Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: June 2014

4 - Islamic International Law and International Humanitarian Law

Summary

Introduction

A treaty is a source of law provided that its purposes and terms comply with the sharīca. This is true irrespective of whether the treaty is concluded with a Muslim or a non-Muslim state. Agreements between the Muslim ummah and non-Muslim communities are deemed to be binding on the Muslim ummah as a formal treaty with another state. Accordingly, treaties have the same binding legal nature as contracts, because both are based on the sharīca principle of al caqd sharīcat al-mutcāqidīn (the contract is the law of parties).

Whenever questions have arisen over treaty interpretation they have been resolved by reinforcing the treaty's binding nature, even when the treaty in question contradicted some principle of Islam. The early history of Islam shows that treaties were probably the most important aspect of the fledgling ummah's international practice. As with all new states, these treaties were essential because they provided the ummah with recognition by established states, and conferred legitimacy and standing to it. The Prophet understood this and the historical record shows that he relied on treaties for these reasons. Treaties are the best evidence of the recognition of statehood because their validation presupposes that the state in question has the capacity to carry out its international obligations. Thus, the fledgling Muslim ummah honored its treaties as evidence of its credibility and reliability in international relations.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Hamidullah, Muhammed, Muslim Conduct of State (Lahore, Pakistan: Sheikh Muhammad Ashraf, 1977)
Al-Ghunaymi, Mohammad Talat, The Muslim Conception of International Law And The Western Approach (Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1968)
Ramadan, Said, Islamic Law: Its Scope and Equity (London, UK: P. R. Macmillan, 1961)
Armanazi, Najib, L’Islam et le droit international (Paris, France: Picart, 1929)
Munir, Muhammad, Public International Law and Islamic International Law: Identical Expressions of World Order, in Islamabad Law Review 369, 425 (2003)
Rabbath, Edmund, Pour une theorie du droit International Musulman, 6 Revue Egyptienne de Droit International1 (1950)
Deraz, Mohamed Abdallah, Le Droit Internationale De Islam, 5 Revue Egyptienne de Droit International17 (1949)
Rechid, Ahmed, Islam et le droit des genes, 60 Recuil des cours de l'academie de droit international de la haye371 (1937)
Majjid, Sayid Abdel, The Muslim International Law, 28 Law Quarterly Review 89 (1912)
al-Wathā’iq al-Dawliyya wa al-Iqlīmiyya al-Macniyyaa bi Ḥuqūq al-Insān [Regional and International Documents on Human Rights] (M. Cherif Bassiouni & Khaled Mohey El Din eds., 3 vols., Cairo, Egypt: Dār al-Nahḍa, 2011)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, al-Qānūn al-Dawlī al-Insānī [International Humanitarian Law] (Cairo, Egypt: Dār al-Nahḍa al-cArabiyya, 2007)
Zahra, Muḥammad Abū, al-Alāqāt al-Dawliyya fī al-Islām [International Relations in Islam] (Cairo, Egypt: Dār al-Qawmiyya li al-Tibāca wa al-Nashr, 1964)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The Protection of Diplomats Under Islamic Law, 74 American Journal of International Law609 (1980)
Khadduri, Majid, War and Peace in the Law of Islam 202 (Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins Press, 1955, reprinted by Clark, USA: The Law Book Exchange, 2006)
Kruse, Hanse, al-Shaybani on International Instruments, 1 Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society90 (1953)
American Journal of International Law 129 (Supp. 1907); Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land art. 4, October 18, 1907, reprinted in 2 American Journal of International Law 90 (Supp. 1908)
Henckaerts, Jean-Marie & Doswald-Beck, Louise, 1–2 Customary International Humanitarian Law (Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross, 2005)
A Manual on International Humanitarian Law and Arms Control Agreements (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., Ardsley Park, USA: Transnational Publishers, 2000)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, International Extradition: U.S. Law and Practice, Chapter 2 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 5th rev ed., 2007)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif & Wise, Edward M., Aut Dedere Aut Judicare: The Duty To Extradite Or Prosecute In International Law (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1995)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Introduction to International Criminal Law: Second Revised Edition487–98 (Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2nd ed., 2013)
Ḥajjāj, Muslim ibn al-Nīsābūrī, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, Book 7, No. 2802 (Nasiruddin al-Khattab trans., 7 vols., Houston, USA: Dār-us-Salām Publications, 2007)
ibn, MuḥammadAbī, Aḥmad ibnSahl al-Sarakhsī, Al-Mabsūṭ [The Extended Treatise] (30 vols., Cairo, Egypt: al-Sacda Press; 1906, reprinted by 30 vols., Beirut, Lebanon: Dār al-Macrifa, 1978; reprinted by Beirut, Lebanon: Dār al-Macrifa, 1986)
Salām Madkūr, Muḥammad, al-Islāmī, Madkhal al-Fiqh [The Gateway to Islamic Law] 93–111 (Cairo, Egypt: al-Dār al-Qawmiyya, 1964)
al-Tashrī, Falsafatc fī al-Islām [The Philosophy of Legislation in Islam] 198–219 (Beirut, Lebanon: Dār al-cIlm li Malāyīn, 3rd ed., 1961)
Salem, Elie, Arab Reformers and the Reinterpretation of Islam, in The Muslim World 55 (October, 1965)
Cahen, Claude, Ayyubids, in The Encyclopedia of Islam 796 (Bosworth, Clifford ed., Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 1997)
Lyons, Malcolm C. & Jackson, D. E. P., Saladin: The Politics of the Holy War (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982)
Humphreys, R. Stephen, From Saladin to the Mongols: the Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193–1260 (Albany, USA: State University of New York Press, 1977)
Reston, Jr. James, Defenders of the Faith: Christianity and Islam Battle for the Soul of Europe 1520–1536 (New York, USA: Penguin Books, 2009)
Lewis, Bernard, The Middle East: 2000 Years of History from the Rise of Christianity to the Present Day (New York, USA: Simon & Schuster, 1995)
Heyd, Uriel, Ottoman Documents on Palestine: 1552–1615 (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1960)
Schacht, Joseph, An Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1964)
Imber, Colin, Abu Su'ud: The Islamic Legal Tradition (Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1997)
Veinstein, G., Suleyman, , in The Encyclopedia of Islam, supra note 28, at 832; Albert Hourani, History of the Arab Peoples 258–59 (Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press, 2nd ed. 2003)
Fadel, Mohammed H., International Law, Regional Developments: Islam, in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010)
Schabas, William A., Genocide in International Law: The Crime of Crimes (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2d ed. 2009)
Lippman, Matthew, Genocide International Criminal Law: Sources Subjects, and Contents, Vol. 1, 403 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 3rd ed., 2008)
al-Qādir, AbdcOdeh, Al-Tashrī al-Jinā‘ī al-Islāmī [Islamic Criminal Legislation] (4 vols., Cairo, Egypt: Dār al-Shurūq, 2001)
The Islamic Criminal Justice System (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., Oceana Publications, USA, 1982)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, International Recognition of Victims’ Rights, 6 Human Rights Law Review203 (2006)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Sources, Subjects and Contents, in 1 International Criminal Law (Bassiouni, M. Cherif, ed., 3rd ed., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2008)
Louise Mallinder, Amnesty, Human Rights And Political Transitions: Bridging The Peace And Justice Divide (London, UK: Hart Publishing, 2008)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The New Wars and the Crisis of Compliance with the Law of Armed Conflict by Non-State Actors, 98 Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology711 (2008)
Pape, Robert A., Bombing to Win: Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press, 1996)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Legal Controls of International Terrorism: A-Policy-Oriented Assessment, 43 Harvard International Law Journal83 (2002)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Terrorism: The Persistent Dilemma of Legitimacy, 36 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law299 (2004)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Perspectives on International Terrorism, in International Terrorism: Multilateral Conventions 1937–2001 1 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., Ardsley, USA: Transnational Publishers, 2001)
Levie, Howard S., Terrorism in War: The Law of War Crimes (Dobbs Ferry, USA: Oceana Publications, 1993)
Laqueur, Walter, The Age of Terrorism (New York, USA: Little, Brown & Co., 1988)
Shah, Niaz A., Self-Defense in Islamic and International Law (Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Evolving Approaches to Jihad: From Self-defense to Revolutionary and Regime-Change Political Violence, in Jihad: Challenges to International and Domestic Law (Bassiouni, M. Cherif & Guellali, Amna eds., The Hague, The Netherlands: T. M. C. Asser Press, 2010)
reprinted in 2 American Journal of International Law. 90 (Supp. 1908)
Munir, Muhammad, Suicide attacks and Islamic law, 90 International Review of the Red Cross 71, 71–72 (March 2008)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, New Wars And The Crisis Of Compliance, 98 Northwestern Journal Of Criminal Law & Criminology711 (2008)
The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's Siyar, supra note 47; Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam, supra note 8; Law in the Middle East 36 (Majid Khadduri & Herbert Liebesny eds., Middle East Institute, 1955)
Schacht, J., An Introduction to Islamic Law130–31 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1964)
Bahnassi, A. F., al-Islami, Al-Jarai'im fil Fiqh [Crimes in the Jurisprudence of Islam] 245–55 (1968)
jurisconsult, Jaafari, Abul-Quasem Negm-el-din, Sheikhel-Helli, Jaafar ibn-al-Hassan (d. 676 AH / 1277 CE) in Jafar ibn al-Ḥassan al-Ḥillī, al-Mukhtaṣar al-Nāfi [The Useful Abridgement] (Beirut, Lebanon: Dār al-Aḍwā’, 1985)
Ibn Khaldun, al-Muqaddimat (Rosenthal, F. trans., 3 vols., Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press, 1958)
Mahdi, Muhsen, Ibn Khaldoun's Philosophy of History (Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press, 1971)
Watt, W. Montgomery, Muhammad At Medina 221–25 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1956)
Massignon, Louis, Annuaire du Monde Musulman [The Directory of the Muslim World] (Paris, France: Presses universitaires de France, 1929)
Corbin, Henry, En Islam Iranien [In Iranian Islam] (Paris, France: Gallimard, 1972)
Jawād Maghniyya, Muḥammad, al-Imām, Fiqh Jacfar al-Ṣādiq [The Legal Science of Imam Jacafar al-Ṣādiq] (Beirut, Lebanon: Dār al-Tacaruf li al-Maṭbūcāt, 1977)
Alyan, Rushdi, al-Aql ind al-Shīa [Legal Reasoning According to the Shīa] (Beirut, Lebanon: Center of Civilization for Islamic Thought Development, 2008)
Shah, Niaz, Islamic Law and the Law of Armed Conflict93–117 (New York, USA: Routledge, 2011)
Rashid, Ahmed, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia (New Haven, USA: Yale University Press, 2nd ed., 2010)
Munir, Muhammad, The Layha for the Mujahideen: an analysis of the code of conduct for the Taliban fighters under Islamic law, 93 International Review of the Red Cross81, 85 (2011)
Jihad: Challenges to International and Domestic Law (Bassiouni, M. Cherif & Guellali, Amna eds., The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2010)
Gerges, Fawaz A., The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 2009)
Cook, David, Understanding Jihad (Berkeley, USA: University of California Press, 2005)
Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (Cambridge, USA: Belknap Press, 2003)
Firestone, Reuven, Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, rev. ed., 2002)
Rashid, Ahmed, Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia (New York, USA: Penguin Books, 2002)
Zawati, Hilmi, Is Jihad a Just War? War, Peace and Human Rights under Islamic and Public International Law (New York, USA: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001)
Weaver, Mary Anne, A Portrait of Egypt: A Journey through the World of Militant Islam (New York, USA: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, rev. ed., 2000)
Huband, Mark, Warriors of the Prophet: The Struggle for Islam (New York, USA: Basic Books, 1999)
Barber, Benjamin R., Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy (New York, USA: Ballantine, 1996)
Peters, Rudolph, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Princeton, USA: Markus Wiener Publishers, rev. ed., 2005)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Evolving Approaches to Jihad: From Self-defense to Revolutionary and Regime-Change Political Violence, in Jihad: Challenges to International and Domestic Law (Bassiouni, M. Cherif & Guellali, Amna eds., The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2010)
Dayem, Mohamed Abdel & Ayoub, Fatima, In the Path of Allah: Evolving Interpretations of Jihad and its Modern Challenges, in 7 UCLA Journal of Islamic & Near Eastern Law67 (2008)
Jackson, Sherman, Jihad and the Modern World, 7 Journal of Islamic Law & Culture1 (2002)
Rushd, Fatāwa ibn (Tahir, Mukhtar ibn ed., Beirut, Lebanon: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami, 1987)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Legal Controls of International Terrorism: A-Policy-Oriented Assessment, 43 Harvard Journal of International Law83 (2002)
Franck, Thomas & Senecal, Scott C., Potfiry's Proposition: Legitimacy and Terrorism, 20 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law195 (1987)
Martin, David, Does Christianity Cause War? (Vancouver, CA: Regent College Publishing, 2004)
Avalos, , Fighting Words, supra note 187. Bruce Lawrence challenges the notion that Islam is a religion of violence in Shattering the Myth: Islam beyond Violence (Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press, 1998)
New Faiths, Old Fears: Muslims and Other Asian Immigrants in American Religious Life (New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 2004)
ibn Mandhūr, Muḥammad ibn Makram, Lisān al-cArab [The Language of the Arabs] (Cairo, Egypt: Dar Al-Hadith, 2nd ed. 2003)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif & Badr, Gamal, The Shari’ah: Sources, Interpretation and Rule-making, 1 UCLA Journal of Islamic & Near Eastern L.135 (2002)
Hallaq, Wael B., A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to Sunni Usūl al-Fiqh (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997)
Von Clausewitz, Carl, On War (Howard, Michael & Paret, Peter trans., Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press, 1989)
Keen, Maurice, The Law of War in the Late Middle Ages 2–3, 19–22 (London, UK: Ashgate Publishing, reprint, 1993)
Shah, Niaz A., Self-Defense in Islamic and International Law (Hampshire, UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008)
Maged, Adel, Arab and Islamic Shari'a Perspectives on the Current Systems of International Criminal Justice, 8 International Criminal Law Review477 (2008)
Firestone, Reuven, Journeys in Holy Hands: The Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis (Albany, USA: State University of New York Press, 1990)
Gerges, , The Far Enemy, supra note 178; Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (Donohue, John J. & Esposito, John L. eds., Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 2006)
Henckaerts, Jean-Marie & Doswald-Beck, Louise, Customary International Humanitarian Law (2 vols., Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross, 2005)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Introduction to International Humanitarian Law, in International Criminal Law: Sources, Subjects, and Contents, Vol. 1, 269 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., Ardsley Park, USA: Transnational Publishers, 3rd rev. ed., 2008)
International Terrorism: Multilateral Conventions, 1937–2001 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., Ardsley Park, USA: Transnational Publishers, 2001)
International Terrorism: A Compilation of U.N. Documents (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., 2 vols., Ardsley Park, USA: Transnational Publishers, 2002)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, The Institutionalization of Torture by the Bush Administration: Is Anyone Responsible? (Antwerp, Belgium: Intersentia, 2010)
Huntington, Samuel, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York, USA: Simon & Schuster, 1998)
Johnson, Chalmers, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York, USA: Metropolitan Books, 2004)
Muslims Believe U.S. Seeks to Undermine Islam, World Public Opinion (April 27, 2007)
Toynbee, Arnold, A Study of History (12 vols., Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1961)
Wells, H. G., The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind (2 vols., London, UK: George Newnes Ltd., 1920)
Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (M. Oakeshott ed., 1957)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Freedom of Religion in Egypt: The Baha'is’ Case, in Criminologia y Derecho Penal al Servicio de la Persona (de la Cuesta, Jose Luis, Dendaluze, Inaki, & Echebunia, Enrique eds., Sebastian, San, Spain: Basque Institute of Criminology, 1989)
Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iraq (London, UK: OneWorld Publications, 2nd ed., 2008)
Nasr, Vali, The Shi'a Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future (New York, USA: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007)
Mottahedeh, Roy, Loyalty and Leadership in an Early Islamic Society (London, UK: I.B. Tauris, rev. ed. 2001)
Khomenei, Imam, Islam and Revolution: Writings and Declarations of Imam Khomeini 1941–1980 (Berkeley, USA: Mizan Press, 1981)
Lewis, Michael, Drones and the Boundaries of the Battlefield, 47 Tex. Int'l L. J. 293 (2011–2012)
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, Les Crimes relevant du prècepte de Qesas, 4 Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique485 (1989)
Completing the Circle: Accountability for the Crimes of the 1971 Bangladesh War of Liberation, 21 Forum, Crim. L.191 (2010)
Linton, Suzannah, Asia, in 2 The Pursuit of International Criminal Justice: A World Study on Conflicts, Victimization, and Post-Conflict Justice515, 535 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed. 2010)
Rummel, Rudolph, Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (1998)