Abrupt change in head position and cerebral infarction. Stroke 1981;12:26.
110.Robertson, JT. Neck manipulation as a cause of stroke. Stroke 1981;12:1
111.Mas, JL, Henin, D, Bousser, MG, Chain, F, Hauw, JJ. Dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery and cervical manipulation: a case report with autopsy. Neurology 1989;39:512515.
112.Katirji, MB, Reinmuth, OM, Latchaw, RE. Stroke due to vertebral artery injury. Arch Neurol 1985;42:242248.
113.Frisoni, G, Anzola, GP. Neck manipulation and stroke. Neurology 1990;40:1910.
114.Choi, K-D, Choi, J-H, Kim, J-S et al. Rotational vertebral artery occlusion. Mechanisms and long-term outcome. Stroke 2013;44:18171824.
115.Carpenter, S. Injury of the neck as a cause of vertebral artery thrombosis. J Neurosurg 1961;18:849853.
116.Schneider, RC, Crosby, EC. Vascular insufficiency of brain stem and spinal cord in spinal trauma. Neurology 1959;9:643656.
117.Schneider, RC, Schemm, GW. Vertebral artery insufficiency in acute and chronic spinal trauma. J Neurosurg 1961;18:348360.
118.Schneider, RC, Gosch, HH, Norrell, H et al. Vascular insufficiency and differential distortion of brain and cord caused by cervicomedullary football injuries. J Neurosurg 1970;33:363375.
119.Woolsey, RM, Chung, HD. Fatal basilar artery occlusion following cervical spine injury. Paraplegia 1979;17:280283.
120.Keane, JR. Locked-in syndrome after head and neck trauma. Neurology 1986;36:8082.
121.Louw, JA, Mafoyane, NA, Small, B, Neser, CP. Occlusion of the vertebral artery in cervical spine dislocations. J Bone Joint Surg 1990;72:679681.
122.Willis, BK, Greiner, F, Orrison, WW, Benzel, EC. The incidence of vertebral artery injury after midcervical spine fracture or dislocation. Neurosurgery 1994;34:435442.
123.Willis, BK, Greiner, F, Orrison, WW, Benzel, EC. The incidence of vertebral artery injury after midcervical spine fracture or dislocation. Neurosurgery 1994;34:435442.
124.Mueller, CA, Peters, I, Podlogar, M et al. Vertebral artery injuries following cervical spine trauma: a prospective observational study. Eur Spine J 2011;20:22022209.
125.Coria, F, Rebollo, M, Quintana, F et al. Occipito-atlantal instability and vertebrobasilar ischemia: case report. Neurology 1982;32:303305.
126.Kikuchi, K, Nakagawa, H, Watanabe, K, Kowada, M. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion secondary to atlantoaxial dislocation with os odontoideum: implication for prophylactic cervical stabilization by fusion – case report. Neurologia Med-Chir 1993;33:769773.
127.Davis, FW, Markley, HE. Rheumatoid arthritis with death from medullary compression. Ann Intern Med 1951;35:451454.
128.Robinson, HS. Rheumatoid arthritis-atlanto-axial subluxation and its clinical presentation. Canad Med Assoc J 1966;94:470477.
129.Webb, FW, Hickman, JA, Brew, D. Death from vertebral artery thrombosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Br Med J 1968;2:537538.
130.Jones, MW, Kaufman, JCE. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency in rheumatoid atlanto-axial subluxation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976;39:122128.
131.Bauer, RB. Mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries. In Berguer, R, Bauer, RB (eds.), Vertebrobasilar arterial occlusive disease. Raven Press, New York, 1984, pp. 4571.
132.Virtamo, P, Kivalo, E. Impression of the vertebral artery by deformation of the unco-vertebral joints. Acta Radiol 1957;48:410412.
133.Moosy, J. Morphology, sites, and epidemiology of cerebral atherosclerosis. Res Publ Assoc Nerv Ment Dis 1966;51:122.
134.Sheehan, S, Bauer, RB, Meyer, JS. Vertebral artery compression in cervical spondylosis: arteriographic demonstration during life of vertebral artery insufficiency due to rotation and extention of the neck. Neurology 1960;10:968986.
135.Meyer, JS, Sheehan, S, Bauer, RB. An arteriographic study of cerebrovascular disease in man. I. Stenosis and occlusion of the vertebral-basilar arterial system. Arch Neurol 1960;2:2745.
136.Hardin, CA, Williamson, WP, Steegman, AT. Vertebral artery insufficiency produced by cervical osteoarthritic spurs. Neurology 1960;10:855858.
137.Hardin, CA. Vertebral artery insufficiency produced by cervical osteoarthritic spurs. Arch Surg 1963;90:626664.
138.Bakay, L, Leslie, EV. Surgical treatment of vertebral artery insufficiency caused by cervical spondylosis. J Neurosurg 1965;23:596602.
139.Bella, JI, Langford, KH. Vertebral artery compression in cervical spondylosis. Med J Aust 1967;1:284286.
140.Labauge, R, Thevenet, A, Crouzet, G, Nivolas, M. Les Insufficences ces vertebrobasilaires d’incidence chirurgicale (a propos de 87 malades operes). Rev Neurol 1967;117:373389.
141.Nagashima, C. Surgical treatment of vertebral artery insufficiency caused by cervical spondylosis. J Neurosurg 1970;32:512521.
142.Rosengart, A, Hedges, TR lll, Teal, PA et al. Intermittent downbeat nystagmus due to vertebral artery compression. Neurology 1993;43:216218.
143.Radner, S. vertebral angiography by catheterization. Acta Radiol Suppl 1951; supplement 87.
144.George, B, Laurian, C. Impairment of vertebral artery flow caused by extrinsic lesions. Neurosurg 1989;24:206214.
145.Glass, TA, Hennessey, PM, Pazdera, L et al. Outcome at 30 days in the New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry. Arch Neurol 2002;59:369376.
146.Caplan, LR, Wityk, RJ, Glass, TA et al. New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry. Ann Neurol 2004;56(3):389398.
147.Caplan, LR, Wityk, RJ, Pazdera, L, Chang, HM, Pessin, MS, Dewitt, LD. New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Stroke Registry, II: vascular lesions. J Clin Neurol 2005;1(1):3149.
148.Searls, DE, Pazdera, L, Korbel, E, Vysata, O, Caplan, LR. Symptoms and signs of posterior circulation ischemia in the New England Posterior Circulation Registry. Arch Neurol 2012;69:346351.
149.Moufarrij, NA, Little, JR, Furlan, AJ et al. Vertebral artery stenosis: long term follow-up. Stroke 1984;15:260263.
150.Al-Ali, F, Barrow, T, Duan, L et al. Vertebral artery ostium atherosclerotic plaque as a potential source of posterior circulation ischemic stroke. Stroke 2011;42:25442549.
151.Wityk, RJ, Chang, HM, Rosengart A et al. Proximal extracranial vertebral artery disease in the New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry. Arch Neurol 1998;55:470478.
152.Maruyama, M, Asai, T, Kuriyama, Y et al. Positive platelet scintigram of a vertebral aneurysm presenting thromboembolic transient ischemic attacks. Stroke 1989;20:687690.
153.Caplan, LR, Hennerici, M. [Hypothesis] Impaired clearance of emboli (washout) is an important link between hypoperfusion, embolism, and ischemic stroke. Arch Neurol 1998;55:14751482.
154.Sedlaczek, O, Caplan, L, Hennerici, M. Impaired washout – embolism and ischemic stroke: further examples and proof of concept. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;19:396401.
155.Caplan, LR, Wong, K-S, Gao, S, Hennerici, M. Is hypoperfusion an important cause of strokes? If so, how? Cerebrovasc Dis 2006;21:145153.
156.Silbert, PL, Mokri, B, Schievink, WI. Headache and neck pain in spontaneous internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection. Neurology 1995;45:15171522.
157.Dubard, T, Pouchot, J, Lamy, C, Hier, D, Caplan, LR, Mas, J-L. Upper limb peripheral deficits due to extracranial vertebral artery dissection. Cerebrovasc Dis 1994; 4:8891.
158.Crum, B, Mokri, B, Fulgham, J. Spinal manifestations of vertebral artery dissection. Neurology 2000; 55:304306.
159.Fink, JR, Leung, JY, Creutzfeldt, C. Vertebral artery loop formation causing severe cervical nerve root compression. Neurology 2010;75:190191.
160.Li, Y, Jenny, D, Bemporad, JA, Liew, C, Castaldo, J. Sulcal artery syndrome after vertebral artery dissection. J Stroke Cerbrovasc Dis 2010;19:333335.
161.Ackerstaff, RA. Duplex scanning of aortic arch branches and vertebral arteries. In Bernstein, EF (ed.), Vascular diagnosis, 4th edition. Mosby, St. Louis, 1993, pp. 315321.
162.Rautenberg, W, Hennerici, M. Pulsed Doppler assessment of innominate artery obstructive disease. Stroke 1988;19:15141520.
163.Ackerstaff, RG, Eikelboom, BC, Moll, FL. Investigation of the vertebral artery in cerebral atherosclerosis. Eur J Vasc Surg 1991;5:229235.
164.Forteza, AJ, Krejza, J, Koch, S, Babikian, VL. Ultrasound imaging of cerebrovascular disease. In Babikian, Vl, Wechsler, LR, Higashida, RT. (eds.), Imaging cerebrovascular disease. Butterworth-Heinemann, Philadelphia, 2003, pp. 335.
165.Kazumi, K, Yasaka, M, Moriyasu, H. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the vertebral artery to detect vertebrobasilar axis occlusion. Stroke 1994; 25:10061009.
166.Kuhl, V, Tettenborn, B, Eike, BM et al. Color-coded duplex ultrasonography of the origin of the vertebral artery: normal values of flow velocities. J Neuroimaging 2000;10:1721.
167.Hallerstam, S, Rosfors, S. Blood flow and flow resistance in the vertebral arteries of patients with and without carotid atherosclerosis. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2004;24:96102.
168.Puchner, S, Haumer, M, Rand, T et al. CTA in the detection and quantification of vertebral artery pathologies: a correlation with color Doppler sonography. Neuroradiology 2007;49:645650.
169.Kimura, K, Yasaka, M, Moriyasu, H et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of vertebral artery to detect vertebrobasilar axis occlusion. Stroke 1994;25:10061009.
170.Compter, A, van der Worp, B, Algra, A, Kappelle, LJ on behalf of the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) Study Group. Stroke 2011;42:27952800.
171.Benninger, DH, Caso, V, Baumgartner, RW. Ultrasound assessment of cervical artery dissection. In Baumgartner, RW et al. (eds.), Handbook on cerebral artery dissection. Karger, Basel, 2005, pp. 87101.
172.Toboul, PJ, Mas, JL, Bousser, M-G, Laplane, D. Duplex scanning in extracranial vertebral artery dissection. Stroke 1987;18:1621.
173.Pugliese, F, Crusco, F, Cardaioli, G et al. CT angiography versus colour-Doppler US in acute dissections of the vertebral artery. Radiol Med 2007;112:435443.
174.Tettenborn, B, Estol, C, DeWitt, LD et al. Accuracy of transcranial Doppler in the vertebrobasilar circulation. J Neurol 1990;237:159.
175.Von Budingen, H-J, Staudacher, T. Evaluation of vertebrobasilar disease. In Newell, DW, Aaslid, R (eds.), Transcranial Doppler. Raven Press, New York, 1992, pp. 167195.
176.Wechsler, LR, Cerebrovascular disease. In Babikian, VL, Wechsler, LR (eds.), Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1999, pp. 91108.
177.Dundamadappa, SK, Cauley, K. Vertebral artery ostial stenosis: prevalence by digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, and CT angiography. J Neuroimaging 2012;22:18.
178.Khan, S, Cloud, GC, Kerry, S, Markus, HS. Imaging of vertebral artery stenosis: a systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:12181225.
179.Paciaroni, M, Caso, V, Agnelli, G. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography and catheter angiography for diagnosis of cervical artery dissection. In Baumgartner, RW et al. (eds.), Handbook on cerebral artery dissection. Karger, Basel, 2005, pp. 102118.
180.Levy, C, Laissy, JP, Raveau, V et al. Carotid and vertebral artery dissection: three dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography and MR imaging versus conventional angiography. Radiology 1994;190;97103.
181.Hollingworth, W, Nathens, AB, Kanne, JP et al. The diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography angiography for traumatic or atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid and vertebral arteries: a systematic review. Eur J Radiol 2003;48:88102.
182.Sivenius, J, Riekkinen, PJ, Smets, P, Laakso, M, Lowenthal, A. The European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS): results by arterial distribution. Ann Neurol 1991;29:596600.
183.Caplan, LR. Evidence and the effective clinical neurologist. Arch Neurol 2011;68: 12521256.
184.Beletsky, V, Nadareishvili, Z, Lynch, J, Shuaib, A, Woolfenden, A, Norris, JW. Cervical arterial dissection: time for a therapeutic trial? Stroke 2003;34:28562860.
185.Engelter, S, Lyrer, P. Antithrombotic therapy for cervical artery dissection. In Baumgartner, RW et al. (eds.), Handbook on cerebral artery dissection. Karger, Basel, 2005, pp. 147159.
186.Kennedy, F, Lanfranconi, S, Hicks, C et al. on behalf of the CADISS Investigators. Antiplatelets vs anticoagulation for dissection. CADISS nonrandomized arm and meta-analysis. Neurology 2012;79:686689.
187.Biousse, V, D’Anglejan-Chatillon, Toboul P-J, Amarenco, P, Bousser, M-G. Time course of symptoms in extracranial carotid artery dissections. A series of 80 patients. Stroke 1995;26:235239.
188.Engelter, ST, Lyrer, PA, Kirsch, EC, Steck, AJ. Long-term follow-up after extracranial interrnal carotid artery dissection. Eur Neurol 2000;44:199204.
189.Touze, E, Gauvrit, J-Y, Moulin, T et al. Risk of stroke and recurrent dissection after a cervical artery dissection. A multicenter study. Neurology 2003;61:13471351.
190.Zinkstok, SM, Vergouwen, MDI, Engelter, ST et al. Safety and functional outcome of thrombolysis in dissection-related ischemic stroke. A meta-analysis of individual patient data. Stroke 2011;42:25152520.
190.Edwards, WH, Mulherin, JL. The surgical reconstruction of the proximal subclavian and vertebral artery. In Berguer, R, Bauer, R (eds.), Vertebrobasilar arterial occlusive disease. Raven Press, New York, 1984, pp. 241255.
191.Cherry, KJ, McCullough, JL, Hallett, JW Jr et al. Technical principles of direct innominate artery revascularization: a comparison of endarterectomy and bypass grafts. J Vasc Surg 1989;9:718723.
192.Brewster, DC. Transthoracic or transmediastinal repair of the brachiocephalic trunks. In Moore, WS (ed.) Surgery for cerebrovascular disease, 2nd edition, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 595612.
193.Moore, WS. Extrathorcic repair of the brachiocephalic trunks. In Moore, WS (ed.), Surgery for cerebrovascular disease, 2nd edition. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 613625.
194.Edwards, WH, Mulherin, JL. The surgical reconstruction of the proximal subclavian and vertebral artery. In Berguer, R, Bauer, R (eds.), Vertebrobasilar arterial occlusive disease. Raven Press, New York, 1984, pp. 241255.
195.Wheeler, HB. Surgical treatment of subclavian-artery occlusions. N Engl J Med 1967;276:711717.
196.Callow, AD. Surgical management of varying patterns of vertebral-artery and subclavian artery insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1964;270:546552.
197.Berguer, R, Kiefer, E. Surgery of the arteries to the head. Springer, New York, 1992.
198.Hadjipetrou, P, Cox, S, Piemonte, T, Eisenhauer, A. Percutaneous revascularization of atherosclerotic obstruction of aortic arch vessels. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33: 12381245.
199.Caplan, LR, Meyers, PM, Schumacher, C. Angioplasty and stenting to treat occlusive vascular disease. Rev Neurol Dis 2006;3:818.
200.Walt, A. The story of vertebrobasilar surgery. In Berguer, R, Bauer, R (eds.), Vertebrobasilar arterial occlusive disease. Raven Press, New York, 1984, pp. 225230.
201.Cate, WR, Scott, HW. Cerebral ischemia of central origin: relief by subclavian-vertebral artery thrombendarterectomy. Surgery 1959,45:1931.
202.Crawford, ES, DeBakey, ME, Fields, WS. Roentgoenographic diagnosis and surgical treatment of basilar artery insufficiency. JAMA 1958;168:507514.
203.Spetzler, RF, Hadley, MN, Martin, NA et al. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Part I. Microsurgical treatment of extracranial vertebrobasilar disease. J Neurosurg 1987;66:648661.
204.Lee, RE. Reconstruction of the proximal vertebral artery. In Berguer, R, Caplan, LR (eds.), Vertebrobasilar arterial disease. Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis, 1992, pp. 211224.
205.Berguer, R. Surgical exposure and methods of vertebral artery repair. In Moore, WS (ed.), Surgery for cerebrovascular disease, 2nd edition. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 562573.
206.Berguer, R, Flynn, LM, Kline, RA, Caplan, LR. Surgical reconstruction of the extracranial vertebral artery: management and outcome. J Vasc Surg 2000;31:918.
207.Imparato, A, Riles, T. Surgery of the vertebral artery: overview and outcomes. In Moore, WS (ed.), Surgery for cerebrovascular disease, 2nd edition. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 574589.
208.Thevenet, A. Endarterectomy of the vertebral artery. In Berguer, R, Caplan, LR (eds.), Vertebrobasilar arterial disease. Quality Medical Publishing, St. Louis, 1992, pp. 224235.
209.Imparato, AM, Riles, TS, Kim, E. Cervical vertebral angioplasty for brain stem ischemia. Surgery 1981;90:842852.
210.Dorros, G, Lewin, RF, Jamnadas, P, Mathiak, LM. Peripheral transluminal angioplasty of the subclavian and innominate arteries utilizing the brachial approach: acute outcome and follow-up. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1990;19: 7176.
211Hebrang, A, Maskovic, J, Tomac, B. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the subclavian arteries: long-term results in 52 patients. AJR 1991;156: 10911094.
212.Henry, M, Amor, M, Henry, I et al. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the subclavian arteries. J Endovasc Surg 1999;6: 3341.
213.Millaire, A, Trinca, M, Marache, P et al. Subclavian angioplasty: immediate and late results in 50 patients. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1993;29: 817.
214.Motarjeme, A. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of supra-aortic vessels. J Endovasc Surg 1996; 3: 171181.
215.Schillinger, M, Haumer, M, Schillinger, S et al. Risk stratification for subclavian artery angioplasty: is there an increased rate of restenosis after stent implantation? J Endovasc Ther 2001; 8: 550557.
216.Woo, EY, Fairman, RM, Velaquez, OC, Golden, MA, Karmacharya, J, Carpenter, JP. Endovascular therapy of symptomatic innominate-subclavian arterial occlusive lesions. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2006;40:2733.
217.Bakken, AM, Palchik, E, Saad, WE et al. Outcomes of endoluminal therapy for ostial disease of the major branches of the aortic arch. Ann Vasc Surg 2008;22: 388394.
218.Palchik, E, Bakken, AM, Wolford, HY, Waldman, DL, Davies, MG. Evolving strategies in treatment of isolated symptomatic innominate artery disease. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2008;42:440445.
219.Higashida, RT, Tsai, FY, Halbach, VV et al. Transluminal angioplasty for atherosclerotic disease of the vertebral and basilar arteries. J Neurosurg 1993;78:192198.
220.The SSYVIA Investigators. Stenting of Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Vertebral or Intracranial Arteries (SSYLVIA): study results. Stroke 2004; 35: 13881392.
221.Stayman, AN, Nogueira, RG, Gupta, R. A systematic review of stenting and angioplasty of symptomatic extracranial vertebral artery stenosis. Stroke 2011;42: 22122216.
222.Edgell, RC, Zaidat, OO, Gupta, R et al. Multicenter study of safety in stenting for symptomatic vertebral origin stenosis: results from the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology Research Consortium. J Neuroimaging 2013;23:170174.
223.Haghighi, AB, Edgell, RC, Cruz-Flores, Zaidat OO. Vertebral artery origin stenosis and its treatment. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2011;20:369376.