Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: November 2013

Chapter 25 - Superovulation protocols

from Section 4 - ART: skills, techniques and present status


1. World Health Organization Scientific Group. Agents stimulating gonadal function in the human. Report No. 514, 1976.
2. E. E. Telfer and M. McLaughlin. Natural history of the mammalian oocyte. Reprod Biomed Online 15 (2007): 288–95.
3. R. Barbieri and J. Strauss. Yen and Jaffe’s reproductive endocrinology: physiology, Pathophysiology, and clinical management, 5th edn (Cambridge: Saunders Press, 2004), 117–220.
4. G. A. Gorlitsky, N. G. Kase and L. Speroff. Ovulation and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate. Obstet and Gynecol 51 (1978):265.
5. M. Gysler, C. M. March, Dr Mishell, Jr and E. J. Bailey. A decade’s experience with an individualized clomiphene treatment regimen including its effect on the postcoital test. Fertil Steril 37 (1982):161.
6. S. E. Elizur and T. Tulandi. Drugs in infertility and fetal safety. Fertil Steril 89, no. 6 (2008 Jun):1595–602. Review.
7. M. F. Mitwally and R. F. Casper. Use of an aromatase inhibitor for induction of ovulation in patients with an inadequate response to clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 75 (2001):305.
8. R. F. Casper. Letrozole: ovulation or superovulation? Fert Steril 80 (2003):1335–7.
9. T. Tulandi, Al-Fadhli R. Martin, et al. Congenital malformations among 911 newborns conceived after infertility treatment with letrozole or clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 85 (2006):1761–5.
10. M. Dowsett and P. E. Lonning. Anastrozole – a new generation in aromatase inhibition: clinical pharmacology. Oncology 54, suppl 2 (1997):11–14.
11. P. Patrizio, M. J. Tucker and V. Guelman. A color atlas for human assisted reproduction: laboratory and clinical insights. (Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003).
12. E. Loumaye. Precise dosing of recombinant FSH through manufacturing improvements. In The gonadotropins chronicles – consensus or controversy? Presented at the Third World Congress on Controversies in Obstetrics, Gyencology and Infertility, 12, June 2002, Washington DC.
13. A. C. van Loenen, J. A. Huirne, R. Schats, P. G. Hompes and C. B. Lambalk. GnRH agonists, antagonists, and assisted conception. Semin Reprod Med 20, no. 4 (2002):349–64.
14. D. Klingmuller, M. Schepke, C. Enzweiler and F. Bidlingmaier. Hormonal responses to the new potent GnRH antagonist Cetrorelix. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 128 (1993):15–18.
15. R. T. Mansour, M. A. Aboulghar and G. I. Serour. Study of the optimal time for human chorionic gonadotropin-ovum pick up interval in in vitro fertilization. J Assist Reprod Genet 11 (1994):478–81.
16. R. A. Fischer, S. T. Nakajima, M. Gibson, et al. Ovulation after intravenous and intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin. Fertil Steril 60 (1993):418–22.
17. S. Daya. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist protocols for pituitary desensitization in in-vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian transfer cycles. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD 001299, 2000.
18. E. S. Surrey, J. Bower, D. M. Hill, J. Ramsey and M. W. Surrrey. Clinical and endocrine effects of a microdose GnRH agonist flare regimen administered to poor responders who are undergoing in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 69 (1998):419.
19. C. Albano, G. Grimibizis, J. Smitz, H. Riethmuller-Winzen, T. Reissmann, A. Van Steirghem and P. Devorey. The luteal phase of nonsupplemented cycles after ovarian superovulation with human menopausal gonadotropin and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist Cetrorelix. Fertil Steril 70 (1998):357–9.
20. H. G. Al-Inany, M. Aboulghar, R. Mansour and G. I. Serour. Optimizing GnRH antagonist administration: meta-analysis of fixed vs flexible protocol. Reprod Biomed Online 10 (2005):567–70.
21. C. Albano, J. Smitz, M. Camus, H. Riethmuller-Winzen, A. Van Steirteghem and P. Devroey. Comparison of different doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist Cetrorelix during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Fertil Steril 67 (1997):917–22.
22. F. Olivennes, S. Alvarez, P. Bouchard, R. Fanchin, J. Salat-Baroux and R. Frydman. The use of a GnRH antagonist (Cetrorelix) in a single dose protocol in IVF-embryo transfer: a dose finding study of 3 versus 2 mg. Human Reprod 13 (1998):2411–14.
23. R. C. Chian, W. M. Buckett, T. Tulandi and S. L. Tan. Prospective randomized study of human chorionic gonadotrophin priming before immature oocyte retrieval from unstimulated women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hum Reprod 15 (2000):165–70.
24. J. H. Lim, S. H. Yang, Y. Xu, S. H. Yoon and R. C. Chian. Selection of patients for natural cycle in vitro fertilization combined with in vitro maturation of immature oocytes. Fertil Steril 91, no. 4 (2009 Apr):1050–5.
25. M. H. Thorton, M. M. Francis and R. J. Paulson. Immature oocyte retrieval lessons from unstimulated IVF cycles. Fertil Steril 70 (1998):647–50.
26. R. M. Janssens, C. B. Lambalk, J. P. Vermeiden, et al. In-vitro fertilization in a spontaneous cycle: easy, cheap and realistic. Hum Reprod 15 (2000):314–18.
27. R. Hart, M. Hickey and S. Franks. Definitions, prevalence and symptoms of polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 18, no. 5 (2004):671–83.
28. E. Carmina. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome: from NIH criteria to ESHRE-ASRM guidelines. Minerva ginecologica 56, no. 1 (2004 Feb):1–6.
29. M. Van der Meer, P. G. A Hompes, J. A. M De Boer, R. Schats and J. Schoemaker. Cohort size rather than follicle stimulating hormone threshold level determines ovarian sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83 (1998):423.
30 N. S. Macklon and B. C. Fauser. The step-down protocol. In B. Tarlatzis, ed. Ovulation induction. (Paris: Elsevier, 2002), 108–18.
31. E. J. Van Santbrink and B. C. Fauser. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone for normogonadotropic clomiphene-resistant anovulatory infertility: prospective, randomized comparison between low dose step-up and step-down dose regimens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82 (1997):3597–602.
32. E. J. Van Santbrink and B. C. Fauser. Is there a future for ovulation induction in the current era of assisted reproduction? Hum Reprod 18, no. 12 (2003): 2499–502.
33. T. G. Lainas, I. A. Sfontouris, I. Z. Zorzovilis, G. K. Petsas, G. T. Lainas, E. Alexopoulou and E. M. Kolibianakis. Flexible GnRH antagonist protocol versus GnRH agonist long protocol in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome treated for IVF: a prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT). Hum Reprod 25, no. 3 (2010):683–9.
34. A. Delvigne and S. Rozenberg. A qualitative systemic review of coasting, a procedure to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in IVF patients. Hum Reprod Update 8, no. 3 (2002 May–Jun):291–6.
35. N Lewit, S. Kol, D. Manor and J. Itskovitz-Eldor. Comparison of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues and human chorionic gonadotrophin for the induction of ovulation and prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a case-control study. Hum Reprod 11, no. 7 (1996):1399–402.
36. R. H. Asch, G. Ivery, M. Goldsman, J. L. Frederick, S. C. Stone and J. P. Balmaceda.The use of intravenous albumin in patients at high risk for severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Hum Reprod 8, no. 7 (1993):1015–20.
37. Z. Shoham, A. Weissman, A. Barash, R. Borenstein, M. Schachter and V. Insler. Intravenous albumin for the prevention of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in an in vitro fertilization program: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril 62, no. 1 (1994):137–42.
38. E. Ng, A. Leader, P. Claman, M. Domingo and J. E. Spence. Intravenous albumin does not prevent the development of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in an in-vitro fertilization programme. Hum Reprod 10, no. 4(1995):807–10.
39. A. Ben-Chetrit, T. Eldar-Geva, M. Gal, M. Huerta, T. Mimon, N. Algur, Y. Z. Diamant and E. J. Margalioth. The questionable use of albumin for the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in an IVF programme: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hum Reprod 16, no. 9 (2001):1880–4.
40. M. Aboulghar, J. H. Evers and H. Al-Inany. Intravenous albumin for preventing severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a Cochrane review. Hum Reprod 17, no. 12 (2002):3027–32.
41. M. A. Youssef, M. van Wely, M. A. Hassan, H. G. Al-Inany, M. Mochtar, S. Khattab and F. van der Veen. Can dopamine agonists reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS in IVF/ICSI treatment cycles? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 16, no. 5 (2010 Sep–Oct):459–66.
42. C. Carizza, V. Abdelmassih, S. Abdelmassih, P. Ravizzini, L. Salgueiro, P. T. Salgueiro, L. T. Jine, P. Nagy and R. Abdelmassih. Cabergoline reduces the early onset of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a prospective randomized study. Reprod Biomed Online 17 (2008):751–5.
43. A. Shaltout, A. Shohayeb, M. Eid and S. Abbas. Role of cabergoline in preventing ovarian hyperstimlation syndrome in high risk intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients and effect on outcome. Abstracts of the 25th Annual Meeting of ESHRE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 28 June–1 July 2009.
44. E. Novella-Maestre, C. Carda, I. Noguera, A. Ruiz-Saurí, J. A. García-Velasco, C. Simón and A. Pellicer. Dopamine agonist administration causes a reduction in endometrial implants through modulation of angiogenesis in experimentally induced endometriosis. Hum Reprod 24 (2009):1025–35.
45. S. D. Keay, N. H. Liversedge, R. S. Mathur and J. M. Jemkins. Assisted conception following poor ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104 (1997):521–7.
46. C. A. Benadiva, O. Davis, I. Kligman, H. C. Lui and Z. Rosenwaks. Clomiphene citrate and hMG: an alternative stimulation protocol for selected failed in vitro fertilization patients. J Assist Reprod Genet 12 (1995):8.
47. H. Adami, L. Lipworth, L. Titus-Ernstoff, C. Hsieh, A. Hanberg, U. Ahlborg, J. Baron, and D. Trichopoulos. Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. Cancer Causes and Control 6 (1995):551–6.
48. E. Anderson, R. B. Clarke and A. Howell. Estrogen responsiveness and control of normal human breast proliferation. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 3 (1998):23–35.
49. S. A. Bartow. Use of the autopsy to study ontogeny and expression of the estrogen receptor gene in human breast. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 3 (1998):37–47.
50. M. Brown. Estrogen receptor molecular biology. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 8 (1994):101–12.
51. K. Oktay, A. Hourvitz, G. Sahin, et al. Letrozole reduces estrogen and gonadotropin exposure in women with breast cancer undergoing ovarian stimulation before chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91 (2006):3885–90.
52. K. Oktay, I. Turkcuoglu and K. A. Rodriguez-Wallberg. GnRH agonist trigger for women with breast cancer undergoing fertility preservation by aromatase inhibitor/FSH stimulation. Reprod Biomed Online 20 (2010):783–8.
53. K. Oktay, E. Buyuk, N. Libertella, et al. Fertility preservation in breast cancer patients: a prospective controlled comparison of ovarian stimulation with tamoxifen and letrozole for embryo cryopreservation. J Clin Oncol 23 (2005):4347–53.
54. K. A. Rodriguez-Wallberg and K. Oktay. Fertility preservation in women with breast cancer. Clin Obstet Gynecol 53, no. 4 (2010 Dec):753–62.
55. A. A. Azim, M. Costantini-Ferrando, K. Lostritto, et al. Relative potencies of anastrozole and letrozole to suppress estradiol in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation before in vitro fertilization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92 (2007):2197–200.
56. M. Sönmezer, I. Türkçüoğlu, U. Coşkun and K. Oktay. Random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for emergency fertility preservation in letrozole cycles. Fertil Steril 95, no. 6 (2011):2125.
57. A. R. Baerwald, G. P. Adams and R. A. Pierson. A new model for ovarian follicular development during the human menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 80, no. 1 (2003):116–22.
58. G. M. Bedoschi, F. O. de Albuquerque, R. A. Ferriani and P. A. Navarro. Ovarian stimulation during the luteal phase for fertility preservation of cancer patients: case reports and review of the literature, J Assist Reprod Genet 27 (2010):491–4.
59. S. Lee, S. Ozkavukcu, E. Heytens, F. Moy and K. Oktay. Value of early referral to fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 28 (2010):4683–6.