Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: May 2015

9 - Interactive effects of plants, decomposers, herbivores, and predators on nutrient cycling

from Part III - Patterns and Processes
Abbas, F., Merlet, J., Morellet, N., et al. (2012). Roe deer may markedly alter forest nitrogen and phosphorus budgets across Europe. Oikos, 121, 1271–1278.
Adams, D. G. and Duggan, P. S. (2008). Cyanobacteria-bryophyte symbioses. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59, 1047–1058.
Allgeier, J. E., Yeager, L. A. and Layman, C. A. (2013). Consumers regulate nutrient limitation regimes and primary production in seagrass ecosystems. Ecology, 94, 521–529.
Alves, J., Caliman, A., Guariento, R. D., et al. (2010). Stoichiometry of benthic invertebrate nutrient recycling: interspecific variation and the role of body mass. Aquatic Ecology, 44, 421–430.
Anderson, T. R., Hessen, D. O., Elser, J. J. and Urabe, J. (2005). Metabolic stoichiometry and the fate of excess carbon and nutrients in consumers. The American Naturalist, 165, 1–15.
Atkinson, C. L., Vaughn, C. C., Forshay, K. J. and Cooper, J. T. (2013). Aggregated filter-feeding consumers alter nutrient limitation: consequences for ecosystem and community dynamics. Ecology, 94, 1359–1369.
Attayde, J. L. and Hansson, L. A. (1999). Effects of nutrient recycling by zooplankton and fish on phytoplankton communities. Oecologia, 121, 47–54.
Bardgett, R. D. and Wardle, D. A. (2003). Herbivore-mediated linkages between aboveground and belowground communities. Ecology, 84, 2258–2268.
Barrett, K., Anderson, W. B., Wait, D. A., et al. (2005). Marine subsidies alter the diet and abundance of insular and coastal lizard populations. Oikos, 109, 145–153.
Bartels, P., Cucherousset, J., Steger, K., et al. (2012). Reciprocal subsidies between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems structure consumer resource dynamics. Ecology, 93, 1173–1182.
Bastow, J., Sabo, J., Finlay, J. and Power, M. (2002). A basal aquatic-terrestrial trophic link in rivers: algal subsidies via shore-dwelling grasshoppers. Oecologia, 131, 261–268.
Baxter, C. V., Fausch, K. D. and Saunders, W. C. (2005). Tangled webs: reciprocal flows of invertebrate prey link streams and riparian zones. Freshwater Biology, 50, 201–220.
Beard, K. H., Vogt, K. A. and Kulmatiski, A. (2002). Top-down effects of a terrestrial frog on forest nutrient dynamics. Oecologia, 133, 583–593.
Belovsky, G. E. and Slade, J. B. (2000). Insect herbivory accerlates nutrient cycling and increase plant production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 97, 14412–14417.
Berg, B., Davey, M. P., De Marco, A., et al. (2010). Factors influencing limit values for pine needle litter decomposition: a synthesis for boreal and temperate pine forest systems. Biogeochemistry, 100, 57–73.
Borer, E. T., Bracken, M. E., Seabloom, E. W., et al. (2013). Global biogeography of autotroph chemistry: is insolation a driving force? Oikos, 122, 1121–1130.
Boulêtreau, S., Cucherousset, J., Villéger, S., Masson, R. and Santoul, F. (2011). Colossal aggregations of giant alien freshwater fish as a potential biogeochemical hotspot. PLoS One, 6, e25732.
Bray, R. N., Miller, A. C. and Geesey, G. G. (1981). The fish connection: a trophic link between planktonic and rocky reef communities?Science, 214, 204–205.
Brown, G. E., Chivers, D. P. and Smith, R. J. F. (1996). Effects of diet on localized defecation by Northern pike, Esox lucius. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22, 467–475.
Bruno, J. F. and O'Connor, M. I. (2005). Cascading effects of predator diversity and omnivory in a marine food web. Ecology Letters, 8, 1048–1056.
Burkepile, D. E., Allgeier, J. E., Shantz, A. A., et al. (2013). Nutrient supply from fishes facilitates macroalgae and suppresses corals in a Caribbean coral reef ecosystem. Scientific Reports, 3, 1493.
Burkholder, D. A., Heithaus, M. R., Fourqurean, J. W., Wirsing, A. and Dill, L. M. (2013). Patterns of top-down control in a seagrass ecosystem: could a roving apex predator induce a behaviour-mediated trophic cascade?Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 1192–1202.
Byrnes, J., Stachowicz, J. J., Hultgren, K. M., et al. (2006). Predator diversity strengthens trophic cascades in kelp forests by modifying herbivore behaviour. Ecology Letters, 9, 61–71.
Capps, K. A. and Flecker, A. S. (2013). Invasive fishes generate biogeochemical hotspots in a nutrient-limited system. PLoS One, 8, e54093.
Cebrian, J. and Lartigue, J. (2004). Patterns of herbivory and decomposition in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological Monographs, 74, 237–259.
Chapman, S. K., Hart, S. C., Cobb, N. S., Whitham, T. G. and Koch, G. W. (2003). Insect herbivory increases litter quality and decomposition: an extension of the acceleration hypothesis. Ecology, 84, 2867–2876.
Choudhury, D. (1988). Herbivore induced changes in leaf-litter resource quality: a neglected aspect of herbivory in ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Oikos, 51, 389–393.
Chuyong, G. B., Newbery, D. M. and Songwe, N. C. (2004). Rainfall input, throughfall and stemflow of nutrients in a central African rain forest dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. Biogeochemistry, 67, 73–91.
Clarholm, M. (1985). Interactions of bacteria, protozoa and plants leading to mineralization of soil nitrogen. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 17, 181–187.
Cleveland, C. C. and Liptzin, D. (2007). C: N: P stoichiometry in soil: is there a “Redfield ratio” for the microbial biomass?Biogeochemistry, 85, 235–252.
Conroy, J. D. and Edwards, W. J. (2005). Soluble nitrogen and phosphorus excretion of exotic freshwater mussels (Dreissena spp.): potential impacts for nutrient remineralisation in western Lake Erie. Freshwater Biology, 50, 1146–1162.
Cornwell, W. K., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Amatangelo, K., et al. (2008). Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide. Ecology Letters, 11, 1065–1071.
Cornwell, W. K., Cornelissen, J. H., Allison, S. D., et al. (2009). Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed? Global Change Biology, 15, 2431–2449.
Crawley, K. R., Hyndes, G. A., Vanderklift, M. A., Revill, A. T. and Nichols, P. D. (2009). Allochthonous brown algae are the primary food source for consumers in a temperate, coastal environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 376, 33–44.
Cronin, G. and Hay, M. E. (1996). Induction of seaweed chemical defenses by amphipod grazing. Ecology, 77, 2287–2301.
Crotty, F. V, Adl, S. M., Blackshaw, R. P. and Murray, P. J. (2012). Protozoan pulses unveil their pivotal position within the soil food web. Microbial Ecology, 63, 905–918.
Cucherousset, J. and Olden, J. D. (2011). Ecological impacts of nonnative freshwater fishes. Fisheries, 36, 215–230.
Cyr, H. and Pace, M. L. (1993). Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nature, 361, 148–150.
Danger, M., Cornut, J., Chauvet, E., Chavez, P., Elger, A. and Lecerf, A. (2013). Benthic algae stimulate leaf litter decomposition in detritus-based headwater streams: a case of aquatic priming effect?Ecology, 94(7), 1604–1613.
Darnaude, A. M. (2005). Fish ecology and terrestrial carbon use in coastal areas: implications for marine fish production. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 864–876.
del Giorgio, P. A. and Cole, J. J. (1998). Bacterial growth efficiency in natural aquatic systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 503–541.
DeRuiter, P. C., Wolters, V., Moore, J. C. and Winemiller, K. O. (2005). Food web ecology. Playing Jenga and beyond. Science, 309, 68–70.
Doughty, C. E., Wolf, A. and Malhi, Y. T. (2013). The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia. Nature Geoscience, 6, 761–764.
Duffy, J. E., Cardinale, B. J., France, K. E., et al. (2007). The functional role of biodiversity in ecosystems: incorporating trophic complexity. Ecology Letters, 10, 522–538.
Dugan, J. E., Hubbard, D. M., McCrary, M. D. and Pierson, M. O. (2003). The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 58, 25–40.
Dunham, A. E. (2008). Above and below ground impacts of terrestrial mammals and birds in a tropical forest. Oikos, 117, 571–579.
Enriquez, S., Duarte, C. M. and Sand-Jensen, K. (1993). Patterns in decomposition rates among photosynthetic organisms: the importance of detritus C:N:P content. Oecologia, 94, 457–471.
Estes, J. A., Terborgh, J., Brashares, J. S., et al. (2011). Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science, 333, 301–306.
Flecker, A. S., Taylor, B. W. and Bernhardt, E. S. (2002). Interactions between herbivorous fishes and limiting nutrients in a tropical stream ecosystem. Ecology, 83, 1831–1844.
Frank, D. A. (2008). Evidence for top predator control of a grazing ecosystem. Oikos, 117, 1718–1724.
Frank, D. A. and Groffman, P. M. (1998a). Denitrification in a semi-arid grazing ecosystem. Oecologia, 117, 564–569.
Frank, D. A. and Groffman, P. M. (1998b). Ungulate vs. landscape control of soil C and N processes in grasslands of Yellowstone National Park. Ecology, 79, 2229–2241.
Frank, D. A., Groffman, P. M., Evans, R. D. and Tracy, B. F. (2000). Ungulate stimulation of nitrogen cycling and retention in Yellowstone Park grasslands. Oecologia, 123, 116–121.
Frost, C. J. and Hunter, M. D. (2007). Recycling of nitrogen in herbivore feces: plant recovery, herbivore assimilation, soil retention, and leaching losses. Oecologia, 151, 42–53.
Fujita, M. and Koike, F. (2009). Landscape effects on ecosystems: birds as active vectors of nutrient transport to fragmented urban forests versus forest-dominated landscapes. Ecosystems, 12, 391–400.
Fukami, T., Wardle, D. A., Bellingham, P. J., et al. (2006). Above- and below-ground impacts of introduced predators in seabird- dominated island ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 9, 1299–1307.
Gessner, M. O., Chauvet, E. and Dobson, M. (1999). A perspective on leaf litter breakdown in streams. Oikos, 85, 377–384.
Gillson, J. (2011). Freshwater flow and fisheries production in estuarine and coastal systems: where a drop of rain is not lost. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 19, 168–186.
Gratton, C. and Vander Zanden, M. J. (2009). Flux of aquatic insect productivity to land: comparison of lentic and lotic ecosystems. Ecology, 90, 2689–2699.
Gravel, D., Guichard, F., Loreau, M. and Mouquet, N. (2010). Source and sink dynamics in meta-ecosystems. Ecology, 91, 2172–2184.
Grime, J. P., Cornelisson, J. H. C., Thompson, K. and Hodgson, J. G. (1996). Evidence of a causal connection between anti-herbivore defence and the decomposition rate of leaves.
Haertel-Borer, S. S., Allen, D. M. and Dame, R. F. (2004). Fishes and shrimps are significant sources of dissolved inorganic nutrients in intertidal salt marsh creeks. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 311, 79–99.
Hall, E., Maixner, F., Franklin, O., et al. (2011). Linking microbial and ecosystem ecology using ecological stoichiometry: a synthesis of conceptual and empirical approaches. Ecosystems, 14, 261–273.
Hall, R. O., Koch, B. J. and Marshall, M. C. (2007). How body size mediates the role of animals in nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems. In Body size: The Structure and Function of Aquatic Ecosystems, ed. Hildrew, A. G., Raffaelli, D. G. and Edmonds-Brown, R.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 286–305.
Halpern, B. S., Cottenie, K. and Broitman, B. R. (2006). Strong top-down control in southern California kelp forest ecosystems. Science, 312, 1230–1232.
Hartley, S. E. and Jones, T. H. (2004). Insect herbivores, nutrient cycling, and plant productivity. In Insects and Ecosystem Function, ed. Weisser, W. W. and Siemann, E.. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 27–52.
Hawlena, D. and Schmitz, O. J. (2010). Herbivore physiological response to predation risk and implications for ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 15503–15507.
Hawlena, D., Strickland, M. S., Bradford, M. A. and Schmitz, O. J. (2012). Fear of predation slows plant-litter decomposition. Science, 336, 1434–1438.
Helfield, J. M. and Naiman, R. J. (2001). Effects of salmon-derived nitrogen on riparian forest growth and implications for stream productivity. Ecology, 82, 2403–2409.
Hobbie, S. E. (2000). Interactions between lignin and nutrient availability during decomposition in Hawaiian montane forest. Ecosystems, 3, 484–494.
Hobbie, S. E. (2008). Nitrogen effects on litter decomposition: a five-year experiment in eight temperate grassland and forest sites. Ecology, 89, 2633–2644.
Hobbie, S. E. and Vitousek, P. M. (2000). Nutrient regulation of decomposition in Hawaiian montane forests: do the same nutrients limit production and decomposition?Ecology, 81, 1867–1877.
Hobbie, S. E., Reich, P. B., Oleksyn, J., et al. (2006). Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden. Ecology, 87, 2288–2297.
Hobbs, N. T. (1996). Modification of ecosystems by ungulates. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 60, 695–713.
Hocking, M. D. and Reimchen, T. E. (2002). Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. BMC Ecology, 14, 1–14.
Hocking, M. D. and Reynolds, J. D. (2011). Impacts of salmon on riparian plant diversity. Science, 331, 1609–1612.
Holland, E. A. and Detling, J. K. (1990). Plant response to herbivory and belowground nitrogen cycling. Ecology, 71, 1040–1049.
Hood, J. M., Vanni, M. J. and Flecker, A. S. (2005). Nutrient recycling by two phosphorus-rich grazing catfish: the potential for phosphorus-limitation of fish growth. Oecologia, 146, 247–57.
Hoppe, H. (2003). Phosphatase activity in the sea. Hydrobiologia, 493, 187–200.
Hunter, M. D. (2001). Insect population dynamics meets ecosystem ecology: effects of herbivory on soil nutrient dynamics. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3, 77–84.
Hyndes, G., Lavery, P. and Doropoulos, C. (2012). Dual processes for cross-boundary subsidies: incorporation of nutrients from reef-derived kelp into a seagrass ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 445, 97–107.
Janetski, D. J., Chaloner, D. T., Tiegs, S. D. and Lamberti, G. A. (2009). Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis. Oecologia, 159, 583–595.
Jarvis, S. C. (2000). Soil-plant-animal interactions and impact on nitrogen and phosphorus cycling and recycling in grazed pastures. In Grassland Ecophysiology and Grazing Ecology, ed. Lemaire, G., Hodgson, J., Moraes, A. de, Nabinger, C. and Carvalho, P. C. de F.. New York: CAB International, pp. 191–207.
Jouquet, P., Traoré, S., Choosai, C., Hartmann, C. and Bignell, D. (2011). Influence of termites on ecosystem functioning: ecosystem services provided by termites. European Journal of Soil Biology, 47, 215–222.
Karban, R. and Baldwin, I. T. (2007). Induced Responses to Herbivory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kaspari, M. and Yanoviak, S. P. (2009). Biogeochemistry and the structure of tropical brown food webs. Ecology, 90, 3342–3351.
Kaspari, M., Garcia, M. N., Harms, K. E., et al. (2008). Multiple nutrients limit litterfall and decomposition in a tropical forest. Ecology Letters, 11, 35–43.
Kaspari, M., Yanoviak, S. P., Dudley, R., Yuan, M. and Clay, N. A. (2009). Sodium shortage as a constraint on the carbon cycle in an inland tropical rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 106, 19405–19409.
Knight, T. M., McCoy, M. W., Chase, J. M., McCoy, K. A. and Holt, R. D. (2005). Trophic cascades across ecosystems. Nature, 437, 880–883.
Knops, J. M., Ritchie, M. and Tilman, D. (2000). Selective herbivory on a nitrogen fixing legume (Lathyrus venosus) influences productivity and ecosystem nitrogen pools in an oak savanna. Ecoscience, 7(2), 166–174.
Kobe, R. K., Lepczyk, C. A. and Iyer, M. (2005). Resorption efficiency decreases with increasing green leaf nutrients in a global data set. Ecology, 86(10), 2780–2792.
Krone, R., Bshary, R., Paster, M., et al. (2008). Defecation behaviour of the lined bristletooth surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus (Acanthuridae). Coral Reefs, 27, 619–622.
Kuhn, M. (2001). The nutrient cycle through snow and ice, a review. Aquatic Sciences, 63, 150–167.
Lambers, H., Raven, J. A., Shaver, G. R. and Smith, S. E. (2008). Plant nutrient-acquisition strategies change with soil age. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23, 95–103.
Lamberti, G. A., Chaloner, D. T. and Hershey, A. E. (2010). Linkages among aquatic ecosystems. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 245–263.
Lavery, T. J., Roudnew, B., Gill, P., et al. (2010). Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern Ocean. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277, 3527–3531.
Layman, C. A., Allgeier, J. E., Yeager, L. A. and Stoner, E. W. (2013). Thresholds of ecosystem response to nutrient enrichment from fish aggregations. Ecology, 94, 530–536.
Lee, T. D., Reich, P. B. and Tjoelker, M. G. (2003). Legume presence increases photosynthetic and N concentration of co-occurring non-fixers but does not modulate their response to carbon dioxide enrichment. Oecologia, 137, 22–31.
Leibold, M. A., Holyoak, M., Mouquet, N., et al. (2004). The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters, 7, 601–613.
Leroux, S. J. and Loreau, M. (2010). Consumer- mediated recycling and cascading trophic interactions. Ecology, 91, 2162–2171.
Leroux, S. J., Hawlena, D. and Schmitz, O. J. (2012). Predation risk, stoichiometric plasticity and ecosystem elemental cycling. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, 279, 4183–4191.
Likens, G. E. and Bormann, F. H. (1974). Linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. BioScience, 24, 447–456.
Lindeman, R. L. (1942). The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology, 23, 399–418.
Lovett, G. M., Christenson, L. M., Groffman, P. M., et al. (2002). Insect defoliation and nitrogen cycling in forests. BioScience, 52, 335–341.
Manzoni, S., Trofymow, J. A., Jackson, R. B. and Porporato, A. (2010). Stoichiometric controls on carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics in decomposing litter. Ecological Monographs, 80, 89–106.
Manzoni, S., Taylor, P., Richter, A., Porporato, A. and Ågren, G. (2012). Environmental and stoichiometric controls on microbial carbon-use efficiency in soils. New Phytologist, 196, 79–91.
Marcarelli, A. M., Baxter, C. V., Mineau, M. M. and Hall, R. O. (2011). Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters. Ecology, 92, 1215–1225.
Maron, J. L., Estes, J. A., Croll, D. A., et al. (2006). An introduced predator alters Aleutian Island plant communities by thwarting nutrient subsidies. Ecological Monographs, 76, 3–24.
Martinson, H. M., Schneider, K., Gilbert, J., et al. (2008). Detritivory: stoichiometry of a neglected trophic level. Ecological Research, 23, 487–491.
Massol, F., Gravel, D., Mouquet, N., et al. (2011). Linking community and ecosystem dynamics through spatial ecology. Ecology Letters, 14, 313–323.
McIntyre, P. B., Flecker, A. S., Vanni, M. J., et al. (2008). Fish distributions and nutrient cycling in streams: can fish create biogeochemical hotspots?Ecology, 89, 2335–2346.
McNaughton, S., Banyikwa, F. and McNaughton, M. (1997). Promotion of the cycling of diet-enhancing nutrients by African grazers. Science, 278, 1798–1800.
McTainsh, G. and Strong, C. (2007). The role of aeolian dust in ecosystems. Geomorphology, 89, 39–54.
Melillo, J. M., Aber, J. D. and Muratore, J. F. (1982). Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics. Ecology, 63, 621–626.
Meyer, J. L. and Schultz, E. T. (1985). Migrating Haemulid fishes as a source of nutrients and organic matter on coral reefs. Limnology and Oceanography, 30, 146–156.
Meyer, S. T., Neubauer, M., Sayer, E. J., et al. (2013). Leaf-cutting ants as ecosystem engineers: topsoil and litter perturbations around Atta cephalotes nests reduce nutrient availability. Ecological Entomology, 38, 497–504.
Milchunas, D. G. and Lauenroth, W. K. (1993). Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments. Ecological Monographs, 63, 327–366.
Moksnes, P., Gullstro, M., Tryman, K. and Baden, S. (2008). Trophic cascades in a temperate seagrass community. Oikos, 117, 763–777.
Moore, J. W., Schindler, D. E., Carter, J. L., et al. (2007). Biotic control of stream fluxes: spawning salmon drive nutrient and matter export. Ecology, 88, 1278–1291.
Mountfort, D. O., Campbell, J. and Clements, K. D. (2002). Hindgut fermentation in three species of marine herbivorous fish. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 1374–1380.
Mueller, U. G., Gerardo, N. M., Aanen, D. K., Six, D. L. and Schultz, T. R. (2005). The evolution of agriculture in insects. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 36, 563–595.
Naiman, R. J. and Rogers, K. H. (1997). Large animals and system-level characteristics in river corridors. BioScience, 47, 521–529.
Nakano, S. and Murakami, M. (2001). Reciprocal subsidies: dynamic interdependence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98, 166–170.
Parton, W. A., Silver, W. L., Burke, I. C., et al. (2007). Global-scale similarities in nitrogen release patterns during long-term decomposition. Science, 315, 361–364.
Pastor, J., Naimen, R. J., Dewey, B. and McInnes, P. (1988). Moose, microbes, and the boreal forest. BioScience, 38, 770–777.
Pastor, J., Dewey, B., Naiman, R. J., MiInnes, P. F. and Cohen, Y. (1993). Moose browsing and soil fertility in the boreal forests of Isle Royale National Park. Ecology, 74, 467–480.
Pastor, J., Cohen, Y. and Hobbs, N. T. (2006). The roles of large herbivores in ecosystem nutrient cycles. In Large Mammalian Herbivores, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Conservation, ed. Danell, K., Bergström, K., Duncan, P., Pastor, J. and Olff, H.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 289–325.
Pérez-Aragón, M., Fernandez, C. and Escribano, R. (2011). Nitrogen excretion by mesozooplankton in a coastal upwelling area: seasonal trends and implications for biological production. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 406, 116–124.
Phillips, R. P., Finzi, A. C. and Bernhardt, E. S. (2011). Enhanced root exudation induces microbial feedbacks to N cycling in a pine forest under long-term CO2 fumigation. Ecology Letters, 14, 187–194.
Phillips, R. P., Brzostek, E. and Midgley, M. G. (2013). The mycorrhizal-associated nutrient economy: a new framework for predicting carbon-nutrient couplings in temperate forests. New Phytologist, 199, 41–51.
Pilati, A. and Vanni, M. J. (2007). Ontogeny, diet shifts, and nutrient stoichiometry in fish. Oikos, 116, 1663–1674.
Polis, G. A., Anderson, W. B. and Holt, R. D. (1997). Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: the dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, 289–316.
Pringle, R. M. and Fox-Dobbs, K. (2008). Coupling of canopy and understory food webs by ground-dwelling predators. Ecology Letters, 11, 1328–1337.
Read, D. J. (1991). Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. Experientia, 47, 376–391.
Redfield, A. C. (1958). The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. American Scientist, 46, 205–221.
Reece, W. O. (2013). Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals. Singapore: Wiley-Blackwell.
Reich, P. B. and Oleksyn, J. (2004). Global patterns of plant leaf N and P in relation to temperature and latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101, 11001–11006.
Reynolds, P. L. and Sotka, E. E. (2011). Non- consumptive predator effects indirectly influence marine plant biomass and palatability. Journal of Ecology, 99, 1272–1281.
Ritchie, M. E. and Tilman, D. (1995). Responses of legumes to herbivores and nutrients during succession on a nitrogen-poor soil. Ecology, 76, 2648–2655.
Roman, J. and McCarthy, J. J. (2010). The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin. PLoS One, 5, e13255.
Rose, M. D. and Polis, G. A. (1998). The distribution and abundance of coyotes: the effects of allochthonous food subsidies from the sea. Ecology, 79, 998–1007.
Ruess, R. W. and McNaughton, S. J. (1988). Grazing and the dynamics of nutrient and energy regulated microbial processes in the Serengeti grasslands. Oikos, 49, 101–110.
Sanchez-Pinero, F. and Polis, G. A. (2000). Bottom-up dynamics of allochthonous input: direct and indirect effects of seabirds on islands. Ecology, 81, 3117–3132.
Schaus, M. H. and Vanni, M. J. (2000). Effects of gizzard shad on phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics: role of sediment feeding and fish size. Ecology, 81, 1701–1719.
Schimel, J. P. and Bennett, J. (2004). Nitrogen mineralization: challenges of a changing paradigm. Ecology, 85, 591–602.
Schindler, D. E. and Scheuerell, M. D. (2002). Habitat coupling in lake ecosystems. Oikos, 98, 177–189.
Schindler, D. E., Carpenter, S. R., Cole, J. J., Kitchell, J. F. and Pace, M. L. (1997). Influence of food web structure on carbon exchange between lakes and the atmosphere. Science, 277, 248–251.
Schindler, D. E., Knapp, R. A. and Leavitt, P. R. (2001). Alteration of nutrient cycles and algal production resulting from fish introductions into mountain lakes. Ecosystems, 4, 308–321.
Schmitz, O. J. (2006). Predators have large effects on ecosystem properties by changing plant diversity, not plant biomass. Ecology, 87, 1432–1437.
Schmitz, O. J. (2008). Effects of predator hunting mode on grassland ecosystem function. Science, 319, 952–954.
Schmitz, O. J. (2010). The Green World and the Brown Chain in Resolving Ecosystem Complexity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Schmitz, O. J. and Suttle, K. B. (2001). Effects of top predator species on direct and indirect interactions in a food web. Ecology, 82, 2072–2081.
Schmitz, O. J., Krivan, V. and Ovadia, O. (2004). Trophic cascades: the primacy of trait-mediated indirect interactions. Ecology Letters, 7, 153–163.
Schmitz, O. J., Hawlena, D. and Trussell, G. C. (2010). Predator control of ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Ecology Letters, 13, 1199–1209.
Schuurman, G. W. (2012). Ecosystem influences of fungus-growing termites in the dry paleotropics. In Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services, ed. Wall, D., Bardgett, R. D., Behan-Pelletier, V., et al. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 173–188.
Sereda, J. M. and Hudson, J. J. (2011). Empirical models for predicting the excretion of nutrients (N and P) by aquatic metazoans: taxonomic differences in rates and element ratios. Freshwater Biology, 56, 250–263.
Sereda, J. M., Hudson, J. J. and Mcloughlin, P. D. (2008a). General empirical models for predicting the release of nutrients by fish, with a comparison between detritivores and non-detritivores. Freshwater Biology, 53, 2133–2144.
Sereda, J. M., Hudson, J. J., Taylor, W. D. and Demers, E. (2008b). Fish as sources and sinks of nutrients in lakes: direct estimates, comparison with plankton and stoichiometry. Freshwater Biology, 53, 278–289.
Shurin, J. B., Gruner, D. S. and Hillebrand, H. (2006). All wet or dried up? Real differences between aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 273, 1–9.
Small, G. E., Pringle, C. M., Pyron, M. and Duff, J. H. (2011). Role of the fish Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) as a keystone nutrient recycler in low-nutrient neotropical streams. Ecology, 92, 386–397.
Spiller, D. A., Piovia-Scorr, J., Wright, A. N., et al. (2010). Marine subsidies have multiple effects on coastal food webs. Ecology, 91, 1424–1434.
Staaf, H. and Berg, B. (1981). Accumulation and release of plant nutrients in decomposing Scots pine needle litter. Long-term decomposition in a Scots pine forest II. Canadian Journal of Botany, 60, 1561–1568.
Sterner, R. W. and Elser, J. J. (2002). Ecological Stoichiometry: The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Stevens, C. E. and Hume, I. D. (1998). Contributions of microbes in vertebrate gastrointestinal tract to production and conservation of nutrients. Physiological Reviews, 78, 393–427.
Stief, P. and Hölker, F. (2006). Trait-mediated indirect effects of predatory fish on microbial mineralization in aquatic sediments. Ecology, 87, 3152–3159.
Swap, R., Garstang, M. and Greco, S. (1992). Saharan dust in the Amazon Basin. Tellus, 44, 133–149.
Terborgh, J., Lopez, L., Nunez, P., et al. (2001). Ecological meltdown in predator-free forest fragments. Science, 294, 1923–1926.
Thiel, M., Macaya, E. C., Acuna, E., et al. (2007). The Humboldt current system of Northern and Central Chile. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 45, 195–344.
Thompson, R. M., Brose, U., Dunne, J., et al. (2012). Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27, 689–697.
Tokuda, G. and Watanabe, H. (2007). Hidden cellulases in termites: revision of an old hypothesis. Biology Letters, 3, 336–339.
Treseder, K. K. and Vitousek, P. M. (2001). Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology, 82, 946–954.
Vanni, M. J. (2002). Nutrient cycling by animals in freshwater ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 341–370.
Vanni, M. M. J., Flecker, A. A. S., Hood, J. M. and Headworth, J. L. (2002). Stoichiometry of nutrient recycling by vertebrates in a tropical stream: linking species identity and ecosystem processes. Ecology Letters, 5, 285–293.
Vanni, M. J., Bowling, A. M., Dickman, E. M., et al. (2006). Nutrient cycling by fish supports relatively more primary production as lake productivity increases. Ecology, 87, 1696–1709.
Vanni, M. J., Boros, G. and McIntyre, P. B. (2013). When are fish sources versus sinks of nutrients in lake ecosystems? Ecology, 94, 2195–2206.
Vergés, A., Pérez, M., Alcoverro, T. and Romero, J. (2008). Compensation and resistance to herbivory in seagrasses: induced responses to simulated consumption by fish. Oecologia, 155, 751–760.
Villéger, S., Ferraton, F., Mouillot, D. and de Wit, R. (2012a). Nutrient recycling by coastal macrofauna: intra- versus interspecific differences. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 452, 297–303.
Villéger, S., Grenouillet, G., Suc, V. and Brosse, S. (2012b). Intra- and interspecific differences in nutrient recycling by European freshwater fish. Freshwater Biology, 57, 2330–2341.
Vrede, K., Heldal, M., Norland, S. and Bratbak, G. (2002). Elemental composition (C, N, P) and cell volume of exponentially growing and nutrient-limited bacterioplankton. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 2965–2971.
Wardle, D. A. (2002). Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Welsh, D. T. (2000). Nitrogen fixation in seagrass meadows: regulation, plant-bacteria interactions and significance to primary productivity. Ecology Letters, 3, 58–71.
Wieder, W. R., Cleveland, C. C. and Townsend, A. R. (2009). Controls over leaf litter decomposition in wet tropical forests. Ecology, 90, 3333–3341.
Winder, M., Schindler, D. E., Moore, J. W., Johnson, S. P. and Palen, W. J. (2005). Do bears facilitate transfer of salmon resources to aquatic macroinvertebrates? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2293, 2285–2293.
Wipfli, M. S., Hudson, J. and Caouette, J. (1998). Influence of salmon carcasses on stream productivity: response of biofilm and benthic macroinvertebrates in south-eastern Alaska, USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1511, 1503–1511.
Wipfli, M., Hudson, J. P. and Caouette, J. P. (2003). Marine subsidies in freshwater ecosystems: salmon carcasses increase the growth rates of stream-resident salmonids. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132, 371–381.
Wu, S., Wang, G., Angert, E. R., et al. (2012). Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine. PLoS One, 7, e30440.
Wurtsbaugh, W. A. (2007). Nutrient cycling and transport by fish and terrestrial insect nutrient subsidies to lakes. Limnology and Oceanography, 52, 2715–2718.
Wyatt, A., Lowe, R., Humphries, S. and Waite, A. (2010). Particulate nutrient fluxes over a fringing coral reef: relevant scales of phytoplankton production and mechanisms of supply. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 405, 113–130.
Young, H. S., McCauley, D. J., Dunbar, R. B. and Dirzo, R. (2010). Plants cause ecosystem nutrient depletion via the interruption of bird-derived spatial subsidies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 2072–2077.