Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter 3 - Genetics in neurorehabilitation

from Section 1 - Technology of neurorehabilitation: outcome measurement and diagnostic technology

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. Cramer S, Bastings E. Mapping clinically relevant plasticity after stroke. Neuropharmacology 2000; 39: 842–51.
2. Frost S, Barbay S, Friel K, et al. Reorganization of remote cortical regions after ischemic brain injury: a potential substrate for stroke recovery. J Neurophysiol 2003; 89: 3205–14.
3. Rossini PM, Calautti C, Pauri F, et al. Post-stroke plastic reorganisation in the adult brain. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2: 493–502.
4. Takahashi CD, Der Yeghiaian L, Cramer SC. Stroke recovery and its imaging. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2005; 15: 681–95.
5. Ward NS, Cohen LG. Mechanisms underlying recovery of motor function after stroke. Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 1844–8.
6. Cramer SC. Repairing the human brain after stroke. I. Mechanisms of spontaneous recovery. Ann Neurol 2008; 63: 272–87.
7. Kleim JA, Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2008; 51: S225–39.
8. Nudo RJ. Plasticity. NeuroRx 2006; 3: 420–7.
9. Wang L, McLeod HL, Weinshilboum RM. Genomics and drug response. New Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1144–53.
10. Levine ES, Dreyfus CF, Black IB, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rapidly enhances synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons via postsynaptic tyrosine kinase receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 8074–7.
11. Lu B. BDNF and activity-dependent synaptic modulation. Learn Mem 2003; 10: 86–98.
12. Lohof AM, Ip NY, Poo MM. Potentiation of developing neuromuscular synapses by the neurotrophins NT-3 and BDNF. Nature 1993; 363: 350–3.
13. Lessmann V. Neurotrophin-dependent modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the mammalian CNS. Gen Pharmacol 1998; 31: 667–74.
14. Kang H, Schuman EM. Long-lasting neurotrophin-induced enhancement of synaptic transmission in the adult hippocampus. Science 1995; 267: 1658–62.
15. Messaoudi E, Bardsen K, Srebro B, et al. Acute intrahippocampal infusion of BDNF induces lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the rat dentate gyrus. J Neurophysiol 1998; 79: 496–9.
16. Desai NS, Rutherford LC, Turrigiano GG. BDNF regulates the intrinsic excitability of cortical neurons. Learn Mem 1999; 6: 284–91.
17. Lu B, Chow A. Neurotrophins and hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. J Neurosci Res 1999; 58: 76–87.
18. Huang EJ, Reichardt LF. Neurotrophins: roles in neuronal development and function. Annu Rev Neurosci 2001; 24: 677–736.
19. Gorski JA, Zeiler SR, Tamowski S, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for the maintenance of cortical dendrites. J Neurosci 2003; 23: 6856–65.
20. Linnarsson S, Bjorklund A, Ernfors P. Learning deficit in BDNF mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci 1997; 9: 2581–7.
21. Kleim JA, Jones TA, Schallert T. Motor enrichment and the induction of plasticity before or after brain injury. Neurochem Res 2003; 28: 1757–69.
22. Mizuno M, Yamada K, Olariu A, et al. Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in spatial memory formation and maintenance in a radial arm maze test in rats. J Neurosci 2000; 20: 7116–21.
23. Vaynman S, Gomez-Pinilla F. License to run: exercise impacts functional plasticity in the intact and injured central nervous system by using neurotrophins. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2005; 19: 283–95.
24. Ishibashi H, Hihara S, Takahashi M, et al. Tool-use learning induces BDNF expression in a selective portion of monkey anterior parietal cortex. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2002; 102: 110–12.
25. Uchida K, Baba H, Maezawa Y, et al. Increased expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in the mechanically compressed spinal cord of the spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy). Acta Neuropathol 2003; 106: 29–36.
26. Laske C, Stransky E, Leyhe T, et al. Stage-dependent BDNF serum concentrations in Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm 2006; 113: 1217–24.
27. Matzilevich DA, Rall JM, Moore AN, et al. High-density microarray analysis of hippocampal gene expression following experimental brain injury. J Neurosci Res 2002; 67: 646–63.
28. Kurozumi K, Nakamura K, Tamiya T, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells that produce neurotrophic factors reduce ischemic damage in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model. Mol Ther 2005; 11: 96–104.
29. Zhang Y, Pardridge WM. Blood-brain barrier targeting of BDNF improves motor function in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion. Brain Res 2006; 1111: 227–9.
30. Schabitz WR, Berger C, Kollmar R, et al. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor treatment and forced arm use on functional motor recovery after small cortical ischemia. Stroke 2004 35: 992–7.
31. Shimizu E, Hashimoto K, Iyo M. Ethnic difference of the BDNF 196G/A (val66met) polymorphism frequencies: the possibility to explain ethnic mental traits. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2004; 126: 122–3.
32. Egan MF, Kojima M, Callicott JH, et al. The BDNF val66met polymorphism affects activity-dependent secretion of BDNF and human memory and hippocampal function. Cell 2003; 112: 257–69.
33. Chen ZY, Patel PD, Sant G, et al. Variant brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Met66) alters the intracellular trafficking and activity-dependent secretion of wild-type BDNF in neurosecretory cells and cortical neurons. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 4401–11.
34. Ho BC, Milev P, O'Leary DS, et al. Cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging brain morphometric correlates of brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63: 731–40.
35. Pezawas L, Verchinski BA, Mattay VS, et al. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and variation in human cortical morphology. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 10099–102.
36. Frodl T, Schule C, Schmitt G, et al. Association of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism with reduced hippocampal volumes in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 410–16.
37. Hariri AR, Goldberg TE, Mattay VS, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism affects human memory-related hippocampal activity and predicts memory performance. J Neurosci 2003; 23: 6690–4.
38. Lu B, Pang PT, Woo NH. The yin and yang of neurotrophin action. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 6: 603–14.
39. Kleim JA, Chan S, Pringle E, et al. BDNF val66met polymorphism is associated with modified experience-dependent plasticity in human motor cortex. Nat Neurosci 2006; 9: 735–7.
40. McHughen SA, Rodriguez PF, Kleim JA, et al. BDNF val66met polymorphism influences motor system function in the human brain. Cereb Cortex 2010; 20: 1254–62.
41. Cheeran B, Talelli P, Mori F, et al. A common polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) modulates human cortical plasticity and the response to rTMS. J Physiol 2008; 586: 5717–25.
42. Mahley RW, Rall SC Jr. Apolipoprotein E: far more than a lipid transport protein. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2000; 1: 507–37.
43. Cedazo-Minguez A. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. J Cell Mol Med 2007; 11: 1227–38.
44. Eichner JE, Dunn ST, Perveen G, et al. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cardiovascular disease: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 155: 487–95.
45. Corder EH, Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, et al. Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer's disease in late onset families. Science 1993; 261: 921–3.
46. Hyman BT, Gomez-Isla T, Rebeck GW, et al. Epidemiological, clinical, and neuropathological study of apolipoprotein E genotype in Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1996; 802: 1–5.
47. Caselli RJ, Graff-Radford NR, Reiman EM, et al. Preclinical memory decline in cognitively normal apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 homozygotes. Neurology 1999; 53: 201–7.
48. De Blasi S, Montesanto A, Martino C, et al. APOE polymorphism affects episodic memory among non demented elderly subjects. Exp Gerontol 2009; 44: 224–7.
49. Plassman BL, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Bigler ED, et al. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele and hippocampal volume in twins with normal cognition. Neurology 1997; 48: 985–9.
50. Burggren AC, Zeineh MM, Ekstrom AD, et al. Reduced cortical thickness in hippocampal subregions among cognitively normal apolipoprotein E e4 carriers. Neuroimage 2008; 41: 1177–83.
51. Mueller SG, Schuff N, Raptentsetsang S, et al. Selective effect of Apo e4 on CA3 and dentate in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease using high resolution MRI at 4 T. Neuroimage 2008; 42: 42–8.
52. Greenwood PM, Lambert C, Sunderland T, et al. Effects of apolipoprotein E genotype on spatial attention, working memory, and their interaction in healthy, middle-aged adults: results from the National Institute of Mental Health's BIOCARD study. Neuropsychology 2005; 19: 199–211.
53. Parasuraman R, Greenwood PM, Sunderland T. The apolipoprotein E gene, attention, and brain function. Neuropsychology 2002; 16: 254–74.
54. Reiman EM, Caselli RJ, Yun LS, et al. Preclinical evidence of Alzheimer's disease in persons homozygous for the epsilon 4 allele for apolipoprotein E. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 752–8.
55. Xu G, McLaren DG, Ries ML, et al. The influence of parental history of Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E epsilon4 on the BOLD signal during recognition memory. Brain 2009; 132: 383–91.
56. Nathan BP, Nisar R, Randall S, et al. Apolipoprotein E is upregulated in olfactory bulb glia following peripheral receptor lesion in mice. Exp Neurol 2001; 172: 128–36.
57. Nwosu I, Gairhe S, Struble RG, et al. Impact of apoE deficiency during synaptic remodeling in the mouse olfactory bulb. Neurosci Lett 2008; 441: 282–5.
58. Holtzman DM, Pitas RE, Kilbridge J, et al. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates apolipoprotein E-dependent neurite outgrowth in a central nervous system-derived neuronal cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 9480–4.
59. Arendt T, Schindler C, Bruckner MK, et al. Plastic neuronal remodeling is impaired in patients with Alzheimer's disease carrying apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele. J Neurosci 1997; 17: 516–29.
60. Teasdale GM, Nicoll JA, Murray G, et al. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with outcome after head injury. Lancet 1997; 350: 1069–71.
61. Zhou W, Xu D, Peng X, et al. Meta-analysis of APOE4 allele and outcome after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2008; 25: 279–90.
62. Niskakangas T, Ohman J, Niemela M, et al. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary study. Stroke 2001; 32: 1181–4.
63. Imbimbo BP, Solfrizzi V, Panza F. Are NSAIDs useful to treat Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment? Front Aging Neurosci 2010; 2 pii: 19.
64. Matthews PM, Johansen-Berg H, Reddy H. Non-invasive mapping of brain functions and brain recovery: applying lessons from cognitive neuroscience to neurorehabilitation. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2004; 22: 245–60.
65. Dobkin B. The Clinical Science of Neurologic Rehabilitation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2003.
66. Krakauer JW. Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation. Curr Opin Neurol 2006; 19: 84–90.
67. Savitz J, Solms M, Ramesar R. The molecular genetics of cognition: dopamine, COMT and BDNF. Genes Brain Behav 2006; 5: 311–28.
68. Weinberger NM. Specific long-term memory traces in primary auditory cortex. Nat Rev Neurosci 2004; 5: 279–90.
69. Stefan K, Wycislo M, Classen J. Modulation of associative human motor cortical plasticity by attention. J Neurophysiol 2004; 92: 66–72.
70. Bobb AJ, Addington AM, Sidransky E, et al. Support for association between ADHD and two candidate genes: NET1 and DRD1. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2005; 134: 67–72.
71. Xu X, Mill J, Sun B, et al. Association study of promoter polymorphisms at the dopamine transporter gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. BMC Psychiatry 2009; 9: 3.
72. Kopeckova M, Paclt I, Goetz P. Polymorphisms and low plasma activity of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in ADHD children. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2006; 27: 748–54.
73. Thapar A, O'Donovan M, Owen MJ. The genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hum Mol Genet 2005; 14: R275–82.
74. Brookes KJ, Hawi Z, Kirley A, et al. Association of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2008; 147B: 1531–5.
75. Bellgrove MA, Mattingley JB. Molecular genetics of attention. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1129: 200–12.
76. Greenwood PM, Sunderland T, Putnam K, et al. Scaling of visuospatial attention undergoes differential longitudinal change as a function of APOE genotype prior to old age: results from the NIMH BIOCARD study. Neuropsychology 2005; 19: 830–40.
77. Belmaker RH, Agam G. Major depressive disorder. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 55–68.
78. Hadidi N, Treat-Jacobson DJ, Lindquist R. Poststroke depression and functional outcome: a critical review of literature. Heart Lung 2009; 38: 151–62.
79. Morris PL, Robinson RG, Andrzejewski P, et al. Association of depression with 10-year poststroke mortality. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150: 124–9.
80. aan het Rot M, Mathew SJ, Charney DS. Neurobiological mechanisms in major depressive disorder. CMAJ 2009; 180: 305–13.
81. Levinson DF. The genetics of depression: a review. Biol Psychiatry 2006; 60: 84–92.
82. Lohoff FW. Overview of the genetics of major depressive disorder. CurrPsychiatry Rep 2010; 12: 539–46.
83. Baune BT, Dannlowski U, Domschke K, et al. The interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) gene is associated with failure to achieve remission and impaired emotion processing in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 67: 543–9.
84. Uher R, Perroud N, Ng MY, et al. Genome-wide pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response in the GENDEP project. Am J Psychiatry 2010; 167: 555–64.
85. McMahon FJ, Buervenich S, Charney D, et al. Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of antidepressant treatment. Am J Hum Genet 2006; 78: 804–14.
86. Martinowich K, Manji H, Lu B. New insights into BDNF function in depression and anxiety. Nat Neurosci 2007; 10: 1089–93.
87. Taylor WD, Zuchner S, McQuoid DR, et al. Allelic differences in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007; 15: 850–7.
88. Bocchio-Chiavetto L, Miniussi C, Zanardini R, et al. 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms and response to rTMS treatment in drug resistant depression. Neurosci Lett 2008; 437: 130–4.
89. Neeper SA, Gomez-Pinilla F, Choi J, et al. Physical activity increases mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rat brain. Brain Res 1996; 726: 49–56.
90. Gomez-Pinilla F, Ying Z, Roy RR, et al. Voluntary exercise induces a BDNF-mediated mechanism that promotes neuroplasticity. J Neurophysiol 2002; 88: 2187–95.
91. Ploughman M, Granter-Button S, Chernenko G, et al. Endurance exercise regimens induce differential effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synapsin-I and insulin-like growth factor I after focal ischemia. Neuroscience 2005; 136: 991–1001.
92. Rojas Vega S, Abel T, Lindschulten R, et al. Impact of exercise on neuroplasticity-related proteins in spinal cord injured humans. Neuroscience 2008; 153: 1064–70.
93. Bryan A, Hutchison KE, Seals DR, et al. A transdisciplinary model integrating genetic, physiological, and psychological correlates of voluntary exercise. Health Psychol 2007; 26: 30–9.
94. Nichol K, Deeny SP, Seif J, et al. Exercise improves cognition and hippocampal plasticity in APOE epsilon4 mice. Alzheimers Dement 2009; 5: 287–94.
95. Mata J, Thompson RJ, Gotlib IH. BDNF genotype moderates the relation between physical activity and depressive symptoms. Health Psychol 2010; 29: 130–3.
96. Cramer S, Sur M, Dobkin B, et al. Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications. Brain 2011; 134: 1591–609.
97. Freedman JE, Hylek EM. Clopidogrel, genetics, and drug responsiveness. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 411–13.
98. Dam M, Tonin P, De Boni A, et al. Effects of fluoxetine and maprotiline on functional recovery in poststroke hemiplegic patients undergoing rehabilitation therapy. Stroke 1996; 27: 1211–14.
99. Jorge RE, Acion L, Moser D, et al. Escitalopram and enhancement of cognitive recovery following stroke. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67: 187–96.
100. Zittel S, Weiller C, Liepert J. Citalopram improves dexterity in chronic stroke patients. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2008; 22: 311–14.
101. Zittel S, Weiller C, Liepert J. Reboxetine improves motor function in chronic stroke. A pilot study. J Neurol 2007; 254: 197–201.
102. Walker-Batson D, Smith P, Curtis S, et al. Amphetamine paired with physical therapy accelerates motor recovery after stroke. Further evidence. Stroke 1995; 26: 2254–9.
103. Scheidtmann K, Fries W, Muller F, et al. Effect of levodopa in combination with physiotherapy on functional motor recovery after stroke: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. Lancet 2001; 358: 787–90.
104. Grade C, Redford B, Chrostowski J, et al. Methylphenidate in early poststroke recovery: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 1047–50.
105. Mattay VS, Goldberg TE, Fera F, et al. Catechol O-methyltransferase val158-met genotype and individual variation in the brain response to amphetamine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 6186–91.
106. Stein MA, Waldman ID, Sarampote CS, et al. Dopamine transporter genotype and methylphenidate dose response in children with ADHD. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 30: 1374–82.
107. Gilbert DL, Wang Z, Sallee FR, et al. Dopamine transporter genotype influences the physiological response to medication in ADHD. Brain 2006; 129: 2038–46.
108. Peters EJ, Slager SL, McGrath PJ, et al. Investigation of serotonin-related genes in antidepressant response. Mol Psychiatry 2004; 9: 879–89.
109. Peters EJ, Slager SL, Jenkins GD, et al. Resequencing of serotonin-related genes and association of tagging SNPs to citalopram response. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2009; 19: 1–10.
110. Smits KM, Smits LJ, Schouten JS, et al. Influence of SERTPR and STin2 in the serotonin transporter gene on the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression: a systematic review. Mol Psychiatry 2004; 9: 433–41.
111. Hiratsuka M, Sasaki T, Mizugaki M. Genetic testing for pharmacogenetics and its clinical application in drug therapy. Clin Chim Acta 2006; 363: 177–86.
112. Ikeda T, Kurosawa M, Uchikawa C, et al. Modulation of monoamine transporter expression and function by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 327: 218–24.
113. Reinkensmeyer DJ, Emken JL, Cramer SC. Robotics, motor learning, and neurologic recovery. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2004; 6: 497–525.
114. Volpe BT, Krebs HI, Hogan N. Robot-aided sensorimotor training in stroke rehabilitation. Adv Neurol 2003; 92: 429–33.
115. Takahashi CD, Der-Yeghiaian L, Le V, et al. Robot-based hand motor therapy after stroke. Brain 2008; 131: 425–37.
116. Craig IW. The importance of stress and genetic variation in human aggression. BioEssays 2007; 29: 227–36.
117. Luria A. Restoration of Function after Brain Injury. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1963.
118. Burgard EC, Sarvey JM. Muscarinic receptor activation facilitates the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat dentate gyrus. Neurosci Lett 1990; 116: 34–9.
119. Hasselmo ME, Barkai E. Cholinergic modulation of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the piriform cortex and associative memory function in a network biophysical simulation. J Neurosci 1995; 15: 6592–604.
120. Atri A, Sherman S, Norman K, et al. Blockade of central cholinergic receptors impairs new learning and increases proactive interference in a word paired-associate memory task. Behav Neurosci 2004; 118: 223–36.
121. Giocomo LM, Hasselmo ME. Neuromodulation by glutamate and acetylcholine can change circuit dynamics by regulating the relative influence of afferent input and excitatory feedback. Mol Neurobiol 2007; 36: 184–200.
122. Scacchi R, Gambina G, Moretto G, et al. Variability of AChE, BChE, and ChAT genes in the late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease and relationships with response to treatment with Donepezil and Rivastigmine. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2009; 150B: 502–7.
123. Steinlein OK, Bertrand D. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from the genetic analysis to neurological diseases. Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 76: 1175–83.
124. Stitzel JA. Naturally occurring genetic variability in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 and alpha7 subunit genes and phenotypic diversity in humans and mice. Front Biosci 2008; 13: 477–91.
125. Lotta T, Vidgren J, Tilgmann C, et al. Kinetics of human soluble and membrane-bound catechol O-methyltransferase: a revised mechanism and description of the thermolabile variant of the enzyme. Biochemistry 1995; 34: 4202–10.
126. Srivastava V, Varma PG, Prasad S, et al. Genetic susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia among schizophrenia subjects: IV. Role of dopaminergic pathway gene polymorphisms. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006; 16: 111–17.
127. Galderisi S, Maj M, Kirkpatrick B, et al. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism in schizophrenia: associations with cognitive and motor impairment. Neuropsychobiology 2005; 52: 83–9.
128. Edwards MJ, Huang YZ, Mir P, et al. Abnormalities in motor cortical plasticity differentiate manifesting and nonmanifesting DYT1 carriers. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 2181–6.
129. Karl A, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, et al. Reorganization of motor and somatosensory cortex in upper extremity amputees with phantom limb pain. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 3609–18.
130. Bath KG, Lee FS. Variant BDNF (Val66Met) impact on brain structure and function. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2006; 6: 79–85.
131. Jonsson E, Brene S, Zhang XR, et al. Schizophrenia and neurotrophin-3 alleles. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997; 95: 414–9.
132. Tully K, Bolshakov VY. Emotional enhancement of memory: how norepinephrine enables synaptic plasticity. Mol Brain 2010; 3: 15.
133. Baffa A, Hohoff C, Baune BT, et al. Norepinephrine and serotonin transporter genes: impact on treatment response in depression. Neuropsychobiology 2010; 62: 121–31.
134. Eisenhofer G. The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines. Pharmacol Ther 2001; 91: 35–62.
135. Chen Z, Simmons MS, Perry RT, et al. Genetic association of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) with Alzheimer's disease. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2008; 147: 363–9.
136. Hegde AN. Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated local protein degradation and synaptic plasticity. Prog Neurobiol 2004; 73: 311–57.
137. Wood MA, Kaplan MP, Brensinger CM, et al. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (Uchl3) is involved in working memory. Hippocampus. 2005; 15: 610–21.
138. Liu Y, Fallon L, Lashuel HA, et al. The UCH-L1 gene encodes two opposing enzymatic activities that affect alpha-synuclein degradation and Parkinson's disease susceptibility. Cell 2002; 111: 209–18.
139. Zheng SL, Sun J, Wiklund F, et al. Cumulative association of five genetic variants with prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 910–19.