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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: December 2009

2 - Lasers and optics

Summary

Lasers for materials processing

Lasers (the acronym from light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), with their unique coherent, monochromatic, and collimated beam characteristics, are used in ever-expanding fields of applications. Different applications require laser beams of different pulse duration and output power. Lasers employed for materials processing range from those with a high peak power and extremely short pulse duration to lasers with high-energy continuous-wave output.

Continuous-wave – millisecond – microsecond lasers

Continuous-wave (CW) and long-pulsed lasers are typically used to process materials either at a fixed spot (penetration material removal) or in a scanning mode whereby either the beam or the target is translated. Millisecond- and microsecond-duration pulses are produced by chopping the CW laser beam or by applying an external modulated control voltage. Fixed Q-switched solid-state lasers with pulse durations from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds are often used in industrial welding and drilling applications. Continuous-wave carbon dioxide lasers (wavelength λ = 10.6μm and power in the kilowatt range) are widely employed for the cutting of bulk and thick samples of ceramics such as SiN, SiC, and metal-matrix ceramics (e.g. Duley, 1983). Continuous-wave laser radiation allows definition of grooves and cuts. On the other hand, low-power CO2 lasers in the 10–150-W range are used for marking of wood, plastics, and glasses. Argon-ion lasers operating in the visible range (λ = 419–514 nm) are utilized for trimming of thick and thin resistors. In the biomedical field various CW lasers have been used.

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