Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 23 - Anesthesia for spinal cord trauma

from Section 3 - Anesthetic considerations

References

1. Devivo MJ. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury: trends and future implications. Spinal Cord 2012; 50: 365–72.
2. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCISC). Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures at a Glance, 2013. https://www.nscisc.uab.edu (accessed September 2014).
3. Martirosyan NL, Feuerstein JS, Theodore N, et al. Blood supply and vascular reactivity of the spinal cord under normal and pathological conditions. J Neurosurg Spine 2011; 15: 238–51.
4. Etz CD, Kari FA, Mueller CS, et al. The collateral network concept: a reassessment of the anatomy of spinal cord perfusion. J Thoracic Cardiovascular Surg 2011; 141: 1020–8.
5. Etz CD, Kari FA, Mueller CS, et al. The collateral network concept: remodeling of the arterial collateral network after experimental segmental artery sacrifice. J Thoracic Cardiovascular Surg 2011; 141: 1029–36.
6. Marsh JL, Slongo TF, Agel J, et al. Fracture and dislocation classification compendium – 2007: Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification, database and outcomes committee. J Orthop Trauma 2007; 21 (10 Suppl): S1–133.
7. Launay F, Leet AI, Sponseller PD. Pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality: a meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2005; 433: 166–70.
8. Como JJ, Samia H, Nemunaitis GA, et al. The misapplication of the term spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) in adults. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012; 73: 1261–6.
9. Stahel PF, VanderHeiden T, Finn MA. Management strategies for acute spinal cord injury: current options and future perspectives. Curr Opin Crit Care 2012; 18: 651–60.
10. Borgens RB, Liu-Snyder P. Understanding secondary injury. Q Rev Biol 2012; 87: 89–127.
11. Saboe LA, Reid DC, Davis LA, Warren SA, Grace MG. Spine trauma and associated injuries. J Trauma 1991; 31: 43–8.
12. Holly LT, Kelly DF, Counelis GJ, et al. Cervical spine trauma associated with moderate and severe head injury: incidence, risk factors, and injury characteristics. J Neurosurg 2002; 96 (3 Suppl): 285–91.
13. Hackl W, Hausberger K, Sailer R, Ulmer H, Gassner R. Prevalence of cervical spine injuries in patients with facial trauma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2001; 92: 370–6.
14. Rabinovici R, Ovadia P, Mathiak G, Abdullah F. Abdominal injuries associated with lumbar spine fractures in blunt trauma. Injury 1999; 30: 471–4.
15. Chen Y, DeVivo M. Epidemiology of extraspinal fractures in acute spinal cord injury: data from the Model Spinal Cord Injury Care Systems, 1973–1999. Topics Spinal Cord Injury Rehabil 2005; 11: 18–29.
16. Raw RM. Could the open door crack on perioperative visual loss be even bigger? Anesthesiology 2012; 117: 432–3.
17. Spahn DR, Bouillon B, Cerny V, et al. Management of bleeding and coagulopathy following major trauma: an updated European guideline. Crit Care 2013; 17: R76.
18. Brenner M, Stein DM, Hu PF, et al. Traditional systolic blood pressure targets underestimate hypotension-induced secondary brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012; 72: 1135–9.
19. Mallek JT, Inaba K, Branco BC, et al. The incidence of neurogenic shock after spinal cord injury in patients admitted to a high-volume level I trauma center. Am Surg 2012; 78: 623–6.
20. Summers RL, Baker SD, Sterling SA, Porter JM, Jones AE. Characterization of the spectrum of hemodynamic profiles in trauma patients with acute neurogenic shock. J Crit Care 2013; 28: 531 e1–5.
21. Guly HR, Bouamra O, Lecky FE, Trauma A, Research N. The incidence of neurogenic shock in patients with isolated spinal cord injury in the emergency department. Resuscitation 2008; 76: 57–62.
22. Podolsky S, Baraff LJ, Simon RR, et al. Efficacy of cervical spine immobilization methods. J Trauma 1983; 23: 461–5.
23. Theodore N, Hadley MN, Aarabi B, et al. Prehospital cervical spinal immobilization after trauma. Neurosurgery 2013; 72 (Suppl 2): 22–34.
24. Manoach S, Paladino L. Laryngoscopy force, visualization, and intubation failure in acute trauma: should we modify the practice of manual in-line stabilization? Anesthesiology 2009; 110: 6–7.
25. Crosby ET. Airway management in adults after cervical spine trauma. Anesthesiology 2006; 104: 1293–318.
26. Santoni BG, Hindman BJ, Puttlitz CM, et al. Manual in-line stabilization increases pressures applied by the laryngoscope blade during direct laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation. Anesthesiology 2009; 110: 24–31.
27. Vale FL, Burns J, Jackson AB, Hadley MN. Combined medical and surgical treatment after acute spinal cord injury: results of a prospective pilot study to assess the merits of aggressive medical resuscitation and blood pressure management. J Neurosurgery 1997; 87: 239–46.
28. Levi L, Wolf A, Belzberg H. Hemodynamic parameters in patients with acute cervical cord trauma: description, intervention, and prediction of outcome. Neurosurgery 1993; 33: 1007–16.
29. Tuli S, Tuli J, Coleman WP, Geisler FH, Krassioukov A. Hemodynamic parameters and timing of surgical decompression in acute cervical spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2007; 30: 482–90.
30. Ryken TC, Hurlbert RJ, Hadley MN, et al. The acute cardiopulmonary management of patients with cervical spinal cord injuries. Neurosurgery 2013; 72 (Suppl 2): 84–92.
31. Como JJ, Diaz JJ, Dunham CM, et al. Practice management guidelines for identification of cervical spine injuries following trauma: update from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Practice Management Guidelines Committee. J Trauma 2009; 67: 651–9.
32. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: suspected spine trauma, 2012. http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/SuspectedSpineTrauma.pdf (accessed September 2014).
33. Ryken TC, Hadley MN, Walters BC, et al. Radiographic assessment. Neurosurgery 2013; 72 (Suppl 2): 54–72.
34. Sayer FT, Kronvall E, Nilsson OG. Methylprednisolone treatment in acute spinal cord injury: the myth challenged through a structured analysis of published literature. Spine J 2006; 6: 335–43.
35. Edwards P, Arango M, Balica L, et al. Final results of MRC CRASH, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of intravenous corticosteroid in adults with head injury-outcomes at 6 months. Lancet 2005; 365: 1957–9.
36. Hurlbert RJ, Hadley MN, Walters BC, et al. Pharmacological therapy for acute spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 2013; 72 (Suppl 2): 93–105.
37. La Rosa G, Conti A, Cardali S, Cacciola F, Tomasello F. Does early decompression improve neurological outcome of spinal cord injured patients? Appraisal of the literature using a meta-analytical approach. Spinal Cord 2004; 42: 503–12.
38. Furlan JC, Noonan V, Cadotte DW, Fehlings MG. Timing of decompressive surgery of spinal cord after traumatic spinal cord injury: an evidence-based examination of pre-clinical and clinical studies. J Neurotrauma 2011; 28: 1371–99.
39. Carreon LY, Dimar JR. Early versus late stabilization of spine injuries: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011; 36: E727–33.
40. Fehlings MG, Vaccaro A, Wilson JR, et al. Early versus delayed decompression for traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: results of the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS). PLoS One 2012; 7 (2): e32037.
41. van Middendorp JJ, Hosman A, Doi SA. The effects of the timing of spinal surgery after traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurotrauma 2013; 30: 1781–94.
42. Aziz M. Airway management in neuroanesthesiology. Anesthesiol Clin 2012; 30: 229–40.
43. Robitaille A. Airway management in the patient with potential cervical spine instability: continuing professional development. Can J Anaesth 2011; 58: 1125–39.
44. Fehlings MG, Brodke DS, Norvell DC, Dettori JR. The evidence for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in spine surgery: does it make a difference? Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2010; 35 (9 Suppl): S37–46.
45. Lall RR, Lall RR, Hauptman JS, et al. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in spine surgery: indications, efficacy, and role of the preoperative checklist. Neurosurg Focus 2012; 33 (5): E10.
46. Levi AD, Casella G, Green BA, et al. Clinical outcomes using modest intravascular hypothermia after acute cervical spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 2010; 66: 670–7.
47. Ahmad F, Wang MY, Levi AD. Hypothermia for acute spinal cord injury: a review. World Neurosurg 2014; 82: 207–14.
48. O’Toole JE, Wang MC, Kaiser MG. Hypothermia and human spinal cord injury: updated position statement and evidence based recommendations from the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine Peripheral Nerves. http://www.spinesection.org/files/pdfs/Hypothermia%20Position%20Statement%20Oct%202013.pdf (accessed October 2014).
49. NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators, Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1283–97.
50. Postoperative Visual Loss Study Group. Risk factors associated with ischemic optic neuropathy after spinal fusion surgery. Anesthesiology 2012; 116: 15–24.
51. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Visual Loss. Practice advisory for perioperative visual loss associated with spine surgery. Anesthesiology 2012; 116: 274–85.
52. Lee LA. Perioperative visual loss and anesthetic management. Curr Opin Anaesth 2013; 26: 375–81.
53. Grossman RG, Frankowski RF, Burau KD, et al. Incidence and severity of acute complications after spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg Spine 2012; 17 (1 Suppl): 119–28.