Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

2 - Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) States: Mechanisms and Metacognitive Control


Bacon, E., Schwartz, B. L., Paire-Ficout, L., & Izaute, M. (2007). Dissociation between the cognitive process and the phenomenological experience of the TOT: Effect of the anxiolytic drug lorazepam on TOT states. Cognition and Consciousness, 16, 360373.
Biedermann, B., Ruh, N., Nickels, L., & Coltheart, M. (2008). Information retrieval in tip of the tongue states: New data and methodological advances. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 37, 171198.
Botvinick, M. (2007). Conflict monitoring and decision making: Reconciling two perspectives on anterior cingulate function. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356366.
Brennen, T., Vikan, R., & Dybdahl, R. (2007). Are tip-of-the-tongue states universal? Evidence from an unwritten language. Memory, 15, 167176.
Brown, A. S. (1991). A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 204223.
Brown, A. S. (2003). A review of the déjà vu experience. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 394413.
Brown, A. S. (2012). Tip of the tongue state. Psychology Press.
Brown, A. S., & Nix, L. A. (1996). Age differences in the tip-of-the-tongue experience. American Journal of Psychology, 109, 7991.
Brown, R., & McNeill, D. (1966). The “tip of the tongue” phenomenon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Behavior, 5, 325337.
Cleary, A. M. (2006). Relating familiarity-based recognition and the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Detecting a word’s recency in the absence of access to the word. Memory & Cognition, 34, 804816.
Cleary, A. M., Brown, A. S., Sawyer, B. D., Nomi, J. S., Ajoku, A. C., & Ryals, A. J. (2012). Familiarity from the configuration of objects in 3-dimensional space and its relation to déjà vu: A virtual reality investigation. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 969975.
Cleary, A. M., Konkel, K. E., Nomi, J. S., & McCabe, D. P. (2010). Odor recognition without identification. Memory & Cognition, 38, 452460.
Costall, A. (2006). “Introspectionism” and the mythical origins of scientific psychology. Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 634654.
Dahlgren, D. J. (1998). Impact of knowledge and age on tip-of-the-tongue rates. Experimental Aging Research, 24, 139153.
Galdo-Álvarez, S., Lindín, M., & Díaz, F. (2009). The effect of age on event-related potentials (ERP) associated with face naming and the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state. Biological Psychology, 81, 1423.
Gollan, T. H., & Acenas, L. A. (2004). What is a TOT?: Cognate and translation effects on tip-of-the-tongue states in Spanish-English and Tagalog-English bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30, 246269.
Gollan, T. H., & Brown, A. S. (2006). From tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) data to theoretical implications in two steps: When more TOTs means better retrieval. Journalof Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 462483.
Hamberger, M. J., & Seidel, W. T. (2003). Auditory and visual naming tests: Normative and patient data for accuracy, response time, and tip-of-the-tongue. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 479489.
Hanley, J. R., & Chapman, E. (2008). Partial knowledge in a tip of the tongue state about two and three word proper names. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 156–160.
Hanly, S., & Vandenberg, B. (2010). Tip-of-the-tongue and word retrieval deficits in dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 1523.
Harley, T. A., & Bown, H. E. (1998). What causes a tip-of-the-tongue state? Evidence for lexical neighbourhood effects in speech production. British Journal of Psychology, 89, 151174.
Hazy, T. E., Frank, M. J., & O’Reilly, R. C. (2007). Toward an executive without a homunculus: Computational models of the prefrontal cortex/basal ganglia system. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 362, 16011613.
Heine, M. K., Ober, B. A., & Shenaut, G. K. (1999). Naturally occurring and experimentally induced tip-of-the-tongue experiences in three adult age groups. Psychology and Aging, 14, 445457.
James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.
Jönsson, F. U., & Olsson, M. J. (2003). Olfactory metacognition. Chemical Senses, 28, 651658.
Koriat, A. (1993). How do we know that we know? The accessibility account of the feeling of knowing. Psychological Review, 100, 609639.
Koriat, A. (1995). Dissociating knowing and the feeling of knowing: Further evidence for the accessibility model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124, 311333.
Koriat, A. (2012). The self-consistency model of subjective confidence. Psychological Review, 119, 80113.
Koriat, A., & Lieblich, I. (1974). What does a person in a “TOT” state know that a person in a “don’t know” state doesn’t know?Memory & Cognition, 2, 647655.
Koriat, A., & Lieblich, I. (1977). A study of memory pointers. Acta Psychologica, 41, 151164.
Kornell, N., & Metcalfe, J. (2006). “Blockers” do not block recall during tip-of-the-tongue states. Metacognition & Learning, 1, 248261.
Lesk, V. E., & Womble, S. P. (2004). Caffeine, priming and tip of the tongue: Evidence for plasticity in the phonological system. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 453461.
Litman, J. A., Hutchins, T. L., & Russon, R. K. (2005). Epistemic curiosity, feeling-of-knowing, and exploratory behaviour. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 559582.
Maril, A., Simons, J. S., Weaver, J. J., & Schacter, D. L. (2005). Graded recall success: An event-related fMRI comparison of tip of the tongue and feeling of knowing. NeuroImage, 24, 11301138.
Maril, A., Wagner, A. D., & Schacter, D. L. (2001). On the tip of the tongue: An event-related fMRI study of semantic retrieval failure and cognitive conflict. Neuron, 31, 653660.
Metcalfe, J.(1993). Novelty monitoring, metacognition, and control in a composite holographic associative recall model: Interpretations for Korsakoff amnesia. Psychological Review, 100, 3–22.
Metcalfe, J., Schwartz, B. L., & Joaquim, S. G. (1993). The cue familiarity heuristic in metacognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 851861.
Miozzo, M., & Caramazza, A. (1997). Retrieval of lexical-syntactic features in tip-of-the-tongue states. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 23, 14101423.
Perfect, T. J., & Hanley, J. R. (1992). The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Do experimenter-presented interlopers have any effect?Cognition, 45, 5575.
Postman, L., & Underwood, B. J. (1973). Critical issues in interference theory. Memory & Cognition, 1, 1940.
Ryan, M. P., Petty, C. R., & Wenzlaff, R. M. (1982). Motivated remembering efforts during tip-of-the-tongue states. Acta Psychologica, 51, 137147.
Schwartz, B. L. (1999). Sparkling at the end of the tongue: The etiology of tip-of-the-tongue phenomenology. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 6, 379393.
Schwartz, B. L. (2001). The relation of tip-of-the-tongue states and retrieval time. Memory & Cognition, 29, 117126.
Schwartz, B. L. (2006). Tip-of-the-tongue states as metacognition. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 149158.
Schwartz, B. L. (2008). Working memory load differentially affects tip-of-the-tongue states and feeling-of-knowing judgment. Memory & Cognition, 36, 919.
Schwartz, B. L., & Frazier, L. D. (2005). Tip-of-the-tongue states and aging: Contrasting psycholinguistic and metacognitive perspectives. Journal of General Psychology, 132, 377391.
Schwartz, B. L., & Metcalfe, J. (2011). Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states: Retrieval, behavior, and experience. Memory & Cognition, 39, 737–749.
Schwartz, B. L. & Smith, S. M. (1997). The retrieval of related information influences tip-of-the tongue states. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 6886.
Shimamura, A. P. (2008). A neurocognitive approach to metacognitive monitoring and control. In J. Dunlosky & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), Handbook of memory and metamemory: Essays in honor of Thomas O. Nelson (pp. 373390). New York: Psychology Press.
Simner, J., & Ward, J. (2006). The taste of words on the tip of the tongue. Nature, 444, 438438.
Smith, S. M. (1994). Frustrated feelings of imminent recall: On the tip-of-the tongue. In J. Metcalfe & A. P. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 2746). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Thompson, R., Emmorey, K., & Gollan, T. (2005) Tip-of-the-fingers experiences by ASL signers: Insights into the organization of a sign-based lexicon. Psychological Science, 16, 856860.
Tulving, E. (1989). Memory: Performance, knowledge, and experience. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1, 326.
Warriner, A. B., & Humphreys, K. R. (2008). Learning to fail: Reoccurring tip-of-the-tongue states. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 535542.
Woodworth, R. S. (1931). Contemporary schools of psychology. London: Methuen & Co.