Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: December 2010

Chapter 16 - Endometriosis and its treatment

Summary

In vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive techniques are now fully accepted modalities of treatment for subfertility in our modern world. The indications for IVF have increased with the development of newer techniques such as ICSI, surgical sperm retrieval, embryo biopsy, and cryopreservation techniques, and IVF has become the cumulative step for the diagnosis and treatment for unexplained infertility. Certain indications for subfertility discussed in this chapter include tubal infertility, endometriosis, ovarian dysfunction, surrogacy, and male factor. The typical IVF cycle involves the following stages: stimulation for multiple follicular development, monitoring follicular growth and development, trigger of follicular maturation, oocyte recovery and identification, insemination/ICSI, embryo culture, embryo replacement, luteal phase support and confirmation of pregnancy. Traditionally, pregnancy rate per cycle has been used to compare results but gradually cumulative pregnancy outcome over the course of treatment may become more pertinent to the couple.

References

1. EskenaziB, WarnerML. Epidemiology of endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1997; 24: 235–58.
2. HammondMG, JordanS, SloanCS. Factors affecting pregnancy rates in a donor insemination program using frozen semen. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 480–5.
3. HaradaT, IwabeT, TerakawaN. Role of cytokines in endometriosis. Fertil Steril 2001; 76: 1–10.
4. AdamsonGD. Diagnosis and clinical presentation of endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 162: 568–9.
5. GrassoRF, Di GiacomoV, SedatiP, et al. Diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis: accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and transvaginal 3D ultrasonography. Abdom Imaging 2009 [Epub ahead of print].
6. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Endometriosis and infertility. Fertil Steril 2006; 86(Suppl 4): S156–60.
7. American Fertility Society. Classification of endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1979; 32: 633–4.
8. American Fertility Society. Revised American Fertility Society classification of endometriosis: 1985. Fertil Steril 1985; 43: 351–2.
9. AdamsonGD, PastaDJ. Endometriosis fertility index: the new, validated endometriosis staging system. Fertil Steril 2009; in press.
10. HughesEG, FedorkowDM, CollinsJA. A quantitative overview of controlled trials in endometriosis-associated infertility. Fertil Steril 1993; 59: 963–70.
11. OliveDL, PrittsEA. The treatment of endometriosis: a review of the evidence. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002; 955: 360–72.
12. AdamsonGD, PastaDJ. Surgical treatment of endometriosis-associated infertility: meta-analysis compared with survival analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 1488–504.
13. Operative Laparoscopy Study Group. Postoperative adhesion development following operative laparoscopy: evaluation at early second-look procedures. Fertil Steril 1991; 55: 700–4.
14. SuginamiH, YanoK. An ovum capture inhibitor (OCI) in endometriosis peritoneal fluid: an OCI-related membrane responsible for fimbrial failure of ovum capture. Fertil Steril 1988; 50: 648–53.
15. HalmeJ, BeckerS, HammondMG, RajMH, RajS. Increased activation of pelvic macrophages in infertile women with mild endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 145: 333–7.
16. OliveDL, WeinbergJB, HaneyAF. Peritoneal macrophages and infertility: the association between cell number and pelvic pathology. Fertil Steril 1985; 44: 772–7.
17. OralE, AriciA, OliveDL, HuszarG. Peritoneal fluid from women with moderate or severe endometriosis inhibits sperm motility: the role of seminal fluid components. Fertil Steril 1996; 66: 787–92.
18. MorcosRN, GibbonsWE, FindleyWE. Effect of peritoneal fluid on in vitro cleavage of 2-cell mouse embryos: possible role in infertility associated with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1985; 44: 678–83.
19. MarcouxS, MaheuxR, BerubeS. Laparoscopic surgery in infertile women with minimal or mild endometriosis. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 217–22.
20. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dell’ Endometriosi. Ablation of lesions or no treatment in minimal-mild endometriosis in infertile women: a randomized trial. Hum Reprod 1999; 14: 1332–4.
21. MarconiG, VilelaM, QuintanaR, SueldoC. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy of endometriomas does not affect the ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation. Fertil Steril 2002; 78: 876–8.
22. LohFH, TanAT, KumarJ, NgSC. Ovarian response after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy for endometriotic cysts in 132 monitored cycles. Fertil Steril 1999; 72: 316–21.
23. CanisM, PoulyJL, TamburroS, et al. Ovarian response during IVF-embryo transfer cycles after laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy for endometriotic cysts of > 3 cm in diameter. Hum Reprod 2001; 16: 2583–6.
24. GuptaS, AgarwalA, AgarwalR, Loret de MolaJR. Impact of ovarian endometriomas on assisted reproduction outcomes. Reprod Biomed Online 2006; 13: 349–60.
25. DemirolA, GuvenS, BaykalC, GurganT. Effect of endometrioma cystectomy on IVF outcome: a prospective randomized study. Reprod Biomed Online 2006; 12: 639–43.
26. YapC, FurnessS, FarquharC. Pre and post operative medical therapy for endometriosis surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 3: CD003678.
27. AdamsonGD, HurdSJ, PastaDJ, RodriguezBD. Laparoscopic endometriosis treatment: is it better? Fertil Steril 1993; 59: 35–44.
28. OlivennesF, FeldbergD, LiuHC, et al. Endometriosis: a stage by stage analysis – the role of in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 1995; 64: 392–8.
29. BarnhartK, Dunsmoor-SuR, CoutifarisC. Effect of endometriosis on in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 2002; 77: 1148–55.
30. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Assisted reproductive technology in the United States: 2000 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 1207–20.
31. FlowerA, LiuJP, ChenS, LewithG, LittleP. Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 3: CD006568.