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  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: May 2013

14 - Summary and outlook

Summary

In this final chapter, I will try to elaborate on essentially three areas that help to position the present book in current research on varieties and variation. These concern, firstly, cross-linguistically exceptional properties of standard and non-standard varieties of English, secondly, the discussion of angloversals and vernacular universals, and, thirdly, the apparent emergence of the new research field of ‘variationist’ or ‘sociolinguistic typology’.

Exceptional properties of English

As I pointed out in Chapter 1, the cross-linguistic approach adopted in this book helps us to separate the wheat from the chaff and to see the patterns of variation attested in varieties of English and their limitations more clearly. In all of the chapters discussing grammatical phenomena, we could observe morphosyntactic coding strategies that are common cross-linguistically, though we also encountered strategies that need to be considered exceptional and rare. In view of the fact that we focused on typological commonalities in the cross-linguistic sections of the preceding chapters, we will here shift the focus to those grammatical phenomena that appear idiosyncratic and infrequent from a cross-linguistic perspective.

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References
Bisang, Walter. 2004. Dialectology and typology – an integrative perspective. In Kortmann, Bernd (ed.), Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective, 11–45. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Chambers, Jack K 2004. Dynamic typology and vernacular universals. In Kortmann, Bernd (ed.), Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective, 127–45. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Filppula, Markku, Klemola, Juhani, and Paulasto, Heli (eds.). 2009. Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond. London: Routledge.
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Haselow, Alexander. 2011. Typological Changes in the Lexicon: Analytic Tendencies in English Noun Formation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kortmann, Bernd (ed.). 2004. Dialectology Meets Typology: Dialect Grammar from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kortmann, Bernd and Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt. 2011. Parameters of morphosyntactic variation in World Englishes: Prospects and limits of searching for universals. In Siemund, Peter (ed.), Linguistic Universals and Language Variation, 264–90. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Siemund, Peter 2004. Analytische und synthetische Tendenzen in der Entwicklung des Englischen. In Hinrichs, Uwe (ed.), Die europäischen Sprachen auf dem Wege zum analytischen Sprachtyp, 169–96. Wiesbaden: Harassowitz.
Siemund, Peter (ed.). 2011. Linguistic Universals and Language Variation. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Siemund, Peter and Kintana, Noemi (eds.). 2008. Language Contact and Contact Languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Smith, Geoff P. 2002. Growing up with Tok Pisin: Contact, Creolization, and Change in Papua New Guinea's National Language. London: Battlebridge Publications.
Trudgill, Peter. 2011. Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity. Oxford University Press.
Further reading
Dahl, Östen. 2004. The Growth and Maintenance of Linguistic Complexity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
McWhorter, John H. 2001. The world's simplest grammars are Creole grammars. Linguistic Typology 5(2/3). 125–66.
Miestamo, Matti, Sinnemäki, Kaius, and Karlsson, Fred (eds.). 2008. Language Complexity: Typology, Contact, Change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sampson, Geoffrey, Gil, David, and Trudgill, Peter (eds.). 2009. Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable. Oxford University Press.
Siemund, Peter. 2009. Linguistic universals and vernacular data. In Filppula, Markku, Klemola, Juhani, and Paulasto, Heli (eds.), Vernacular Universals and Language Contacts: Evidence from Varieties of English and Beyond, 321–46. London: Routledge.
Siemund, Peter. 2011. Universals and variation: An introduction. In Siemund, Peter (ed.), Linguistic Universals and Language Variation, 1–20. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.