Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: January 2015

Part III - The effects of PTAs

  • Edited by Andreas Dür, Universität Salzburg, Manfred Elsig, Universität Bern, Switzerland
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • pp 353-462

References

Abrams, Richard K. 1980. ‘International Trade Flows under Flexible Exchange Rates.’ Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Economic Review, March, 3–10.
Aitken, Norman D. 1973. ‘The Effect of the EEC and EFTA on European Trade: A Temporal Cross-Section Analysis.’ American Economic Review 63 (5): 881–92.
Anderson, James. 1979. ‘A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation.’ American Economic Review 69 (1): 106–16.
Anderson, James, and van Wincoop, Eric. 2003. ‘Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle.’ American Economic Review 93 (1): 170–92.
Arkolakis, Costas, Costinot, Arnaud, and Rodriguez-Clare, Andrés. 2012. ‘New Trade Models, Same Old Gains?American Economic Review 102 (1): 94–130.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey. 2001. ‘The Growth of World Trade: Tariffs, Transport Costs, and Income Similarity.’ Journal of International Economics 53 (1): 1–27.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey 2002. ‘On the Endogeneity of International Trade Flows and Free Trade Agreements.’ Unpublished manuscript, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey 2004. ‘The Economic Determinants of Free Trade Agreements.’ Journal of International Economics 64 (1): 29–63.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey 2007. ‘Do Free Trade Agreements Actually Increase Members’ International Trade?Journal of International Economics 71 (1): 72–95.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey 2009. ‘Bonus Vetus OLS: A Simple Method for Approximating International Trade-Cost Effects Using the Gravity Equation.’ Journal of International Economics 77 (1): 77–85.
Baier, Scott, Bergstrand, Jeffrey, and Feng, Michael. Forthcoming. ‘Economic Integration Agreements and the Margins of International Trade.’ Journal of International Economics.
Baier, Scott, Bergstrand, Jeffrey, and Vidal, Erika. 2007. ‘Free Trade Agreements in the Americas: Are the Trade Effects Larger than Anticipated?World Economy 30 (9): 1347–77.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey. 1985. ‘The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence.’ Review of Economics and Statistics 67 (3): 474–81.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey, Egger, Peter, and Larch, Mario. 2013. ‘Gravity Redux: Estimation of Gravity-Equation Coefficients, Elasticities of Substitution and General Equilibrium Comparative Statics under Asymmetric Bilateral Trade Costs.’ Journal of International Economics 89 (1): 110–21.
Bergstrand, Jeffrey, Larch, Mario, and Yotov, Yoto. 2014. ‘Economic Integration Agreements, Border Effects, and Distance Elasticities in the Gravity Equation.’ CESifo Working Paper Series No. 4502. CESifo, Munich.
Brada, Josef C., and Mendez, José A. 1985. ‘Economic Integration among Developed, Developing, and Centrally Planned Economies: A Comparative Study.’ Review of Economics and Statistics 67 (4): 549–56.
Cameron, Colin A., and Trivedi, Pravin. 2005. Microeconometrics – Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chaney, Thomas. 2008. ‘Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade.’ American Economic Review 98 (4): 1707–21.
Eaton, Jonathan, and Kortum, Samuel. 2002. ‘Technology, Geography and Trade.’ Econometrica 70 (5): 1741–79.
Frankel, Jeffrey. 1997. Regional Trading Blocs. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Frankel, Jeffrey, Stein, Ernesto, and Wie, Shang-jin. 1995. ‘Trading Blocs and the Americas: The Natural, the Unnatural, and the Super-Natural.’ Journal of Development Economics 47:61–95.
Head, Keith, and Mayer, Thierry. 2013. ‘Gravity Equations: Workhorse, Toolkit, and Cookbook.’ CEPR Working Paper No. 9322. Centre for Economic Policy Research, London.
Kohl, Tristan. 2012. ‘Trade Agreements Galore.’ Unpublished manuscript, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
Kohl, Tristan, Brakman, Steven, and Garretsen, Harry. 2013. ‘Do Trade Agreements Stimulate International Trade Differently?’ Unpublished manuscript, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
Melitz, Marc J. 2003. ‘The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity.’ Econometrica 71 (6): 1695–1725.
Tinbergen, Jan. 1962. Shaping the World Economy: Suggestions for an International Economic Policy. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.

References

Alvarez, Fernando, and Lucas, Robert E., Jr. 2007. ‘General Equilibrium Analysis of the Eaton-Kortum Model of International Trade.’ Journal of Monetary Economics 54 (6): 1726–68.
Arkolakis, Costas, Costinot, Arnaud, and Rodríguez-Clare, Andrés. 2012. ‘New Trade Models, Same Old Gains?American Economic Review 102 (1): 94–130.
Baier, Scott L., and Bergstrand, Jeffrey H. 2007. ‘Do Free Trade Agreements Actually Increase Members’ International Trade?Journal of International Economics 71 (1): 72–95.
Baier, Scott L., and Bergstrand, Jeffrey H.. 2009. ‘Estimating the Effects of Free Trade Agreements on International Trade Flows Using Matching Econometrics.’ Journal of International Economics 77 (1): 63–76.
Baldwin, Richard, and Harrigan, James. 2011. ‘Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence.’ American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 3 (2): 60–88.
Cameron, A. Colin, and Trivedi, Pravin K. 2005. Microeconometrics: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chor, Davin. 2010. ‘Unpacking Sources of Comparative Advantage: A Quantitative Approach.’ Journal of International Economics 82 (2): 152–67.
Dekle, Robert, Eaton, Jonathan, and Kortum, Samuel S. 2007. ‘Unbalanced Trade.’ American Economic Review 97 (2): 351–55.
Eaton, Jonathan, and Kortum, Samuel S. 2002. ‘Technology, Geography, and Trade.’ Econometrica 70 (5): 1741–79.
Egger, Peter H., Larch, Mario, Staub, Kevin, and Winkelmann, Rainer. 2011. ‘The Trade Effects of Endogenous Preferential Trade Agreements.’ American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 3 (3): 113–43.
Egger, Peter H., and Nigai, Sergey. 2013. ‘Asymmetric Trade Costs, Trade Imbalances and the World Income Distribution.’ Unpublished manuscript, ETH Zurich.
Egger, Peter H., and Wamser, Georg. 2013. ‘Effects of the Endogenous Scope of Preferentialism on International Goods Trade.’ B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 13 (2): 709–31.
Helpman, Elhanan, Melitz, Marc, and Rubinstein, Yona. 2008. ‘Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes.’ Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (2): 441–87.
Santos Silva, J. M. C., and Tenreyro, Silvana. 2006. ‘The Log of Gravity.’ Review of Economics and Statistics 88 (4): 641–58.

References

Anderson, James, Milot, Catherine, and Yotov, Yoto. 2011. ‘The Incidence of Geography on Canada’s Services Trade.’ NBER Working Paper No. 17630. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey. 2002. ‘On the Endogeneity of International Trade Flows and Free Trade Agreements.’ Unpublished manuscript, University of Notre Dame.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey 2004. ‘Economic Determinants of Free Trade Agreements.’ Journal of International Economics 64 (1): 29–63.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey 2007. ‘Do Free Trade Agreements Actually Increase Members’ International Trade?Journal of international Economics 71 (1): 72–95.
Baier, Scott, and Bergstrand, Jeffrey 2009. ‘Bonus vetus OLS: A Simple Method for Approximating International Trade-Cost Effects Using the Gravity Equation.’ Journal of International Economics 77 (1): 77–85.
Baldwin, Richard, and Harrigan, James. 2011. ‘Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence.’ American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 3 (2): 60–88.
Cameron, Colin, and Trivedi, Pravin. 2005. Microeconometrics: Methods and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ceglowski, Janet. 2006. ‘Does Gravity Matter in a Service Economy?Review of World Economics 142 (2): 307–29.
Eaton, Jonathan, and Kortum, Samuel. 2001. ‘Trade in Capital Goods.’ European Economic Review 45 (7): 1195–235.
Egger, Hartmut, Egger, Peter, and Greenaway, David. 2008. ‘The Trade Structure Effects of Endogenous Regional Trade Agreements.’ Journal of International Economics 74 (2): 278–98.
Egger, Peter, and Larch, Mario, and Staub, Kevin. 2012. ‘Trade Preferences and Bilateral Trade in Goods and Services: A Structural Approach.’ CEPR Discussion Paper No. 9051. Centre for Economic Policy Research, London.
Egger, Peter, Larch, Mario, Staub, Kevin, and Winkelmann, Rainer. 2011. ‘The Trade Effects of Endogenous Preferential Trade Agreements.’ American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 3 (3): 113–43.
Grünfeld, Leo, and Moxnes, Andreas. 2003. ‘The Intangible Globalization: Explaining the Patterns of International Trade in Services.’ Working Paper No. 657. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, Oslo.
Guimaraes, Paulo, and Portugal, Pedro. 2010. ‘A Simple Feasible Procedure to Fit Models with High-Dimensional Fixed Effects.’ Stata Journal 10 (4): 628–49.
Harrigan, James. 1996. ‘Openness to Trade in Manufactures in the OECD.’ Journal of International Economics 40 (1): 23–39.
Head, Keith, and Mayer, Thierry. 2013. ‘Gravity Equations: Toolkit, Cookbook, Workhorse.’ CEPII Working Paper No. 27. Centre d’Etudes Prospectives et d’Informations Internationales, Paris.
Head, Keith, Mayer, Thierry, and Ries, John. 2010. ‘The Erosion of Colonial Trade Linkages After Independence.’ Journal of International Economics 81 (1): 1–14.
Helpman, Elhanan, Melitz, Marc, and Rubinstein, Yona. 2008. ‘Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes.’ Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (2): 441–87.
Kimura, Fukunari, and Lee, Hyun-Hoon. 2006. ‘The Gravity Equation in International Trade in Services.’ Review of World Economics 142 (1): 92–121.
Kox, Henk, and Lejour, Arjan. 2006. ‘The Effects of the Services Directive on Intra-EU Trade and FDI.’ Revue Economique 57 (4): 747–69.
Lennon, Carolina. 2008. ‘Trade in Services and Trade in Goods: Differences and Complementarities.’ WIIW Working Papers No. 53. Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, Vienna.
Magee, Christopher. 2004. ‘Endogenous Preferential Trade Agreements: An Empirical Analysis.’ Contributions in Economic Analysis and Policy 2 (1): 1–17.
Marchetti, Juan. 2011. ‘Do Economic Integration Agreements Lead to Deeper Integration of Services Markets?’ In International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume III: Factor, Mobility, Agriculture, Environment and Quantitative Studies, edited by Miroslav Jovanovic, 435–54. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Mirza, Daniel, and Nicoletti, Giuseppe. 2004. ‘What Is So Special about Trade in Services.’ Research Paper No. 2. University of Nottingham, Nottingham.
Santos Silva, Joao, and Tenreyro, Silvana. 2006. ‘The Log of Gravity.’ Review of Economics and Statistics 88 (4): 641–58.
Santos Silva, Joao, and Tenreyro, Silvana 2010. ‘On the Existence of the Maximum Likelihood Estimates in Poisson Regression.’ Economics Letters 107 (2): 310–12.
Sauvé, Pierre, and Shingal, Anirudh. 2011. ‘Reflections on the Preferential Liberalization of Services Trade.’ Journal of World Trade 45 (5): 953–63.
Shingal, Anirudh. 2009. ‘How Much Do Agreements Matter for Services Trade?’ Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper 32815. http://mpra.ub.unimuenchen.de/39436/1/MPRA_paper_39436.pdf.
Walsh, Keith. 2006. ‘Trade in Services: Does Gravity Hold? A Gravity Model Approach to Estimating Barriers to Services Trade.’ Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper No. 183. Institute for International Integration Studies, Dublin.

References

Abbott, Kenneth W., Keohane, Robert O., Moravcsik, Andrew, Slaughter, Anne-Marie, and Snidal, Duncan. 2000. ‘The Concept of Legalization.’ International Organization 54:401–19.
Aizenman, Joshua, and Riera-Crichton, Daniel. 2008. ‘Real Exchange Rate and International Reserves in an Era of Growing Financial and Trade Integration.’ Review of Economics and Statistics 90:812–15.
Bagwell, Kyle, and Staiger, Robert W. 2006. ‘Will International Rules on Subsidies Disrupt the World Trading System?American Economic Review 96:877–95.
Baier, Scott L., and Bergstrand, Jeffrey H. 2007. ‘Do Free Trade Agreements Actually Increase Members’ International Trade?Journal of International Economics 71:72–95.
Blattman, Christopher, Hwang, Jason, and Williamson, Jeffrey G. 2007. ‘Winners and Losers in the Commodity Lottery: The Impact of Terms of Trade Growth and Volatility in the Periphery 1870–1939.’ Journal of Development Economics 82:156–79.
Bown, Chad P. 2011. ‘Taking Stock of Antidumping, Safeguards and Countervailing Duties, 1990–2009.’ World Economy 34:1955–98.
Busch, Marc L., Raciborski, Rafal, and Reinhardt, Eric. 2008. ‘Does the Rule of Law Matter? The WTO and US Antidumping Investigations.’ Emory University Working Paper. Emory University, Atlanta.
Cameron, David. 1978. ‘The Expansion of the Public Economy: A Comparative Analysis.’ American Political Science Review 72:1243–61.
Chaudoin, Stephen. Forthcoming. ‘Audience Features and the Strategic Timing of Trade Disputes.’ International Organization.
Combes, Jean-Louis, and Saadi-Sedik, Tahsin. 2006. ‘How Does Trade Openness Influence Budget Deficits in Developing Countries?Journal of Development Studies 42:1401–16.
Dür, Andreas, Baccini, Leonardo, and Elsig, Manfred. 2014. ‘The Design of International Trade Agreements: Introducing a New Dataset.’ Review of International Organizations 9 (3): 353–75.
Finlayson, Jock A., and Zacher, Mark W. 1981. ‘The GATT and the Regulation of Trade Barriers: Regime Dynamics and Functions.’ International Organization 35:561–602.
Frieden, Jeffry A. 2002. ‘Real Sources of European Currency Policy: Sectoral Interests and European Monetary Integration.’ International Organization 56:831–60.
Garen, John, and Trask, Kathleen. 2005. ‘Do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments? Another Look.’ Journal of Development Economics 77:533–51.
Gowa, Joanne. 1995. Allies, Adversaries and International Trade. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gray, Julia. 2014. ‘Life, Death, or Zombies? The Endurance of Inefficient Regional Economic Organizations.’ Princeton University Working Paper. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Jo, Hyeran. 2008. Monitoring Compliance: The Design of Monitoring Institutions in International Cooperation. PhD thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Johns, Leslie. Forthcoming. ‘Depth versus Rigidity in the Design of International Agreements.’ Journal of Theoretical Politics.
Katzenstein, Peter J. 1985. Small States in World Markets: Industrial Policy in Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kim, So Young. 2007. ‘Openness, External Risk, and Volatility: Implications for the Compensation Hypothesis.’ International Organization 61:181–216.
Koremenos, Barbara. 2005. ‘Contracting Around International Uncertainty.’ American Political Science Review 99:549–65.
Kucik, Jeffrey. 2012. ‘The Domestic Politics of Institutional Design: Producer Preferences over Trade Agreement Rules.’ Economics and Politics 24:95–118.
Kucik, Jeffrey, and Reinhardt, Eric. 2008. ‘Does Flexibility Promote Cooperation? An Application to the Global Trade Regime.’ International Organization 62:477–505.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Bronson, Rachel. 1997. ‘Alliances, Preferential Trading Arrangements, and International Trade.’ American Political Science Review 91:94–107.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Reinhardt, Eric. 2008a. ‘International Institutions and Terms of Trade Volatility.’ Emory University Working Paper. Emory University, Atlanta.
Mansfield, Edward D., and Reinhardt, Eric. 2008b. ‘International Institutions and the Volatility of International Trade.’ International Organization 62:621–52.
Reinhardt, Eric. 2002. ‘Tying Hands without a Rope: Rational Domestic Response to International Institutional Constraints.’ In Locating the Proper Authorities: The Interaction of Domestic and International Institutions, edited by Daniel Drezner, 77–104. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Rodrik, Dani. 1997. Has Globalization Gone Too Far?Washington, DC: Peterson Institute.
Rosendorff, B. Peter. 2005. ‘Stability and Rigidity: Politics and the Design of the WTO’s Dispute Resolution Procedure.’ American Political Science Review 99:389–400.
Rosendorff, B. Peter, and Milner, Helen V. 2001. ‘The Optimal Design of International Institutions: Uncertainty and Escape.’ International Organization 55:829–57.
Rudra, Nita. 2002. ‘Globalization and the Decline of the Welfare State in Less-Developed Countries.’ International Organization 56:411–45.
Rudra, Nita 2004. ‘Openness, Welfare Spending, and Inequality in the Developing World.’ International Studies Quarterly 48:683–709.
Scheve, Kenneth, and Slaughter, Matthew J. 2004. ‘Economic Insecurity and the Globalization of Production.’ American Journal of Political Science 48:662–74.
Smith, James McCall. 2000. ‘The Politics of Dispute Settlement Design: Explaining Legalism in Regional Trade Pacts.’ International Organization 54:137–80.
Traca, Daniel A. 2005. ‘Trade Exposure, Export Intensity, and Wage Volatility: Theory and Evidence.’ Review of Economics and Statistics 87:336–47.
Zanardi, Maurizio. 2004. ‘Antidumping Law as a Collusive Device.’ Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d’Economique 37:95–122.

References

Bagwell, Kyle, and Staiger, Robert W. 2011. ‘What Do Trade Negotiators Negotiate About? Empirical Evidence from the World Trade Organization.’ American Economic Review 101 (4): 1238–73.
Blonigen, Bruce A. 2005. ‘The Effects of NAFTA on Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Activity.’ World Bank Economic Review 19 (3): 407–24.
Bown, Chad P. 2010. ‘China’s WTO Entry: Antidumping, Safeguards, and Dispute Settlement.’ In China’s Growing Role in World Trade, edited by Robert C. Feenstra and Shang-Jin Wei, 281–337. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bown, Chad P.. 2011. ‘Taking Stock of Antidumping, Safeguards and Countervailing Duties, 1990–2009.’ World Economy 34 (12): 1955–98.
Bown, Chad P.. 2013a. ‘Emerging Economies and the Emergence of South–South Protectionism.’ Journal of World Trade 47 (1): 1–44.
Bown, Chad P.. 2013b. ‘How Different Are Safeguards from Antidumping? Evidence from U.S. Trade Policies Toward Steel.’ Review of Industrial Organization 42 (4): 449–81.
Bown, Chad P.. 2013c. ‘Temporary Trade Barriers Database.’ World Bank. http://econ.worldbank.org/ttbd/. Accessed 15 June 2013.
Bown, Chad P.. Forthcoming. ‘Trade Policy Flexibilities and Turkey: Tariffs, Antidumping, Safeguards, and WTO Dispute Settlement.’ World Economy.
Bown, Chad P., and Crowley, Meredith A. 2013a. ‘Import Protection, Business Cycles, and Exchange Rates: Evidence from the Great Recession.’ Journal of International Economics 90 (1): 50–64.
Bown, Chad P., and Crowley, Meredith A.. 2013b. ‘Self-Enforcing Trade Agreements: Evidence from Time-Varying Trade Policy.’ American Economic Review 103 (2): 1071–90.
Bown, Chad P., and Tovar, Patricia. 2011. ‘Trade Liberalization, Antidumping, and Safeguards: Evidence from India’s Tariff Reform.’ Journal of Development Economics 96 (1): 115–25.
Bown, Chad P., and Wu, Mark. Forthcoming. ‘Safeguards and the Perils of Preferential Trade Agreements: Dominican Republic – Safeguard Measures.’ World Trade Review.
Broda, Christian, Limão, Nuno, and Weinstein, David E. 2008. ‘Optimal Tariffs and Market Power: The Evidence.’ American Economic Review 98 (5): 2032–65.
Calvo-Pardo, Hector, Freund, Caroline, and Ornelas, Emanuel. 2011. ‘The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: Impact on Trade Flows and External Trade Barriers.’ In Costs and Benefits of Economic Integration in Asia, edited by Robert J. Barro and Jong-Wha Lee, 157–86. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Estevadeordal, Antoni, Freund, Caroline, and Ornelas, Emanuel. 2008. ‘Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization toward Non-Members?Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (4): 1531–75.
Freund, Caroline, and Ornelas, Emanuel. 2010. ‘Regional Trade Agreements.’ Annual Review of Economics 2 (1): 139–66.
Hoekman, Bernard M., and Kostecki, Michael. 2009. The Political Economy of the World Trading System: The WTO and Beyond. 3rd edn. New York: Oxford University Press.
Karacaovali, Baybars. 2011. ‘Turkey: Temporary Trade Barriers as Resistance to Trade Liberalisation with the European Union?’ In The Great Recession and Import Protection: The Role of Temporary Trade Barriers, edited by Chad P. Bown, 367–410. London: CEPR and World Bank.
Karacaovali, Baybars. 2013. ‘Trade Policy Determinants and Trade Reform in a Developing Country: The Case of Colombia.’ University of Hawaii at Manoa Working Paper. University of Hawaii, Manoa.
Karacaovali, Baybars, and Limão, Nuno. 2008. ‘The Clash of Liberalizations: Preferential vs. Multilateral Trade Liberalization in the European Union.’ Journal of International Economics 74 (2): 299–327.
Limão, Nuno. 2006. ‘Preferential Trade Agreements as Stumbling Blocks for Multilateral Trade Liberalization: Evidence for the U.S.’ American Economic Review 96 (3): 896–914.
Limão, Nuno. 2007. ‘Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-Trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?’ Review of Economic Studies 74 (3): 821–55.
Limão, Nuno, and Tovar, Patricia. 2011. ‘Policy Choice: Theory and Evidence from Commitment via International Trade Agreements.’ Journal of International Economics 85 (2): 186–205.
Ludema, Rodney, and Mayda, Anna Maria. Forthcoming. ‘Do Terms-of-Trade Effects Matter for Trade Agreements? Theory and Evidence from WTO Countries.’ Quarterly Journal of Economics.
Mavroidis, Petros C., Messerlin, Patrick A., and Wauters, Jasper M. 2008. The Law and Economics of Contingent Protection in the WTO. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Messerlin, Patrick A. 2004. ‘China in the World Trade Organization: Antidumping and Safeguards.’ World Bank Economic Review 18 (1): 105–30.
Panagariya, Arvind. 2000. ‘Preferential Trade Liberalization: The Traditional Theory and New Developments.’ Journal of Economic Literature 38 (2): 287–331.
Pauwelyn, Joost. 2004. ‘The Puzzle of WTO Safeguards and Regional Trade Agreements,’ Journal of International Economic Law 7 (1): 109–42.
Prusa, Thomas J. 2011. ‘Trade Remedy Provisions.’ In Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development, edited by Jean-Pierre Chauffour and Jean-Christophe Maur, 179–96. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Prusa, Thomas J., and Teh, Robert. 2010. ‘Protection Reduction and Diversion: PTAs and the Incidence of Antidumping Disputes.’ NBER Working Paper No. 16276. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Prusa, Thomas J., and Teh, Robert. 2011. ‘Contingent Protection Rules in Regional Trade Agreements.’ In Preferential Trade Agreements, edited by Kyle Bagwell and Petros C. Mavroidis, 60–114. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Teh, Robert, Prusa, Thomas J., and Budetta, Michele. 2009. ‘Trade Remedy Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements.’ In Regional Rules in the Global Trading System, edited by Antoni Estevadeordal, Kati Suominen and Robert Teh, 166–249. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tovar, Patricia. 2012. ‘Preferential Trade Agreements and Unilateral Liberalization: Evidence from CAFTA.’ World Trade Review 11 (4): 591–619.
Vandenbussche, Hylke, and Zanardi, Maurizio. 2008. ‘What Explains the Proliferation of Antidumping Laws?Economic Policy 23 (1): 98–103.
Viner, Jacob. 1950. The Customs Union Issue. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
World Trade Organization. 2003. United States – Definitive Safeguard Measures on Imports of Certain Steel Products: Final Reports of the Panel. WT/DS248/R. www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds248_e.htm.
World Trade Organization. 2013. ‘Regional Trade Agreements.’ http://wto.org/english/tratop_e/region_e/region_e.htm. Accessed 19 September 2013.