Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 5
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

5 - The Effect of Tip-of-the-Tongue States on Other Cognitive Judgments


Brown, A. S. (1991). A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 204223.
Brown, R., & McNeill, D. (1966). The “tip of the tongue” phenomenon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5, 325337.
Chang, K. K., Mitchell, T., & Just, M. A. (2011). Quantitative modeling of the neural representation of objects: How semantic feature norms can account for fMRI activation. Neuroimage, 56, 716727.
Clark, S. E., & Gronlund, S. D. (1996). Global matching models of recognition memory: How the models match the data. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 3760.
Cleary, A. M. (2006). Relating familiarity-based recognition and the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Detecting a word’s recency in the absence of access to the word. Memory & Cognition, 34, 804816.
Cleary, A. M. (2014). The sense of recognition during retrieval failure: Implications for the nature of memory traces. In B. H. Ross’s Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Volume 60. Elsevier.
Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2000). Recognition without identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 10631069.
Cleary, A. M., (2001). Memory for unidentified items: Evidence for the use of letter information in familiarity processes. Memory & Cognition, 29, 540545.
Cleary, A. M., (2004). True and false memory in the absence of perceptual identification. Memory, 12, 231236.
Cleary, A. M., (2005). Recognition without perceptual identification: A measure of familiarity?Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 1143–1152.
Cleary, A. M., Konkel, K. E., Nomi, J. N., & McCabe, D. P. (2010). Odor recognition without identification. Memory & Cognition, 38, 452460.
Cleary, A. M., & Reyes, N. L. (2009). Scene recognition without identification. Acta Psychologia, 131, 5362.
Cleary, A. M., Ryals, A. J., & Nomi, J. (2009). Can déjà vu result from similarity to a prior experience? Support for the similarity hypothesis of déjà vu. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 10821088.
Cleary, A. M., Ryals, A. J., & Wagner, S. R. (2014). Semantic recognition without cued recall: Semantic feature matching as a basis for recognition of semantic cues when recall fails. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Cleary, A. M., & Specker, L. E. (2007). Recognition without face identification. Memory & Cognition, 35, 16101619.
Gilovich, T., Griffin, D., & Kahneman, D. (2002). Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment. Cambridge University Press.
Harrison, T., & Cleary, A. M. (2008, April). Getting an Earful. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association. Boise, ID.
Jaramillo, N., & Cleary, A. M. (2006, August). Song Recognition with TOT Experiences. Poster presented at the Annual REU Banquet for the Summer Program on Mind and Brain at Colorado State University.
Koriat, A., & Levy-Sadot, R. (2001). The combined contributions of the cue-familiarity and accessibility heuristics to feelings of knowing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 3453.
Metcalfe, J., Schwartz, B. L., & Joaquim, S. G. (1993). The cue-familiarity heuristic in metacognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 851861.
Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1980). Norms of 300 general-information questions: Accuracy of recall, latency of recall, and feeling-of-knowing ratings. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 338368.
Nomi, J. S., & Cleary, A. M. (2012). Judgments for inaccessible targets: Comparing recognition without identification and the feeling of knowing. Memory & Cognition.
Rastle, K. G., & Burke, D. M. (1996). Priming the tip of the tongue: Effects of prior processing on word retrieval in young and older adults. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 586605.
Ryals, A. J., & Cleary, A. M. (2012). The recognition without cued recall phenomenon: Support for a feature-matching theory over a partial recollection account. Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 747762.
Schwartz, B. L. (2001). The relation of tip-of-the-tongue states and retrieval time. Memory & Cognition, 29, 117126.
Schwartz, B. L.(2002). Tip-of-the-tongue states: Phenomenology, mechanism, and lexical retrieval. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schwartz, B. L. (2011). The effect of being in a tip-of-the-tongue state on subsequent items. Memory & Cognition, 39, 245250.
Schwartz, B. L., & Metcalfe, J. (2011). Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states: Retrieval, behavior and experience. Memory & Cognition, 39, 737749.
Schwartz, B. L., & Smith, S. (1997). The retrieval of related information influences tip-of-the-tongue states. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 6886.
Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 207232.
Tversky, A., (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 11241131.