Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: August 2011

11 - Flame retardant polymer nanocomposites with fullerenes as filler

from Part II - Flame retardancy

Summary

Background

Organic polymers are rapidly and increasingly taking the place of traditional inorganic and metallic materials in various fields owing to their excellent properties, such as low density, resistance to erosion, and ease of processing. However, organic polymers are inherently flammable; their use can cause the occurrence of large fires and, consequently, loss of lives and properties. Thus, enhancing the flame retardancy of these organic polymers is becoming more and more imperative with their wider application, especially in fields such as electronics where high flame retardancy is required.

For traditional flame retardants, on one hand, a very high loading is usually needed to meet flame retardancy demands, which can lead to the deterioration of mechanical properties; on the other hand, utilization of flame retardants can cause environmental problems.

References
Kashiwagi, T.Du, F.Winey, K. I.Doulas, J. F.Winey, K. I.Harris, R. H.Shields, J. R.Nanoparticle networks reduce the flammability of polymer nanocompositesNature Materials 4 2005 928
Bourbigot, S.Duquesne, S.Leroy, J. M.Modeling of heat transfer of a polypropylene-based intumescent system during combustionJournal of Fire Sciences 17 1999 42
Pandey, J. K.Reddy, K. R.Kumar, A. P.Singh, R. P.An overview on the degradability of polymer nanocompositesPolymer Degradation and Stability 88 2005 234
Giannelis, E.Polymer layered silicate nanocompositesAdvanced Materials 8 1996 29
Zhu, J.Wilkie, C. A.Thermal and fire studies on polystyrene–clay nanocompositesPolymer International 49 2000 1158
Morgan, A. B.Flame retarded polymer layered silicate nanocomposites: A review of commercial and open literature systemsPolymers for Advanced Technologies 17 2006 206
Ma, H. Y.Tong, L.Xu, Z. B.Fang, Z. P.Clay network in ABS-graft-MAH nanocomposites: Rheology and flammabilityPolymer Degradation and Stability 92 2007 1439
Kashiwagi, T.Gruke, E.Hilding, J.Groth, K.Harris, R.Butler, K.Shields, J.Kharchenko, S.Douglas, J.Thermal and flammability properties of polypropylene/carbon nanotube nanocompositesPolymer 45 2004 4227
Kashiwagi, T.Gruke, E.Hilding, J.Groth, K.Harris, R.Awad, W.Douglas, J.Thermal degradation and flammability properties of poly (propylene)/carbon nanotube compositesMacromolecular Rapid Communications 23 2002 761
Kashiwagi, T.Du, F.Winey, K. I.Groth, K. M.Shields, J.Bellayer, S. P.Kim, H.Douglas, J. F.Flammability properties of polymer nanocomposites with single-walled carbon nanotubes: Effects of nanotube dispersion and concentrationPolymer 45 2005 471
Ma, H.Tong, L.Xu, Z. B.Fang, Z. P.Synergistic effect of carbon nanotube and clay for improving the flame retardancy of ABS resinNanotechnology 18 2007 1
Ma, H. Y.Tong, L. F.Xu, Z. B.Fang, Z. P.Functionalizing carbon nanotubes by grafting on intumescent flame retardant: Nanocomposite synthesis, morphology, rheology, and flammabilityAdvanced Functional Materials 18 2008 414
Ye, L.Ding, P.Zhang, M.Qu, B. J.Synergistic effects of exfoliated LDH with some halogen-free flame retardants in LDPE/EVA/HFMH/LDH nanocompositesJournal of Applied Polymer Science107 2009
Zhang, M.Ding, P.Qu, B. J.Flammable, thermal, and mechanical properties of intumescent flame retardant PP/LDH nanocomposites with different divalent cationsPolymer Composites 30 2009 1000
Jiao, C. M.Wang, Z. Z.Chen, X. L.Hu, Y.Synthesis of a magnesium/aluminum/iron layered double hydroxide and its flammability characteristics in halogen-free, flame-retardant ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer compositesJournal of Applied Polymer Science 107 2007 2626
Ramaraj, B.Yoon, K.-R.Thermal and physicomechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and layered double hydroxide compositesJournal of Applied Polymer Science 108 2008 4090
Song, P. A.Zhu, Y.Tong, L. F.Fang, Z. P.C60 reduces the flammability of polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ forming gelled-ball networkNanotechnology 19 2008 1
Fang, Z. P.Song, P. A.Tong, L. F.Guo, Z. H.Thermal degradation and flame retardancy of polypropylene/C60 nanocompositesThermochimica Acta 473 2008 106
Song, P. A.Liu, H.Shen, Y.Du, B. X.Fang, Z. P.Fabrication of dendrimer-like fullerene (C60) decorated oligomeric intumescent flame retardant for reducing the thermal oxidation and flammability of polypropylene nanocompositesJournal of Materials Chemistry19 2009
Song, P. A.Shen, Y.Du, B. X.Guo, Z. H.Fang, Z. P.Fabrication of fullerence decorated carbon nanotubes and its application in flame retarding polypropyleneNanoscale 1 2009 118
Zhu, L. W.Wu, D. H.Xu, D. C.Carbon NanotubeBeijingChina Machine Press 2003
Zanetti, M.Camino, P.Reichert, P.Mülhaupt, R.Thermal behaviour of poly (propylene) layered silicate nanocompositesMacromolecular Rapid Communications 22 2001 176
Troitskii, B. B.Troitskaja, L. S.Yakhnov, A. S.Lopatin, M. A.Novikova, M. A.Retardation of thermal degradation of PMMA and PVC by C60European Polymer Journal 33 1997 1587
Troitskii, B. B.Troitskaja, L. S.Dmitriev, A. A.Yakhnov, A. S.Inhibition of thermo-oxidative degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene by C60European Polymer Journal 36 2000 1073
Su, S. P.Jiang, D. D.Wilkie, C. A.Poly(methyl methacrylate), polypropylene and polyethylene nanocomposite formation by melt blending using novel polymerically-modified claysPolymer Degradation and Stability 83 2004 321
Zhang, J. G.Jiang, D. D.Wilkie, C. A.Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites based on a three component oligomerically-modified clayPolymer Degradation and Stability 91 2006 641
Kharchenko, S. B.Douglas, J. F.Obrzut, J.Grulke, E. A.Migler, K. B.Flow-induced properties of nanotube-filled polymer materialsNature Materials 3 2004 564
Treece, M. A.Oberhauser, J. P.Soft glassy dynamics in polypropylene − clay nanocompositesMacromolecules 40 2007 571
Rohlmann, C. O.Failla, M. D.Quinzani, L. M.Linear viscoelasticity and structure of polypropylene–montmorillonite nanocompositesPolymer 47 2006 7795
Krusic, P. J.Wasserman, E.Keizer, P. N.Morton, J. R.Preston, K. F.Radical reactions of C60Science 22 1991 1183
Krätschmer, W.Fostiropoulos, K.Huffman, D. R.The infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectra of laboratory-produced carbon dust: Evidence for the presence of the C60 moleculeChemical Physics Letters 170 1990 167
Wu, Z. C.Jelski, D. A.George, T. F.Vibrational motions of buckminsterfullereneChemical Physics Letters 137 1987 291
Weeks, D. E.Harter, W. G.Rotation–vibration spectra of icosahedral molecules. II. Icosahedral symmetry, vibrational eigenfrequencies, and normal modes of buckminsterfullereneJournal of Chemical Physics 90 1989 4744
Zhang, J. B.Lodge, T. P.Macosko, C. W.Interfacial morphology development during PS/PMMA reactive couplingMacromolecules 38 2005 6586
Neto, C.Craig, V. S.Colloid probe characterization: Radius and roughness determinationLangmuir 17 2001 2097
Gan, L. B.Huang, S.Zhang, H. X.Zhang, A. X.Cheng, B. C.Cheng, H.Li, X. L.Shang, G.Fullerenes as a -butylperoxy radical trap, metal catalyzed reaction of -butyl hydroperoxide with fullerenes, and formation of the first fullerene mixed peroxides C60(O)(OOBu)4 and C70(OOBu)10Journal of the American Chemistry Society 124 2002 13
Tang, B. Z.Leung, S. M.Peng, H.Yu, N. T.Direct fullerenation of polycarbonate via simple polymer reactionsMacromolecules 30 1997 2848
Cao, T.Webber, S. E.Free radical copolymerization of styrene and C60Macromolecules 29 1996 3826
Song, P. A.Fang, Z. P.Tong, L. F.Xu, Z. B.Synthesis of a novel oligomeric intumescent flame retardant and its application in polypropylenePolymer Engineering and Science 49 2009 1326
Song, P. A.Fang, Z. P.Tong, L. F.Jin, Y. M.Lu, F. Z.Effects of metal chelates on a novel oligomeric intumescent flame retardant system for polypropyleneJournal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 82 2008 286
Sahoo, R. R.Patnaik, A.Surface confined self-assembled fullerene nanoclusters: A microscopic studyApplied Surface Science 245 2005 26
Zhu, Y. F.Yi, T.Zheng, B.Cao, L. L.The interaction of C60 fullerene and carbon nanotube with Ar ion beamApplied Surface Science 137 1999 83
Onoe, J.Nakao, A.Takeuchi, K.XPS study of a photopolymerized C60 filmPhysical Review B 55 1997
Qian, L.Norin, L.Guo, J.-H.Såthe, C.Agui, A.Jansson, U.Nordgren, J.Formation of titanium fulleride studied by X-ray spectroscopiesPhysical Review B 59 1999
Delobel, RLe Bras, M.Ouassou, N.Alistiqsa, F.Thermal behaviours of ammonium polyphosphate–pentaerythritol and ammonium pyrophosphate–pentaerythritol intumescent additives in polypropylene formulationsJournal of Fire Sciences 8 1990 85
Kandola, B. K.Horrocks, A. R.Myler, P.Blair, D.The effect of intumescents on the burning behaviour of polyester-resin-containing compositesComposites, Part A 33 2002 805
Beyer, G.Short communication: Carbon nanotubes as flame retardants for polymersFire and Materials 26 2002 291
Beyer, G.Organoclays as flame retardants for PVCFire and Materials 29 2005 61
Bourbigot, S.Duquesne, S.Jama, C.Polymer nanocomposites: How to reach low flammability?Macromolecular Symposia 233 2006 180
Moniruzzaman, M.Winey, K. I.Carbon nanotubes reinforced nylon-6 composite prepared by simple melt-compoundingMacromolecules 39 2006 5194
Costache, M. C.Wang, D. Y.Heidecker, M. J.Manias, E.Wilkie, C. A.The thermal degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites with montmorillonite, layered double hydroxides and carbon nanotubesPolymers for Advanced Technologies 17 2006 272
Schartel, B.Potschke, P.Knoll, U.Abdel-Goad, M.Fire behaviour of polyamide 6/multiwall carbon nanotube nanocompositesEuropean Polymer Journal 41 2005 1061
Marosfoi, B. B.Marosi, G. J.Szep, A.Anna, P.Keszei, S.Nagy, B. J.Martvona, H.Sajo, I. E.Complex activity of clay and CNT particles in flame retarded EVA copolymerPolymers for Advanced Technologies 17 2006 255
Ma, P. C.Kim, J. K.Tang, B. Z.Functionalization of carbon nanotubes using a silane coupling agentCarbon 44 2006 3232
Wu, W.Zhu, H. R.Fan, L. Z.Yang, S. H.Synthesis and characterization of a grapevine nanostructure consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes with covalently attached [60]fullerene ballsChemistry – A European Journal 14 2008 5981
Guldi, D. M.Menna, E.Maggini, M.Marcaccio, M.Paolucci, D.Paolucci, F.Campidelli, S.Prato, M.Aminur Rahman, G. M.Schergna, S.Supramolecular hybrids of [60]fullerene and single-wall carbon nanotubesChemistry – A European Journal 12 2006 3975
Delgado, J. L.Cruz, P. D. L.Urbina, A.Navarrete, J. T. L.Casado, J.Langa, F.The first synthesis of a conjugated hybrid of C60–fullerene and a single-wall carbon nanotubeCarbon 45 2007 2250
Kashiwagi, T.Mu, M. F.Winey, K.Cipriano, B.Raghavan, S. R.Pack, S.Rafailovich, M.Grulke, E.Shields, J.Harris, R.Douglas, J.Relation between the viscoelastic and flammability properties of polymer nanocompositesPolymer 49 2008 4358