1.Carpenter, CR, Platts-Mills, TF. Evolving prehospital, emergency department, and “inpatient” management models for geriatric emergencies. Clinical Geriatric Medicine. 2013;29(1):31–47.
2.Hwang, U, Shah, MN, Han, JH, Carpenter, CR, Siu, AL, Adams, JG. Transforming emergency care for older adults. Health Affairs. 2013;32(12):2116–2121.
3.Tang, N, Stein, J, Hsia, RY, Maselli, JH, Gonzales, R. Trends and characteristics of US emergency department visits, 1997–2007. JAMA. 2010;304:664–670.
4.Strange, G, Chen, E. Use of emergency departments by elder pateints: a five-year follow-up study. Academic Emergency Medicine. 1998;5:1157–1162.
5.Wofford, JL, Schwartz, E, Timerding, BL, Folmar, S, Ellis, SD, Messick, CH. Emergency department utilization by the elderly: analysis of the national hospital ambulatory medical care survey. Academic Journal of Emergency Medcicine. 1996;3(7):694–699.
6.Hamdy, RC, Forrest, LJ, Moore, SW, Cancellaro, L. Use of emergency departments by the elderly in rural areas. South Medical Journal. 1997;90(6):616–620.
7.Singal, B, Hedges, J, Rousseau, E, et al. Geriatric patient emergency visits part 1: comparison of visits by geriatric and younger patients. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1992;21:802–807.
8.Baum, SA, Rubenstein, LZ. Old people in the emergency room: age-related differences in emergency department use and care. Journal of American Geriatric Society. 1987;35(5):398–404.
9.Magid, DJ, Masoudi, FA, Vinson, DR, et al. Older emergency department patients with acute myocardial infarction receive lower quality of care than younger patients. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2005;46(1):14–21.
10.Hwang, U, Belland, LK, Handel, DA, et al. Is all pain treated equally? A multicenter evaluation of acute pain care by age. The Journal of Pain. 2014 Dec;155(12):2568–74.
11.Hwang, U, Platts-Mills, TF. Acute pain management in older adults in the emergency department. Clinical Geriatric Medicine. 2013;29(1):151–164.
12.Hastings, SN, Smith, VA, Weinberger, M, Oddone, EZ, Olsen, MK, Schmader, KE. Health services use of older veterans treated and released from Veterans Affairs medical center emergency departments. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 2013;61(9):1515–1521.
13.Hastings, SN, Oddone, EZ, Fillenbaum, G, Sloane, RJ, Schmader, KE. Frequency and predictors of adverse health outcomes in older Medicare beneficiaries discharged from the emergency department. Journal of Medical Care. 2008;46(8):771–777.
14.McCusker, J, Cardin, S, Bellevance, F, Belzile, E. Return to the emergency department among elders: patterns and predictors. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2000;7(3):249–259.
15.Grunier, A, Silver, MJ, Rochon, PA. Emergency department use by older adults: a literature review on trends, appropriateness, and consequences of unmet health care needs. Medical Care Research and Review. 2011;68(2):131–155.
16.Schnitker, L, Martin-Khan, M, Beattie, E, Gray, L. Negative health outcomes and adverse events in older people attending emergency departments: a systematic review. Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal. 2011;14:141–162.
17.Han, JH, Zimmerman, EE, Cutler, N, et al. Delirium in older emergency department patients: recognition, risk factors, and psychomotor subtypes. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2009;16(3):193–200.
18.Tirrell, G, Sri-On, J, Lipsitz, LA, Camargo, CA, Kabrhel, C, Liu, SW. Evaluation of older adult patients with falls in the emergency department: discordance with national guidelines. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2015;22(4):461–467.
19.Hwang, U, Morrison, RS. The geriatric emergency department. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2007;55(11):1873–1876.
20.Hogan, TM, Olade, TO, Carpenter, CR. A profile of acute care in an aging America: snowball sample identification and characterization of United States geriatric emergency departments in 2013. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2014 21(3):337–346.
21.Hogan, TM, Losman, ED, Carpenter, CR, et al. Development of geriatric competencies for emergency medicine residents using an expert consensus process. Academic Emergency Medicine 2010;17(3):316–324.
22.Carpenter, CR, Hwang, U, Rosenberg, M. New guidelines enhance care standards for elderly patients in the ED. ACEP Now. 2014;33:14–16, 28.
24.Hwang, U, Rosenberg, MS, Dresden, SM. Geriatrics emergency department: The GEDI WISE Program. In Malone, M, Capezuti, E, Palmer, RM, eds., Geriatrics Models of Care: Bringing “Best Practice” to an Aging America. 2015:201–209.
25.Rosenberg, M, Carpenter, CR, Bromley, M, et al. Geriatric emergency department guidelines. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2014;63(5):e7–e25.
26.Hamilton, C, Ronda, L, Hwang, U, et al. The evolving role of geriatric emergency department social work in the era of health care reform. Social Work Health Care. 2015;54(9):849–868.
27.Chin, MH, Jin, L, Karrison, TG, et al. Older patients’ health-related quality of life around an episode of emergency illness. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1999;34(5):595–603.
28.Creditor, MD. Hazards of hospitalization of the elderly. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1993;118:219–223.
29.Aldeen, AZ, Courtney, MC, Lindquist, LA, Dresden, SM, Gravenor, SJ. Geriatric emergency department innovations: preliminary data for the geriatric nurse liaison model. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014;62(9):1781–1785.
30.McCusker, J, Bellavance, F, Cardin, S, Belzile, E, Verdon, J. Prediction of hospital utilization among elderly patients during the 6 months after an emergency department visit. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2000;36(5):438–445.
31.Carpenter, CR, Shelton, E, Fowler, S, et al. Risk factors and screening instruments to predict adverse outcomes for undifferentiated older emergency department patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2015;22(1):1–21.
32.Qato, DM, Alexander, GC, Conti, RM, Johnson, M, Schumm, P, Lindau, ST. Use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements among older adults in the United States. JAMA. 2008;300(24):2867–2878.
33.Cooper, JA, Cadogan, CA, Patterson, SM, et al. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy in older people: a Cochrane systematic review. BMJ Open. 2015;5(12):e009235.
34.American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society 2015 updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2015;63(11):2227–2246.
35.Budnitz, DS, Lovegrove, MC, Shehab, N, Richards, CL. Emergency hospitalizations for adverse drug events in older Americans. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365(21):2002–2012.
36.Centers for Diease Control and Prevention (CDC). The timed up and go (TUG) test. Stopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries. Available at www.cdc.gov/steadi/pdf/tug_test-a.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2016.
37.Inouye, SK, Van Dyke, C, Alessi, C, Balkin, S, Siegal, A, Horowitz, R. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Annals of Internal Medicine.1991;15:941–948.
38.Carpenter, CR, Biese, K, Hogan, TM, Hwang, U, Malone, M, Melady, D. Geriatric ED boot camp offers collaborative onsite educational outreach pilot. ACEP Now. 2014; 14–16, 28.
39.Carpenter, CR, Gerson, L. Geriatric emergency medicine. In: LoCicero J, Rosenthal RA, Katic M, Pompei P, eds., A Supplement to New Frontiers in Geriatrics Research: An Agenda for Surgical and Related Medical Specialties. The American Geriatrics Society, 2008:45–71.
40.Mion, LC, Palmer, RM, Meldon, SW, et al. Case finding and referral model for emergency department elders: a randomized clinical trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2003;41(1):57–68.
41.McCusker, J, Verdon, J, Tousignant, P, de Courval, LP, Dendukuri, N, Belzile, E. Rapid emergency department intervention for older people reduces risk of functional declinde: results of a multicenter randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2001;49(10):1272–1281.