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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: September 2014

Chapter 12 - Subarachnoid hemorrhage

from Section 3 - Diagnostics and syndromes


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33. Huang AP, Arora S, Wintermark M, et al. Perfusion computed tomographic imaging and surgical selection with patients after poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 2010; 67(4):964–74; discussion 975.
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49. Hunt WE, Hess RM. Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg 1968; 28(1):14–20.
50. Teasdale GM, Drake CG, Hunt W, et al. A universal subarachnoid hemorrhage scale: report of a committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988; 51(11):1457.
51. van Heuven AW, Dorhout Mees SM, Algra A, Rinkel GJ. Validation of a prognostic subarachnoid hemorrhage grading scale derived directly from the Glasgow Coma Scale. Stroke 2008; 39:1347–8.
52. Perry JJ, Stiell IG, Sivilotti ML, et al. Sensitivity of computed tomography performed within six hours of onset of headache for diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2011; 343:d4277.
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54. Frontera JA, Claassen J, Schmidt JM, et al. Prediction of symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: the modified Fisher scale. Neurosurgery 2006; 59(1):21–7; discussion 21–7.
55. Claassen J, Bernardini GL, Kreiter K, et al. Effect of cisternal and ventricular blood on risk of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage; the Fisher scale revisited. Stroke 2001; 32(9):2012–20.
56. Mitchell P, Wilkinson ID, Hoggard N, et al. Detection of subarachnoid haemorrhage with magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001; 70(2):205–11.
57. Anzalone N, Triulzi F, Scotti G. Acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: 3D time-of-flight MR angiography versus intra-arterial digital angiography. Neuroradiology 1995; 37(4):257–61.
58. Horikoshi T, Fukamachi A, Nishi H, Fukasawa I. Detection of intracranial aneurysms by three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Neuroradiology 1994; 36(3):203–7.
59. Huston J 3rd, Nichols DA, Luetmer PH, et al. Blinded prospective evaluation of sensitivity of MR angiography to known intracranial aneurysms: importance of aneurysm size. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1994; 15(9):1607–14.
60. Schuierer G, Huk WJ, Laub G. Magnetic resonance angiography of intracranial aneurysms: comparison with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography. Neuroradiology 1992; 35(1):50–4.
61. Alberico RA, Ozsvath R, Casey S, Patel M. Helical CT angiography for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996; 17(5):1002–3.
62. Alberico RA, Patel M, Casey S, et al. Evaluation of the circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in patients with suspected intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995; 16(8):1571–8; discussion 1579–80.
63. Ogawa T, Okudera T, Noguchi K, et al. Cerebral aneurysms: evaluation with three-dimensional CT angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1996; 17(3):447–54.
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65. Perry JJ, Sivilotti ML, Stiell IG, et al. Should spectrophotometry be used to identify xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid of alert patients suspected of having subarachnoid hemorrhage? Stroke 2006; 37(10):2467–72.
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Further reading

Barth M, Capelle HH, Weidhauser S, et al. Effect of nicardipine prolonged-release implants on cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome after severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective, randomized, double-blind phase IIa study. Stroke 2007; 38(2):330–6.
Feigin VL, Lawes CM, Bennett DA, Barker-Collo SL, Parag V. Worldwide stroke incidence and early case fatality reported in 56 population-based studies: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8(4):355–69.
Frontera JA, Fernandez A, Schmidt JM, et al. Defining vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: what is the most clinically relevant definition? Stroke 2009; 40(6):1963–8.
Raabe A, Beck J, Berkefeld J, et al. Recommendations for the management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Zentralbl Neurochir 2005; 66:79–91.
Report of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Committee on a Universal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Grading Scale. J Neurosurg 1988; 68(6):985–6.
Rinkel GJE, Feigin VL, Algra A, et al. Circulatory volume expansion therapy for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 4:CD000483.
Rosengart AJ, Schultheiss KE, Tolentino J, Macdonald RL. Prognostic factors for outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 2007; 38(8):2315–21.
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