Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: August 2013

20 - Stroke risk factors: impact and management

from Section VI - Prevention of First and Recurrent Stroke


Amarenco P, LaBrueche J, Lavalle P et al. Statins in stroke prevention and carotid atherosclerosis: systematic review and up-to-date meta-analysis. Stroke, 2004; 35: 2902–9.
Amarenco P, LaBreuche J, Touboul PJ. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and risk of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis, 2008; 196: 489–96.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes – 2011. Diabetes Care, 2011; 34 (Suppl. 1): s11–s61.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension, 2003; 42(6): 1206–52.
Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S et al. Effects of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin on stroke and other major vascular events in 20,356 patients with cerebrovascular disease and other high-risk conditions. Lancet, 2004; 363: 757–67.
Connolly S, Ezekowitz MB, Yusuf S et al. Dabigatran vs warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. NEJM, 2009; 361(12): 1139–51.
Elkind MS, Ramakrishnan P, Moon YP et al. Moderate alcohol consumption reduces risk of ischemic stroke: The North Manhattan Study. Stroke, 2006; 37(1): 13–19.
Expert panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA, 2001; 285: 2486–97.
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ et al. Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 2011; 42(1): 227–76.
Gage BF, Waterman ED, Shannon W et al. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA, 2001; 285(22): 2864–70.
Goldstein LB, Amarenco P, Zivin J et al. Statin treatment and stroke outcome in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction of Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial. Stroke, 2009; 40(11): 3526–631.
Goldstein LB, Bushnell CD, Adams RJ et al. Guideline for the Primary Prevention of Stroke. A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke, 2011; 42(2): 517–84.
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Merz CN et al. Implications for recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol, 2004; 44(3): 720–32.
Lancaster T, Stead L, Silagy C, Sowden A. Effectiveness of interventions to help people stop smoking: findings from the Cochrane Library. Br Med J, 2000; 321: 355–8.
Lee CD, Folsom AR, Blair SN. Physical activity and stroke risk: a meta-analysis. Stroke, 2003; 34(10): 2475–81.
Pandey DK, Aiyagari V. Prevention of Second Strokes Through Blood Pressure Lowering: Update for 2011. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports.
Rashid P, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath P. Blood pressure reduction and secondary prevention of stroke and vascular events: a systematic review. Stroke, 2003; 34(11): 2741–8.
Reynolds K, Lewis B, Nolen JD et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 2003; 289: 579–88 .
Rezzini A, Del ZOtto E, Volonghi I et al. New insights into the pleiotropic effects of statins for stroke prevention. Mini Rev Med Chem, 2009; 9(7): 794–804.
Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2011 Update: A Report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2011; 123: e18–e209.
Skyler JS, Bergenstal R, Bonow RO et al. Intensive glycemic control and the prevention of cardiovascular events: implications of the ACCORD, ADVANCE, and VA Diabetes trials. A position statement of the American Diabetes Association and a scientific statement of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2009; 119: 351–7.
The SPAF III Writing Committee for the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at low risk during treatment with aspirin. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation III Study. JAMA, 1998; 279(16): 1273–7.
The Tobacco Use and Dependence Clinical Practice Guideline Panel Staff and Consortium Representatives. A clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence: a US Public Health Service Report. JAMA, 2000; 283: 3244–54.
Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study. Stroke, 1991; 22(8): 983–8.
You JW, Singer DE, Howard PA et al. Antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of antithrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest, 2012; 141(2)(Suppl.): e5318–e5377.