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This chapter describes the current knowledge on the pathogenesis, the clinical symptoms, and deficits and current therapy concepts during the acute disease state and for rehabilitation including long-term impairment of activities of daily living. It focuses on rehabilitation of patients with diseases of the motor neuron like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and polio. Rehabilitation in polio and post-polio patients is aimed at improving muscle strength, lowering muscle and joint pain, increasing physical independence and quality of life not only of the patient but also of the caregiver. The chapter also explains the rehabilitation of patients with diseases of the peripheral nervous system, especially acute and chronic inflammatory polyneuropathies Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and other neuropathies. Finally, it also discusses diseases of the neuromuscular junction (myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS)).