Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: March 2015

Chapter 7 - Non-neoplastic skin disease

References

1. Krasteva M. Contact dermatitis. Int J Dermatol 1993; 32: 547–560.
2. Taylor RM. Histopathology of contact dermatitis. Clin Dermatol 1986; 4: 18–22.
3. Nater JP, Hoedemaeker PJ. Histological differences between irritant and allergic patch test reactions in man. Contact Dermatitis 1976; 2: 247–253.
4. Hellgren L, Mobacken H. Nummular eczema – clinical and statistical data. Acta Derm Venereol 1969; 49: 189–196.
5. Sirot G. Nummular eczema. Semin Dermatol 1983; 2: 68–74.
6. Hanifin JM, Rajka G. Diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Suppl) 1980; 92: 44–47.
7. Blauvett A. Skin diseases associated with human herpes virus 6, 7, and 8 infection. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 2001; 6: 197.
8. Zillikens D, Mehringer A, Lechner W, Burg G. Hypo- and hyperpigmented areas in incontinentia pigmenti. Light and electron microscopic studies. Am J Dermatopathol 1991; 13: 57–62.
9. Aydingoz U, Midia M. Central nervous system involvement in incontinentia pigmenti: cranial MRI of two siblings. Neuroradiology 1998; 40: 364–366.
10. Takematsu H, Terui T, Torinuki W, Tagami H. Incontinentia pigmenti: eosinophil chemotactic activity of the crusted scales in the vesiculobullous stage. Br J Dermatol 1986; 115: 61–66.
11. Fry L. Psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1988; 119: 445–461.
12. Stern RS, Wu J. Psoriasis. In: Arndt KA, LeBoit PE, Robinson JK, Wintroub BU, eds. Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1996: 295–321.
13. Telfer NR, Chalmers RJG, Whale K, Colman G. The role of streptococcal infection in the initiation of guttate psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 39–42.
14. Zelickson BD, Muller SA. Generalized pustular psoriasis. A review of 63 cases. Arch Dermatol 1991; 127: 1339–1345.
15. Webster G. Seborrheic dermatitis. Int J Dermatol 1991; 30: 843–844.
16. Barr RJ, Young EM. Psoriasiform and related papulosquamous disorders. J Cutan Pathol 1985; 12: 412–425.
17. Griffiths WAD. Pityriasis rubra pilaris. Clin Exp Dermatol 1980; 5: 105–112.
18. Soeprono FF. Histologic criteria for the diagnosis of pityriasis rubra pilaris. Am J Dermatopathol 1986; 8: 277–283.
19. Shaffer B, Beerman H. Lichen simplex chronicus and its variants. Arch Dermatol 1951; 64: 340–351.
20. Ackerman AB. Subtle clues to diagnosis by conventional microscopy. Marked compact hyperkeratosis as a sign of persistent rubbing. Am J Dermatopathol 1980; 2: 149–152.
21. Crissey JT, Denenholz DA. Clinical picture of infectious syphilis. Clin Dermatol 1984; 2: 39–61.
22. Engelkens HJ, ten Kate FJ, Vuzevski VD, et al. Primary and secondary syphilis: a histopathological study. Int J STD AIDS 1991; 2: 280–284.
23. Carbia SG, Lagodin C, Abbruzzese M, et al. Lichenoid secondary syphilis. Int J Dermatol 1999; 38: 53–55.
24. Engelkens HJ, ten Kate FJ, Judanarso J, et al. The localization of treponemes and characterization of the inflammatory infiltrate in skin biopsies from patients with primary or secondary syphilis, or early infectious yaws. Genitourin Med 1993; 69: 102–107.
25. Boyd AS, Nelder KH. Lichen planus. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 25: 593–619.
26. Waldorf DS. Lichen planopilaris. Arch Dermatol 1966; 93: 684–691.
27. Ragaz A, Ackerman AB. Evolution, maturation, and regression of lesions of lichen planus. New observations and correlations of clinical and histologic findings. Am J Dermatopathol 1981; 3: 5–25.
28. Mehregan DA, Van Hale HM, Muller SA. Lichen planopilaris: clinical and pathologic study of forty-five patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 27: 935–942.
29. Van den Haute V, Antoine JL, Lachapelle JM. Histopathological discriminant criteria between lichenoid drug eruption and idiopathic lichen planus: retrospective study on selected samples. Dermatologica 1989; 179: 10–13.
30. Lapins NA, Willoughby C, Helwig EB. Lichen nitidus. A study of forty-three cases. Cutis 1978; 21: 634–637.
31. Bardach H. Perforating lichen nitidus. J Cutan Pathol 1981; 8: 111–116.
32. Fabbri P, Panconesi E. Erythema multiforme (‘minus’ and ‘maius’) and drug intake. Clin Dermatol 1993; 11: 479–489.
33. Tonneson M, Soter NA. Erythema multiforme. J Am Acad Dermatol 1979; 1: 357–364.
34. Shiohara T, Chiba M, Tanaka Y, Nagashima M. Drug-induced, photosensitive, erythema multiforme-like eruption: possible role for cell adhesion molecules in a flare induced by Rhus dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990; 22: 647–650.
35. Zohdi-Mofid M, Horn TD. Acrosyringeal concentration of necrotic keratinocytes in erythema multiforme: a clue to drug etiology. Clinicopathologic review of 29 cases. J Cutan Pathol 1997; 24: 235–240.
36. Huff JC, Weston WL, Tonnesen MG. Erythema multiforme: a critical review of characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and causes. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983; 8: 763–775.
37. Bastuji-Garin S, Rzany B, Stern RS, et al. Clinical classification of cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme. Arch Dermatol 1993; 129: 92–96.
38. French LE, Prins C. Erythema multiforme, Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier, 2008; 294–295.
39. Ferrara JLM, Deeg HJ. Graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 667–674.
40. Shiohara T, Kano Y. Lichen planus and lichenoid dermatoses. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier, 2003; 190–191.
41. Chosidow O, Bagot M, Vernant J-P, et al. Sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease. Analysis of seven cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 26: 49–55.
42. Freemer CS, Farmer ER, Corio RL, et al. Lichenoid chronic graft-vs-host disease occurring in a dermatomal distribution. Arch Dermatol 1994; 130: 70–72.
43. Tuffanelli DL. Lupus erythematosus. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981; 4: 127–142.
44. Harper JL. Subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE): a distinct subset of LE. Clin Exp Dermatol 1982; 7: 209–212.
45. Clark WH, Reed RJ, Mihm MC. Lupus erythematosus. Histopathology of cutaneous lesions. Hum Pathol 1973; 4: 157–163.
46. Jerdan MS, Hood AF, Moore GW, Callen JP. Histopathologic comparison of the subsets of lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol 1990; 126: 52–55.
47. Bangert JL, Freeman RG, Sontheimer RD, Gilliam JN. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and discoid lupus erythematosus. Comparative histopathologic findings. Arch Dermatol 1984; 120: 332–337.
48. Kovacs SO, Kovacs SC. Dermatomyositis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 39: 899–920.
49. Euwer RL, Sontheimer RD. Amyopathic dermatomyositis (dermatomyositis sine myositis). J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 24: 959–966.
50. Bowyer SL, Clark RA, Ragsdale CG, et al. Juvenile dermatomyositis: histologic findings and pathogenetic hypothesis for the associated skin changes. J Rheumatol 1986; 13: 753–759.
51. Magro CM, Crowson AN. The immunofluorescent profile of dermatomyositis: a comparative study with lupus erythematosus. J Cutan Pathol 1997; 24: 543–552.
52. Epstein JH. Polymorphous light eruption. J Am Acad Dermatol 1980; 3: 329–343.
53. Epstein JH. Polymorphous light eruption. Dermatol Clin 1986; 4: 243–251.
54. Lambert WC, Everett MA. The nosology of parapsoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981; 5: 373–395.
55. Haeffner AC, Smoller BR, Zepter K, Wood GS. Differentiation and clonality of lesional lymphocytes in small plaque parapsoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1995; 131: 321–324.
56. King-Ismael D, Ackerman AB. Guttate parapsoriasis/digitate dermatosis (small plaque parapsoriasis) is mycosis fungoides. Am J Dermatopathol 1992; 14: 518–530.
57. Bressler GS, Jones RE Jr. Erythema annulare centrifugum. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981; 4: 597–602.
58. Mahood JM. Erythema annulare centrifugum: a review of 24 cases with special reference to its association with underlying disease. Clin Exp Dermatol 1983; 8: 383–387.
59. Boyd AS, Neldner KH, Menter A. Erythema gyratum repens: a paraneoplastic eruption. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 26: 757–762.
60. Caux F, Lebbe C, Thomine E, et al. Erythema gyratum repens. A case studied with immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Br J Dermatol 1994; 131: 102–107.
61. Jurca T, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Lotric-Furlan S, et al. Comparison of peripheral and central biopsy sites for the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from erythema migrans skin lesions. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 27: 636–638.
62. Newton RC, Raimer SS. Pigmented purpuric eruptions. Dermatol Clin 1985; 3: 165–169.
63. Ratnam KV, Su WPD, Peters MS. Purpura simplex (inflammatory purpura without vasculitis): a clinicopathologic study of 174 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 25: 642–647.
64. Black AK, Greaves MW, Champion RH, Pye RJ. The urticarias 1990. Br J Dermatol 1991; 124: 100–108.
65. Aboobaker J, Greaves MW. Urticarial vasculitis. Clin Exp Dermatol 1986; 11: 436–444.
66. Synkowski DR, Levine MI, Rabin BS, Unis EJ. Urticaria. An immunofluorescence and histopathology study. Arch Dermatol 1979; 115: 1192–1194.
67. Churg J, Churg A. Idiopathic and secondary vasculitis: a review. Mod Pathol 1989; 2: 144–160.
68. Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P. The spectrum of vasculitis: clinical, pathologic, immunologic, and therapeutic considerations. Ann Intern Med 1978; 89: 660–676.
69. Lotti T, Ghersetich I, Comacchi C, Jorizzo JL. Cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 39: 667–687.
70. Al-Sheyyab M, El-Shanti H, Ajlouni S, et al. The clinical spectrum of Henoch-Schönlein purpura in infants and young children. Eur J Pediatr 1995; 154: 969–972.
71. Strickland DK, Ware RE. Urticarial vasculitis: an autoimmune disorder following therapy for Hodgkin’s disease. Med Pediatr Oncol 1995; 25: 208–212.
72. Yiannias JA, El-Azhary RA, Gibson LE. Erythema elevatum diutinum: a clinical and histopathologic study of 13 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 26: 38–44.
73. Pedace FJ, Perry HO. Granuloma faciale. A clinical and histopathologic review. Arch Dermatol 1966; 94: 387–395.
74. Gorevic PD, Levo Y, Kassab H, et al. Mixed cryoglobulinemia: an immune complex disease often associated with hepatitis B. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1977; 90: 167–172.
75. Thomas RHM, Black MM. The wide clinical spectrum of polyarteritis nodosa with cutaneous involvement. Clin Exp Dermatol 1983; 8: 47–59.
76. Cacaoub P, Lunel-Fablani F, Du LT. Polyarteritis nodosa and hepatitis C virus infection (letter). Ann Intern Med 1992; 116: 605–606.
77. Trepco CG, Zuckerman AJ, Bird RC, Prince AM. The role of circulating hepatitis B antigen/antibody immune complexes in the pathogenesis of vascular and hepatic manifestations in polyarteritis nodosa. J Clin Pathol 1974; 27: 863–868.
78. Minkowitz G, Smoller BR, McNutt NS. Benign cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa: relationship to systemic polyarteritis nodosa and hepatitis B infection. Arch Dermatol 1991; 127: 1520–1523.
79. Wiik AS. Clinical use of serological test for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. What do the studies say? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2001; 27: 799–813.
80. Schwartz RA, Churg J. Churg–Strauss syndrome. Br J Dermatol 1992; 127: 199–204.
81. Lanham JG, Elkon KB, Pusey CD, Hughes GR. Systemic vasculitis with asthma and eosinophilia: a clinical approach to the Churg–Strauss syndrome. Medicine 1984; 63: 65–81.
82. Lie JT. The classification of vasculitis and a reappraisal of allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg–Strauss syndrome). Mt Sinai J Med 1986; 53: 429–439.
83. Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P, Wolff SM. Wegener’s granulomatosis: prospective clinical and therapeutic experience with 85 patients for 21 years. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98: 76–85.
84. Barksdale SK, Hallahan CW, Kerr GS, et al. Cutaneous pathology in Wegener’s granulomatosis. A clinicopathologic study of 75 biopsies in 46 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 1995; 19: 161–172.
85. Daoud MS, Gibson LE, DeRemee RA, et al. Cutaneous Wegener’s granulomatosis: clinical, histopathologic, and immunopathologic features of thirty patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 31: 605–612.
86. Gunawardena DA, Gunawardena KA, Ratnayaka MRS, Vasanthanathan NS. The clinical spectrum of Sweet’s syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis): report of eighteen cases. Br J Dermatol 1975; 92: 363–373.
87. Callen JP. Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome) and the related conditions of ‘Bowel Bypass’ syndrome and bullous pyoderma gangrenosum. Dermatol Clin 1985; 3: 153–163.
88. Cohen PR, Kurzock R. Sweet’s syndrome and cancer. Clin Dermatol 1993; 11: 149–157.
89. Cohen PR, Talpaz M, Kurzock R. Malignancy-associated Sweet’s syndrome: review of the world literature. J Clin Oncol 1988; 6: 1887–1897.
90. Powell FC, Su WPD, Perry HO. Pyoderma gangrenosum: classification and management. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 395–409.
91. Powell FC, Schroeter AL, Su WPD, et al. Pyoderma gangrenosum: a review of 86 patients. Q J Med 1985; 55: 173–186.
92. Benton EC, Rutherford D, Hunter JA. Sweet’s syndrome and pyoderma gangrenosum associated with ulcerative colitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1985; 65: 77–80.
93. Wells RS, Smith MA. The natural history of granuloma annulare. Br J Dermatol 1963; 75: 199–205.
94. Muhlbauer JE. Granuloma annulare. J Am Acad Dermatol 1980; 3: 217–230.
95. Dabski K, Winkelmann RK. Generalized granuloma annulare: clinical and laboratory findings in 100 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 20: 39–47.
96. O’Brien JP. Actinic granuloma. An annular connective tissue disorder affecting sun- and heat-damaged skin. Arch Dermatol 1975; 111: 460–466.
97. Umbert P, Winkelmann RK. Histologic, ultrastructural, and histochemical studies of granuloma annulare. Arch Dermatol 1977; 113: 1681–1686.
98. Dabski K, Winkelmann RK. Generalized granuloma annulare: histopathology and immunopathology. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 20: 28–39.
99. Muller SA, Winklemann RK. Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum. A clinical and pathologic investigation of 171 cases. Arch Dermatol 1966; 93: 272–281.
100. O’Toole EA, Kennedy U, Nolan JJ, et al. Necrobiosis lipoidica: only a minority of patients have diabetes mellitus. Br J Dermatol 1999; 140: 283–286.
101. Howard A, Clifton RW. Non-infectious granulomas. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds Dermatology. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier, 2003; 1455–1465.
102. Yammamoto T, Ohkubo H, Nishioka K. Skin manifestations associated with rheumatoid arthritis. J Dermatol 1995; 22: 324–329.
103. Bennett GA, Zeller JW, Bauer W. Subcutaneous nodules of rheumatoid arthritis and rheumatic fever. Arch Pathol 1940; 30: 70–89.
104. Callen JP. Sarcoidosis. In: Dermatologic Signs of Internal Disorders. Chicago, IL: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1980: 311–332.
105. Cronin E. Skin changes in sarcoidosis. Postgrad Med 1959; 46: 507–509.
106. Sharma OP. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: clinical features and management. Chest 1972; 61: 320–325.
107. Cancrini C, Angelini F, Colavita M, et al. Erythema nodosum: a presenting sign of early onset sarcoidosis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1998; 16: 337–339.
108. Banse-Kupin L, Pelachyk JM. Ichthyosiform sarcoidosis. Report of two cases and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 17: 616–620.
109. Goette DK, Jacobson KW, Dory RD. Primary inoculation tuberculosis of the skin. Prospector’s paronychia. Arch Dermatol 1978; 114: 567–569.
110. Daikos GL, Uttamchandani RB, Tuda C, et al. Disseminated miliary tuberculosis of the skin in patients with AIDS: report of four cases. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 27: 205–208.
111. Brown FS, Anderson RH, Burnett JW. Cutaneous tuberculosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1982; 6: 101–106.
112. Tappeiner G, Wolf K. Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. In: Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, et al.eds. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1993: 2370–2391.
113. Schneider JW, Jordaan HF, Geiger DH, et al. A clinicopathological study of 20 cases and detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in skin lesions by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Dermatopathol 1995; 17: 350–356.
114. Victor T, Jordaan HF, Van Niekerk DJT, et al. Papulonecrotic tuberculid: identification of M. tuberculosis DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Dermatopathol 1993; 14: 491–495.
115. Sehgel VN. Leprosy. Dermatol Clin 1994; 12: 629–644.
116. Sehgal VN. Clinical Leprosy, 3rd edn. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 1993.
117. del Carmen Farina M, Gezundez I, Pique E, et al. Cutaneous tuberculosis: a clinical, histopathologic, and bacteriologic study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995; 33: 433–440.
118. Van Voorhis WC, Kaplan G, Nunes Sarno E, et al. The cutaneous infiltrates of leprosy. Cellular characteristics and the predominant T-cell phenotypes. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 1593–1597.
119. Sneddon IB, Wilkinson DS. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis. Br J Dermatol 1979; 100: 61–68.
120. Takata M, Inaoki M, Shodo M, et al. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis associated with IgA myeloma and intraepidermal IgA deposits. Dermatology 1994; 189(Suppl 1): 111–114.
121. Chouvet B, Ortonne JP, Perrot H, Thivolet J. Norwegian scabies: etiological grounds. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1979; 106: 569–574.
122. Darmstadt GL, Lane AT. Impetigo: an overview. Pediatr Dermatol 1994; 11: 293–303.
123. Adachi J, Endo K, Fukuzumi T, et al. Increasing incidence of streptococcal impetigo in atopic dermatitis. J Dermatol Sci 1998; 17: 45–53.
124. el Tayeb SH, Nasr EM, Sattallah AS. Streptococcal impetigo and acute glomerulonephritis in children in Cairo. Br J Dermatol 1978; 98: 53–62.
125. DeCastro P, Jorizzo JL. Cutaneous aspects of candidosis. Semin Dermatol 1985; 4: 165–172.
126. Koulu L, Stanley JR. Clinical, histologic, and immunopathologic comparison of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Semin Dermatol 1988; 7: 82–90.
127. Kouskoukis CE, Ackerman AB. What histologic finding distinguishes superficial pemphigus and bullous impetigo? Am J Dermatopathol 1984; 6: 179–181.
128. Gemmell CG. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. J Med Microbiol 1995; 43: 318–327.
129. Cribier B, Piemont Y, Grosshans E. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in adults. A clinical review illustrated with a new case. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994; 30: 319–324.
130. Akiyama H, Yamasaki O, Kanzaki H, et al. Streptococci isolated from various skin lesions: the interaction with Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Dermatol Sci 1999; 19: 17–22.
131. Ahmed AR. Clinical features of pemphigus. Clin Dermatol 1983; 1: 13–21.
132. Moy R, Jorden RE. Immunopathology in pemphigus. Clin Dermatol 1983; 1: 72–81.
133. Osmanski JP 2nd, Fraire AE, Schaefer OP. Necrotizing tracheobronchitis with progressive airflow obstruction associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus. Chest 1997; 112: 1704–1707.
134. Chamberland M. Paraneoplastic pemphigus and adenocarcinoma of the colon. Union Med Can 1993; 122: 201–203.
135. Matz H, Milner Y, Frusic-Zlotkin M, Brenner S. Paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with pancreatic carcinoma. Acta Derm Venereol 1997; 77: 289–291.
136. Schlesinger T, McCarron K, Camisa C, Anhalt GJ. Paraneoplastic pemphigus occurring in a patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cutis 1998; 61: 94–96.
137. Anhalt GJ. Paraneoplastic pemphigus. Adv Dermatol 1997; 12: 77–96.
138. Horn TD, Anhalt GJ. Histologic features of paraneoplastic pemphigus. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 1091–1095.
139. Helou J, Albritton J, Anhalt GJ. Accuracy of indirect immunofluorescence testing in the diagnosis of paraneoplastic pemphigus. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995; 32: 441–447.
140. Burge SM, Wilkdenson JD. Darier–White disease: a review of the clinical features in 163 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992; 27: 40–50.
141. Rand R, Buaden HP. Commentary: Darier–White disease. Arch Dermatol 1983; 119: 81–83.
142. Palmer DD, Perry HO. Benign familial pemphigus. Arch Dermatol 1962; 86: 493–502.
143. Steffen CG. Benign familial pemphigus. Am J Dermatopathol 1987; 9: 58–73.
144. Grover RW. Transient acantholytic dermatosis. Arch Dermatol 1970; 101: 426–434.
145. Chalet M, Grover RW, Ackerman AB. Transient acantholytic dermatosis. Arch Dermatol 1977; 113: 431–435.
146. Juel-Jensen BE, MacCallum FO. Herpes Simplex Varicella and Zoster: Clinical Manifestations and Treatment. Philadelphia, PA: J B Lippincott Co.; 1972.
147. Hope-Simpson RE. The nature of Herpes zoster: a long-term study and a new hypothesis. Proc R Soc Med 1965; 58: 9–20.
148. Goh CL, Khoo L. A retrospective study of the clinical presentation and outcome of herpes zoster in a tertiary dermatology outpatient referral clinic. Int J Dermatol 1997; 36: 667–672.
149. Muraki R, Iwasaki T, Sata T, et al. Hair follicle involvement in herpes zoster: pathway of viral spread from ganglia to skin. Virchows Arch 1996; 428: 275–280.
150. Rodriguez-Pereira C, Suarez-Penaranda JM, del Rio E, Forteza-Vila J. Cutaneous granulomatous vasculitis after herpes zoster infection showing polyarteritis nodosa-like features. Clin Exp Dermatol 1997; 22: 274–276.
151. Thivolet J, Barthelemy H. Bullous pemphigoid. Semin Dermatol 1988; 7: 91–103.
152. Ahmed AR. Diagnosis of bullous disease and studies in the pathogenesis of blister formation using immunopathological techniques. J Cutan Pathol 1984; 11: 237–248.
153. Weigand DA, Clements MK. Direct immunofluorescence in bullous pemphigoid: effects of extent and location of lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989; 20: 437–440.
154. Holmes RC, Black MM. The specific dermatoses of pregnancy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983; 8: 405–412.
155. Kertz KC, Katz SI, Maize J, Ackerman AB. Herpes gestationis. A clinicopathologic study. Arch Dermatol 1976; 112: 1543–1548.
156. Harrington CI, Bleehen SS. Herpes gestationis: immunopathological and ultrastructural studies. Br J Dermatol 1979; 100: 389–399.
157. Hall RP. Dermatitis herpetiformis. J Investig Dermatol 1992; 99: 873–881.
158. Reunala T, Salmi J, Karvonen J. Dermatitis herpetiformis and celiac disease associated with Addison’s disease. Arch Dermatol 1987; 123: 930–932.
159. Buckley DB, English J, Molloy W, et al. Dermatitis herpetiformis: a review of 119 cases. Clin Exp Dermatol 1983; 8: 477–487.
160. Whitworth JM, Thomas I, Peltz SA, et al. Vancomycin-induced linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD). J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34: 890–891.
161. Tonev S, Vasileva S, Kadurina M. Depot sulfonamide associated with linear IgA bullous dermatosis with erythema multiforme-like clinical features. J Eur Acad Deramtol Venereol 1998; 11: 165–168.
162. Camilleri M, Pace JL. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis induced by piroxicam. J Eur Acad Deramtol Venereol 1998; 10: 70–72.
163. Ahmed AR, Hombal SM. Cicatricial pemphigoid. Int J Dermatol 1986; 25: 90–96.
164. Person JR, Rogers RSI. Bullous and cicatricial pemphigoid. Clinical, histopathologic, and immunopathologic correlations. Mayo Clin Proc 1977; 52: 54–66.
165. Griffith MR, Fukuyama K, Tuffanelli DL, Silverman SJ. Immunofluorescent studies in mucous membrane pemphigoid. Arch Dermatol 1974; 109: 195–199.
166. Epstein JH, Tuffanelli DL, Epstein WL. Cutaneous changes in the porphyrias. A microscopic study. Arch Dermatol 1973; 107: 689–698.
167. Fine J-D, Bauer EA, Briggman RA, et al. Revised clinical and laboratory criteria for subtypes of inherited epidermolysis bullosa. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 24: 119–135.
168. Kitajima Y, Jokura Y, Yaoita H. Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, Dowling–Meara type. A report of two cases with different types of tonofilament clumping. Br J Dermatol 1993; 128: 79–85.
169. Valari MD, Phillips RJ, Lake BD, Harper JL. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa and pyloric atresia: a distinct entity. Clinical and pathological studies in five patients. Br J Dermatol 1995; 133: 732–736.
170. Woodley DT, Briggaman RA, Gammon WT. Review and update of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Semin Dermatol 1988; 7: 111–122.
171. Helm KF, Menz J, Gibson LE, Dicken CH. A clinical and histopathologic study of granulomatous rosacea. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 25: 1038–1043.
172. Sumner WT, Grichnik JM, Shea CR, et al. Follicular mucinosis as a presenting sign of acute myeloblastic leukemia. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 38: 803–805.
173. Soeprono FF, Schinella RA. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of three cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986; 14: 1020–1022.
174. Teraki Y, Konohana I, Shihara T, et al. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (Ofuji’s disease). Immunohistochemical analysis. Arch Dermatol 1993; 129: 1015–1019.
175. McCalmont TH, Altemus D, Maurer T, Berger TG. Eosinophilic folliculitis. The histologic spectrum. Am J Dermatopathol 1995; 17: 439–446.
176. Cooper PH. Eruptive xanthoma: a microscopic simulant of granuloma annulare. J Cutan Pathol 1986; 13: 207–215.
177. Crowe MJ, Gross DJ. Eruptive xanthoma. Cutis 1992; 50: 31–32.
178. Bulkley BH, Buja LM, Ferrans VJ, et al. Tuberous xanthoma in homozygous type II hyperlipoproteinemia. A histologic, histochemical, and electron microscopic study. Arch Pathol 1975; 99: 293–300.
179 Modiano P, Gillet-Terver MN, Reichert S, et al. Normolipemic plane xanthoma, monoclonal gammopathy, anti-lipoprotein activity, hypocomplementemia. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1995; 122: 507–508.
180. Zelger B, Cerio R, Orchard G, et al. Histologic and immunohistochemical study comparing xanthoma disseminatum and histiocytosis X. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 1207–1212.
181. Love JR, Dubin HV. Xanthomas and lipoproteins. Cutis 1978; 21: 801–805.
182. Braun-Falco O, Eckert F. Macroscopic and microscopic structure of xanthomatous eruptions. Current Problems in Dermatology 1991; 20: 54–62.
183. Gabriel SE, Perry HO, Oleson GB, Bowles CA. Scleromyxedema: a scleroderma-like disorder with systemic manifestations. Medicine (Baltimore) 1988; 67: 58–65.
184. Wright RC, Franco RS, Denton D, Blaney DJ. Scleromyxedema. Arch Dermatol 1976; 112: 63–66.
185. Kitamura W, Matsuoka Y, Miyagawa S, Sakamoto K. Immunochemical analysis of the monoclonal paraprotein in scleromyxedema. J Invest Dermatol 1978; 70: 305–308.
186. Dineen AM, Dicken CH. Scleromyxedema. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995; 33: 37–43.
187. Venencie PY, Powell FC, Su WPD, Perry HO. Scleredema: a review of thirty-three cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984; 11: 128–134.
188. Cohn BA, Wheeler CE, Briggman RA. Scleredema adultorum of Buschke and diabetes mellitus. Arch Dermatol 1970; 101: 27–35.
189. Cole GW, Headley J, Skowsky R. Scleredema diabeticorum: a common and distinct cutaneous manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1983; 6: 189–192.
190. Fleischmajer R, Lara JV. Scleredema. A histochemical and biochemical study. Arch Dermatol 1965; 92: 643–652.
191. Holubar K, Mach KW. Scleredema (Buschke). Histological and histochemical investigations. Acta Derm Venereol 1967; 47: 102–110.
192. Fatourechi V, Pahouhi M, Fransway AF. Dermopathy of Graves disease (pretibial myxedema). Review of 150 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 1994; 73: 1–7.
193. Kriss JP. Pathogenesis and treatment of pretibial myxedema. Endrocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1987; 16: 409–415.
194. Kind R, Hornstein OP. Clinical picture of pretibial myxedema and new aspects of diagnosis and pathogenesis. Hautarzt 1976; 27: 375–381.
195. Matsouka LY, Wortsman J, Uitto J, et al. Altered skin elastic fibers in hypothyroid myxedema and pretibial myxedema. Arch Intern Med 1985; 145: 117–121.
196. Brownstein MH, Helwig EB. Systemic amyloidosis complicating dermatoses. Arch Dermatol 1970; 102: 1–7.
197. Breathnach SM. Amyloid and amyloidosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988; 18: 1–16.
198. Barth WF, Willerson JT, Waldmann TA, Decker JL. Primary amyloidosis. Clinical, immunochemical and immunoglobulin metabolism studies in fifteen patients. Am J Med 1969; 47: 259–273.
199. Kyle RA, Bayrd ED. Amyloidosis: review of 236 cases. Medicine 1975; 54: 271–299.
200. Yanagihara M, Mehregan AH, Mehregan DR. Staining of amyloid with cotton dyes. Arch Dermatol 1984; 120: 1184–1185.
201. Livingston JZ, Scott TE, Wigley FM, et al. Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): clinical, genetic, and serological subsets. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 512–518.
202. Tuffanelli DL, Winkelmann RK. Systemic scleroderma: a clinical study of 727 cases. Arch Dermatol 1961; 84: 359–367.
203. Wallace HJ. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Trans St John’s Hosp Dermatol Soc 1971; 57: 9–30.
204. Barker LP, Gross P. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the female genitalia. Arch Dermatol 1962; 85: 362–373.
205. Harris T, Schapiro B. Calciphylaxis. Med Surg Dermatol 1996; 3: 387–389.
206. Richens G, Piepkorn MW, Krueger GG. Calcifying panniculitis associated with renal failure: a case of Selye’s calciphylaxis in man. J Am Acad Dermatol 1982; 6: 537–539.
207. Fischer AH, Morris DJ. Pathogenesis of calciphylaxis: study of three cases with literature review. Hum Pathol 1995; 26: 1055–1064.
208. Ivker RA, Woosley J, Briggaman RA. Calciphylaxis in three patients with end-stage renal disease. Arch Dermatol 1995; 131: 63–68.
209. Tikly M, Bellingan A, Lincoln D, Russell A. Risk factors for gout: a hospital-based study in urban black South Africans. Rev Rheum Engl Ed 1998; 65: 225–231.
210. Seegmiller JE. Skin manifestations of gout. In: Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, et al., eds. Dermatology in General Medicine. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1993: 1894–1900.
211. Bohn S, Buchner S, Itin P. Erythema nodosum: 112 cases. Epidemiology, clinical aspects and histopathology. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1997; 127: 1168–1176.
212. Cribier B, Caille A, Heid E, Grosshans E. Erythema nodosum and associated diseases. A study of 129 cases. Int J Dermatol 1998; 37: 667–672.
213. Vilanova X, Pinol Aguade J. Subacute nodular migratory panniculitis. Br J Dermatol 1959; 71: 45–50.
214. Sanchez Yus E, Sanz Vico D, de Diego V. Miescher’s radial granuloma. A characteristic marker of erythema nodosum. Am J Dermatopathol 1989; 11: 434–442.
215. Schneider JW, Jordan HF. The histopathologic spectrum of erythema induratum of Bazin. Am J Dermatopathol 1997; 19: 323–333.
216. Berman B, Conteas C, Smith B, et al. Fatal pancreatitis presenting with subcutaneous fat necrosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987; 17: 359–364.
217. Burden AD, Krafchik BR. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn: a review of 11 cases. Pediatr Dermatol 1999; 16: 384–387.
218. Martens PB, Moder KG, Ahmed I. Lupus panniculitis: clinical perspectives from a case series. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 68–72.
219. Connolly K. Lupus erythematosus. In: Arndt KA, LeBoit PE, Robinson JK, Wintroub BU, eds. Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1996: 260–278.
220. Watanabe T, Tsuchida T. Lupus erythematosus profundus: a cutaneous marker for a distinct clinical entity. Br J Dermatol 1996; 134: 123–125.
221. Peters MS, Su WPD. Eosinophils in lupus panniculitis and morphea profunda. J Cutan Pathol 1991; 18: 189–192.
222. Riccieri V, Sili Scavalli A, Spadaro A, et al. Lupus erythematosus panniculitis: an immunohistochemical study. Clin Rheumatol 1994; 13: 641–644.
223. Sanchez NP, Peters MS, Winkelmann RK. The histopathology of lupus erythematosus panniculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1981; 5: 673–680.
224. Tzanck A. Le cytodiagnosis immediate en dermatologie. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syph 1947; 7: 68.
225. Ruocco V, Ruocco E. Tzanck smear: an old test for the new millennium – when and how? Int J Dermatol 1999; 38: 830–834.
226. Solomon AR, Rasmussen JE, Weiss JS. A comparison of the Tzanck smear and viral isolation in varicella and herpes zoster. Arch Dermatol 1986; 122: 282–285.
227. Gupta LK, Singhi MK. Tzanck smear: a useful diagnostic tool. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2005; 7: 295–299.
228. Durdu M, Baba M, Seckin D. The value of Tzanck smear test in the diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 59: 958–964.
229. Barr RJ. Cutaneous cytology. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984; 10: 163–180.
230. Arghya B, Kaushik M, Mimi G, Subrata C. Cytodiagnosis of cutaneous histoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients initially presenting with multiple umbilicated disseminated skin nodules. Diagn Cytopathol 2011 (E-publication).
231. Arechavala AJ, Biandri MH, Santiso GM, et al. Giemsa stain in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases with cutaneous involvement. Rev Argent Microbiol 2010; 42: 316.
232. Smith JA, Kauffman CA. Blastomycosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2010; 7: 173–180.
233. Gupta N, Arora SK, Rajwanshi A, Nijhawan R, Srinivasan R. Histoplasmosis cytodiagnosis with review of literature and special emphasis on differential diagnosis in cytomorphology. Cytopathology 2010; 21: 240–244.
234. Nasser N, Nasser-Filho N, Vieira AG. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient. An Bras Dermatol 2011; 86: 1178–1180.
235. Sandler B, Potter TS, Hashimoto K. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS. Br J Dermatol 2008; 134: 159–163.
236. Litwin MA, Williams CM. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection mimicking Kaposi sarcoma. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117: 48–49.
237. Mandal BC, Bandyopadhyay G. Leprosy mimicry by lupus vulgaris and misdiagnosis of leprosy – a case report. Indian J Lepr 2012; 84: 23–25.
238. Kennedy BS, Bedard B, Younge M, et al. Outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae infection associated with tattoo ink. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 1020–1024.
239. Slany M, Jezek P, Fiserova V, et al. Mycobacterium marinum infection in humans and tracing of its possible environmental sources. Can J Microbiol 2012; 58: 39–44.
240. Gulati A, Kaushik R, Kaushal V. Cytological diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy: a report of two cases and review of literature. J Cytol 2012; 29: 203–204.
241. Bezerra SM, Jardin MM, Silva VB. Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis). An Bras Dermatol 2011; 86: 585–586.
242. O’Farrell N, Hoosen AA, Coetzee K, van den Ende J. A rapid stain for the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale. Genitourin Med 1990; 66: 200–201.
243. Graham JH, Bingul O, Burgoon CF Jr. Cytodiagnosis of inflammatory dermatosis: pitfalls in evaluation of smears. Arch Dermatol 1963; 87: 18–27.
244. Blank H, Burgoon CF Jr. Abnormal cytology of epithelial cells in pemphigus vulgaris: a diagnostic aid. J Invest Dermatol 1952; 18: 213–223.
245. Sneige N, Dekmezian RH, Katz RL, et al. Morphologic and immunocytochemical evaluation of 220 fine needle aspirates of malignant lymphoma and lymphoid hyperplasia. Acta Cytol 1990; 34: 311–322.
246. Zander DS, Iturraspe JA, Everett ET, et al. Flow cytometry: in vitro assessment of its potential application for diagnosis and classification of lymphoid processes in cytologic preparations from fine needle aspirates. Am J Clin Pathol 1994; 101: 577–586.
247. Jena M. Diagnosis of Rosai–Dorfman disease by fine needle aspiration cytology in a case with cervical lymphadenopathy and nasal mass. Online J Health Allied Sci 2011; 10: 22.
248. Das DK, Gulati A, Bhatt NC, Sethi GR. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai–Dorfman disease): report on two cases with fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24: 42–45.
249. Kushwaha R, Ahluwalia C, Sipayya K. Diagnosis of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai–Dorfman disease) by fine needle aspiration cytology. J Cytol 2009; 26: 83–85.
250. Aziz M, Ray PS, Haider N, Rathore SP. Diagnosis of Rosai–Dorfman disease in an elderly female on fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report. Case Rep Pathol 2012 (www.hindawi.com/crim/pathology/2012/806130) (E-publication, accessed 3–4–2013).
251. Deshpande AH, Nayak S, Munshi MM. Cytology of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai–Dorfman disease). Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 22: 181–185.