Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Sexual Segregation in Vertebrates
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Males and females often differ in developmental patterns, adult morphology, ecology and behaviour, and in many mammals males are often larger. Size dimorphism results in divergent nutritional and energetic requirements or reproductive strategies by the sexes, which in turn sometimes causes them to select different forage, use different habitats, and express differing social affinities. Such divergent life-styles often lead males and females to live large parts of their lives separately. Sexual segregation is widespread in animals. Males and females may share the same habitat, but at different times, for example, or they might use different habitats entirely. Why did sexual segregation evolve and what factors contribute to it? Sexual Segregation in Vertebrates explores these questions by looking at a wide range of vertebrates and is aimed as a synthesis of our current understanding and a guide for future research.

Reviews

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents


Page 1 of 2


  • 8 - Differences in habitat selection and reproductive strategies of male and female sharks
    pp 127-147
    • By David W. Sims, Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth

Page 1 of 2


References
References
Abernethy, K. A., White, L. J. T. and Wickings, E. J. (2002). Hordes of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): extreme group size and seasonal male presence. Journal of Zoology, London, 258, 131–7.
Acuna, H. O. and Francis, J. M. (1995). Spring and summer prey of the Juan-Fernandez fur seal, Arctocephalus philippii. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73, 1444–52.
Adamopoulou, C. and Legakis, A. (2002). Diet of a lacertid lizard (Podarcis milensis) in an insular dune ecosystem. Israel Journal of Zoology, 48, 207–19.
Afanasyev, V. (2004). A miniature daylight level and activity data recorder for tracking animals over long periods. Memoirs of the National Institute of Polar Research, Special Issue, 58, 227–233.
Agrimi, U. and Luiselli, L. (1992). Feeding strategies of the viper V. u. ursinii (Reptilia: Viperidae) in the Apennines. Herpetological Journal, 2, 37–42.
Alberts, S. A. and Altmann, J. (1995). Balancing costs and benefits: dispersal in male baboons. American Naturalist, 145, 279–306.
Albon, S. D., Clutton-Brock, T. H. and Langvatn, R. (1992). Cohort variation in reproduction and survival: implications for population demography. In The Biology of Deer, ed. Brown, R. D.. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Alexander, C., Lynch, J. J. and Mottershead, B. E. (1979). Use of shelter and selection of lambing sites by shorn and unshorn ewes in paddocks with closely or widely spaced shelters. Applied Animal Ethology, 5, 51–69.
Allen, B. A., Burghardt, G. M. and York, D. S. (1984). Species and sex differences in substrate preference and tongue-flick rate in three sympatric species of water snakes (Nerodia). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 98, 358–67.
Altmann, J. (1980). Baboon Mothers and Infants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Altmann, J. (1990). Primate males go where the females are. Animal Behaviour, 39, 193–5.
Altringham, J. D. (1996). Bats: Biology and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Altringham, J. D. and Fenton, M. B. (2003). Sensory ecology and communication in the Chiroptera. In Bat Ecology, eds. Kunz, T. H. and Fenton, M. B.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 90–127.
Anderson, D. J., Reeve, J., Gomez, J. E. M.et al. (1993). Sexual size dimorphism and food requirements of nestling birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71, 2541–5.
Anderson, D. J., Schwandt, A. J. and Douglas, H. D. (1998). Foraging ranges of waved albatrosses in the Eastern tropical Pacific. In Albatross Biology and Conservation, eds. Robertson, G. and Gales, R.. Chipping Norton: Surrey Beatty and Sons, pp. 180–5.
Andersson, M. (1994). Sexual Selection, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Andrews, R. M. (1971). Structural habitat and time budget of a tropical Anolis lizard. Ecology, 52, 262–70.
Andrews, R. M., Cruz, F. R. M. and Cruz, Santa M. V. (1997). Body temperatures of female Sceloporus grammicus: Thermal stress or impaired mobility? Copeia, 1997, 108–15.
Angelici, F. M., Effah, C., Inyang, M. A. and Luiselli, L. (2000). A preliminary radiotracking study of movements, activity patterns and habitat use of free-ranging Gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica. Terre et la Vie, 55, 45–55.
Anibaldi, C., Luiselli, L. and Angelici, F. M. (1998). Notes on the ecology of a suburban population of rainbow lizards in coastal Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 36, 199–206.
Antonelis, G. A., Lowry, M. S., Fiscus, C. H., Stewart, B. S. and Delong, R. L. (1994). Diet of the northern elephant seal. In Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behaviour, and Physiology, ed. Boeuf, B. J. and Laws, R. M.. Berkley: University of California Press, pp. 211–23.
Appleby, M. C. (1982). The consequences and causes of high social rank in red deer stags. Behaviour, 80, 259–73.
Appleby, M. C. (1983). Competition in a red deer stag social group – rank, age and relatedness of opponents. Animal Behaviour, 31, 913–18.
Arcese, P., Keller, L. F. and Cary, J. R. (1997). Why hire a behaviorist into a conservation or management team? In Behavioral Approaches to Conservation in the Wild, eds. Clemmons, J. R. and Buchholz, R.. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, pp. 48–71.
Archer, J. and Lloyd, B. (2002). Sex and Gender. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Archibald, G. W. and Meine, C. D. (1996). Family Gruidae (Cranes). In Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 3., eds. Hoyo, J. del, Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J.. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Ardia, D. R. and Bildstein, K. L. (1997). Sex-related differences in habitat selection in wintering American kestrels, Falco sparverius. Animal Behaviour, 53, 1305–11.
Ardia, D. R. and Bildstein, K. L. (2001). Sex-related differences in habitat use in wintering American kestrels. Auk, 118, 746–50.
Arkhipkin, A. I. and Middletion, D. A. J. (2002). Sexual segregation in ontogenetic migrations by the squid Loligo gahi around the Falkland Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science, 71, 109–27.
Arlettaz, R. (1999). Habitat selection as a major resource partitioning mechanism between the two sympatric sibling bat species Myotis myotis and Myotis blythii. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 460–71.
Arnbom, T. and Lundberg, S. (1995). Notes on Lepas australis (Cirripedia, Lepadidae) recorded on the skin of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina). Crustaceana, 68, 655–8.
Arnbom, T., Papastavrou, V., Weilgart, L. S. and Whitehead, H. (1987). Sperm whales react to an attack by killer whale. Journal of Mammalogy, 68, 450–3.
Arnold, G. W., Boundy, C. A. P., Morgan, P. D. and Bartle, G. (1975). The roles of sight and hearing in the lamb in the location and discrimination between ewes. Applied Animal Ethology, 5, 43–50.
Arnold, G. W., Steven, D. E. and Grassia, A. (1990). Associations between individuals and classes in groups of different size in a population of western grey kangaroos, Macropus fuliginosus. Australian Wildlife Research, 17, 551–62.
Arnold, G. W., Steven, D. E. and Weeldenberg, J. R. (1994). Comparative ecology of western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and Euros (M. robustus erubescens) in Durokoppin Nature Reserve, isolated in the central wheatbelt of Western Australia. Wildlife Research, 21, 307–22.
Arnold, P. W. (1972). Predation on harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, by a white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 29, 1213–14.
Arnold, S. J. (1993). Foraging theory and prey-size-predator-size relations in snakes. In Snakes: Ecology and Behavior, eds. Seigel, R. A. and Collins, J. T.. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 87–116.
Arnold, S. J. and Peterson, C. R. (2002). A model for optimal reaction norms: the case of the pregnant garter snake and her temperature-sensitive embryos. American Naturalist, 160, 306–16.
Arnould, J. P. Y. and Duck, C. D. (1997). The cost and benefits of territorial tenure, and factors affecting mating success in male Antarctic fur seals. Journal of Zoology, 241, 649–64.
Arnould, J. P. Y., Green, J. A. and Rawlins, D. R. (2001). Fasting metabolism in Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) pups. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 129, 829–41.
Atsalis, K. (1999). The diet of the brown mouse lemur, Microcebus rufus, in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology, 20, 193–229.
Backus, R. H., Springer, S. and Arnold, E. L. (1956). A contribution to the natural history of the white-tip shark, Pterolamiops longimanus (Poey). Deep-Sea Research, 3, 178–88.
Badyaev, A. V. (2002). Growing apart: an ontogenetic perspective on the evolution of sexual size dimorphism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17, 369–78.
Baird, R. W. (2000). The killer whale: Foraging specializations and group hunting. In Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales, eds. Mann, J., Connor, R. C., Tyack, P. L. and Whitehead, H.. Chicago: Academic Press, pp. 127–53.
Baird, R. W. and Whitehead, H. (2000). Social organization of mammal-eating killer whales: group stability and dispersal patterns. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78, 2096–105.
Baker, J. R. and McCann, T. S. (1989). Pathology and bacteriology of adult male Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, dying at Bird Island, South Georgia. British Veterinary Journal, 145, 263–75.
Baldassarre, G. A. and Bolen, E. G. (1994). Waterfowl Ecology and Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Baldellou, M. and Aden, A. (1997). Time, gender, and seasonality in vervet activity: a chronobiological approach. Primates, 38, 33–43.
Barboza, P. S. and Bowyer, R. T. (2000). Sexual segregation in dimorphic deer: a new gastrocentric hypothesis. Journal of Mammalogy, 81, 473–89.
Barclay, R. M. R. (1991). Population structure of temperate zone insectivorous bats in relation to foraging behaviour and energy demand. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60, 165–78.
Barclay, R. M. R. and Harder, L. D. (2003). Life histories of bats: life in the slow lane. In Bat Ecology, eds. Kunz, T. H. and Fenton, M. B.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 209–53.
Barrette, C. (1991). The size of Axis deer fluid groups in Wilpattu National Park, Sri Lanka. Mammalia, 2, 207–20.
Barros, N. B. and Odell, D. K. (1990). Food habits of bottlenose dolphins in Southeastern United States. In The Bottlenose Dolphin, eds. Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R. R.. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 309–28.
Barry, R. E., Botje, M. A. and Grantham, L. B. (1984). Vertical stratification of Peromyscus leucopus and P. maniculatus in southwestern Virginia. Journal of Mammalogy, 65, 145–8.
Bartle, J. A. (1990). Sexual segregation of foraging zones in procellariiform birds: implications of accidental capture on commercial fishery longlines of grey petrels (Procellaria cinerea). Notornis, 37, 146–50.
Bass, A. J., D'Aubrey, J. and Kistnasamy, N. (1973). Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. I. The genus Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae). Investigation Report of the Oceanographic Research Institute, 33, 1–168.
Bateson, P. P. G. and Martin, P. (1999). Design for a Life: How Behaviour Develops. London: Jonathan Cape.
Bauwens, D. and Thoen, C. (1981). Escape tactics and vulnerability to predation associated with reproduction in the lizard Lacerta vivipara. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50, 733–43.
Beamish, F. W. H. (1978). Swimming capacity of fish. In Fish Physiology, Vol. 7, ed. Randall, D. J.. New York: Academic Press, pp. 101–87.
Bearder, S. K. (1987). Lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers: diverse societies in solitary foragers. In Primate Societies, eds. Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 11–24.
Beck, C. A., Bowen, W. D. and Iverson, S. J. (2003a). Sex differences in the seasonal patterns of energy storage and expenditure in a phocid seal. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 280–91.
Beck, C. A., Bowen, W. D., McMillan, J. I. and Iverson, S. J. (2003b). Sex differences in the diving behaviour of a size-dimorphic capital breeder: the grey seal. Animal Behaviour, 66, 777–89.
Becker, C. D. and Ginsberg, J. R. (1990). Mother-infant behavior of wild Grevy's zebra: adaptation for survival in semi-desert East Africa. Animal Behaviour, 40, 1111–18.
Becker, D. S. (1988). Relationship between sediment character and sex segregation in English sole, Parophrys vetulus. U.S. Fishery Bulletin, 86, 517–24.
Becker, P. H., González-Solís, J., Behrends, B. and Croxall, J. P. (2002). Feather mercury levels in seabirds at South Georgia: Influence of trophic position, sex and age. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 243, 261–9.
Beer, J. R. and Richards, A. G. (1956). Hibernation of the big brown bat. Journal of Mammalogy, 37, 31–41.
Beier, P. (1987). Sex differences in quality of white-tailed deer diets. Journal of Mammalogy, 68, 323–9.
Beier, P. and McCullough, D. R. (1990). Factors influencing white-tailed deer activity patterns and habitat use. Wildlife Monographs, 109, 1–51.
Beissinger, S. R. (1997). Integrating behavior into conservation biology: potential and limitations. In Behavioral Approaches to Conservation in the Wild, eds. Clemmons, J. R. and Buchholz, R.. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, pp. 23–47.
Béland, P., Faucher, A. and Corbeil, P. (1990). Observations on the birth of a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68, 1327–9.
Belcher, C. A. (2003). Demographics of tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus maculatus) populations in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology, 51, 611–26.
Bell, R. H. V. (1969). The use of the herbaceous layer by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, University of Manchester.
Bell, R. H. V. (1971). A grazing ecosystem in the Serengeti. Scientific American, 225, 86–93.
Benham, P. F. J. (1982). Synchronization of behaviour in grazing cattle. Applied Animal Ethology, 8, 403–4.
Bennett, P. M. and Owens, P. F. (2002). Evolutionary Ecology of Birds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Benshemesh, J. and Johnson, K. (2003). Biology and conservation of marsupial moles (Notoryctes). In Predators with Pouches: The Biology of Carnivorous Marsupials, eds. Jones, M. E., Dickman, C. and Archer, M.. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, pp. 464–74.
Bercovitch, F. B. (1983). Time budgets and consorts in olive baboons (Papio anubis). Folia Primatologica, 41, 180–90.
Bercovitch, F. B. (1997). Reproductive strategies of rhesus macaques. Primates, 38, 247–63.
Bergan, J. F. and Smith, L. M. (1989). Differential habitat use by diving ducks wintering in South Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Management, 53, 1117–26.
Berger, J. (1986). Wild Horses of the Great Basin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berger, J. (1991). Pregnancy incentives, predation constraints, and habitat shifts: experimental and field evidence for wild bighorn sheep. Animal Behaviour, 41, 66–77.
Berger, J. and Cunningham, C. (1988). Size-related effects on search times in North American grassland female ungulates. Ecology, 69, 177–83.
Berger, J. and Cunningham, C. (1995). Predation, sensitivity, and sex: why female black rhinoceroses outlive males. Behavioral Ecology, 6, 57–64.
Berger, J. and Gompper, M. E. (1999). Sex ratios in extant ungulates: products of contemporary predation or past life histories? Journal of Mammalogy, 80, 1084–113.
Berger, J., Swenson, J. E. and Persson, I.-L. (2001). Recolonizing carnivores and naïve prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions. Science, 291, 1036–9.
Bergerud, A. T. (1974). Rutting behaviour of Newfoundland caribou. In The Behaviour of Ungulates and its Relationship to Management, eds. V. Giest and F. Walther, pp. 395–435. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources: New Series, 24, 1–940.
Bergerud, A. T., Butler, H. E. and Miller, D. R. (1984). Antipredator tactics of calving caribou: dispersion in mountains. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62, 1566–75.
Bernard, H. J. and Hohn, A. A. (1989). Differences in feeding habits between pregnant and lactating spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata). Journal of Mammalogy, 70, 211–15.
Bernstein, N. P. and Maxson, S. J. (1984). Sexually distinct activity patterns of blue-eyed shags in Antarctica. Condor, 86, 151–6.
Berrow, S. D. and Croxall, J. P. (2001). Provisioning rate and attendance patterns of wandering albatrosses at Bird Island, South Georgia. Condor, 103, 230–9.
Berrow, S. D., Humpidge, R. and Croxall, J. P. (2000). Influence of adult breeding experience on growth and provisioning of wandering albatross Diomedea exulans chicks at South Georgia. Ibis, 142, 199–207.
Berry, J. F. and Shine, R. (1980). Sexual size dimorphism and sexual selection in turtles (Order Chelonia). Oecologia, 44, 185–91.
Berta, A. (2002). Pinnipedia, overview. In Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, eds. Perrin, W. F., Wursig, B. and Thewissen, J. G. M.. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 931–9.
Berteaux, D. (1993). Female-biased mortality in a sexually dimorphic ungulate: feral cattle of Amsterdam Island. Journal of Mammalogy, 74, 732–7.
Best, P. B. (1979). Social organization in sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus. In Behavior of Marine Mammal: Current Perspectives in Research, vol. 3, Cetaceans, eds. Winn, H. E. and Olla, B. L.. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 227–89.
Best, R. C. and da Silva, V. M. F. (1993). Inia geoffrensis. Mammalian Species, 423, 1–8.
Best, T. L. and Gennaro, A. L. (1984). Feeding ecology of the lizard, Uta stansburiana, in southwestern Mexico. Journal of Herpetology, 18, 291–301.
Best, T. L. and Pfaffenberger, G. S. (1987). Age and sexual variation in the diet of collared lizards (Crotaphytus collaris). Southwestern Naturalist, 32, 415–26.
Beuchat, C. A. (1986). Reproductive influences on the thermoregulatory behavior of a live-bearing lizard. Copeia, 1986, 971–9.
Bibby, C. J. and Thomas, D. K. (1984). Sexual dimorphism in size, moult and movements of Cetti's warbler Cettia cetti. Bird Study, 31, 28–34.
Bigg, M. A. (1973). Census of California sea lions on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Journal of Mammal Research, 54, 285–7.
Bigg, M. A. (1990). Migration of northern for seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off western North America. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 1764, 1–64.
Bigg, M. A., Olesiuk, P. F., Ellis, G. M., Ford, J. K. B. and Balcomb, K. C. III (1990). Social organization and genealogy of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Report of the International Whaling Commission, Special issue, 12, 383–405.
BirdLife International (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx edicions and BirdLife International.
Blackburn, D. G. (1985). Evolutionary origins of viviparity in the Reptilia. II. Serpentes, Amphisbaenia, and Icthyosauria. Amphibia-Reptilia, 6, 259–91.
Blatchford, P., Baines, , and Pellegrini, A. D. (2003). The social context of school playground games: sex and ethnic differences and changes over time after entry into junior school. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 459–71.
Blaxter, J. H. S. and Holliday, F. G. T. (1969). The behaviour and physiology of herring and other clupeids. Advances in Marine Biology, 1, 261–393.
Bleich, V. C., Bowyer, R. T. and Wehausen, J. D. (1997). Sexual segregation in mountain sheep: resources or predation? Wildlife Monographs, 134, 1–50.
Bleich, V. C., Wehausen, J. D. and Holl, S. A. (1990). Desert-dwelling mountain sheep: conservation implications of a naturally fragmented distribution. Conservation Biology, 4, 383–90.
Bleich, V. C., Wehausen, J. D., Ramey, R. R. and Rechel, J. L. (1996). Metapopulation theory and mountain sheep: implications for conservation. In Metapopulations and Wildlife Conservation, ed. McCullough, D. R.. Covelo, California: Island Press, pp. 353–73.
Bleske, A. L. and Buss, D. M. (2000). Can men and women just be friends? Personal Relationships, 7, 131–51.
Bleske-Rechek, A. L. and Buss, D. M. (2001). Opposite-sex friendship: sex differences and similarities in initiation, selection, and interpretation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1310–23.
Blondel, J., Perret, P., Anstett, M.-C. and Thébaud, C. (2002). Evolution of sexual size dimorphism in birds: test of hypotheses using blue tits in contrasted Mediterranean habitats. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 15, 440–50.
Blouin-Demers, G. and Weatherhead, P. J. (2001). Thermal ecology of black rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) in a thermally challenging environment. Ecology, 82, 3025–43.
Boase, H. (1926). Proportion of male and female duck on Tay estuary. British Birds, 20, 169–72.
Boesch, C. and Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Boinski, S. (1987). Birth synchrony in squirrel monkeys: a strategy to reduce neonatal predation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 21, 393–400.
Boinski, S. (1988). Sex differences in the foraging behavior of squirrel monkeys. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 23, 177–86.
Boinski, S. (1994). Affiliation patterns among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys. Behaviour, 130, 191–209.
Boinski, S. (1999). The social organizations of squirrel monkeys: implications for ecological models of social evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8, 101–12.
Boinski, S., Sughrue, K., Selvaggi, L.et al. (2002). An expanded test of the ecological model of primate social evolution: competitive regimes and female bonding in three species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi, Saimiri boliviensis, and Saimiri sciureus). Behaviour, 139, 227–61.
Bon, R. (1991). Social and spatial segregation of males and females in polygamous ungulates: proximate factors. In Ongulés/Ungulates 1991, eds. Spitz, F., Janeau, G., Gonzalez, G., and Aulagnier, S.. Paris/Toulouse: SFEPM-IRGM, pp. 195–8.
Bon, R. (1998). Perspective éthologique de l'étude de la ségrégation sexuelle chez les ongulés. Habilitation à Diriger les Recherches. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
Bon, R. and Campan, R. (1989). Social tendencies of the Corsican mouflon Ovis ammon musimon in the Caroux-Espinouse (South of France). Behavioural Processes, 19, 57–78.
Bon, R. and Campan, R. (1996). Unexplained sexual segregation in polygamous ungulates: a defense of an ontogenetic approach. Behavioural Processes, 38, 131–54.
Bon, R., Dubois, M. and Maublanc, M. L. (1993). Does age influence between-rams companionship in mouflon (Ovis gmelini)? Revue d'Ecologie (Terre vie), 47, 57–64.
Bon, R., Joachim, J. and Maublanc, M. L. (1995). Do lambs affect feeding habitat use of lactating female mouflons in spring within an area free of predators? Journal of Zoology, London, 235, 43–51.
, Bon R., Rideau, C., Villaret, J.-C. and Joachim, J. (2001). Segregation is not only a matter of sex in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex). Animal Behaviour, 62, 495–504.
Boness, D. J., Clapham, P. J. and Mesnick, S. L. (2002). Life history and reproductive strategies. In Marine Mammal Biology: An Evolutionary Approach, ed. Hoelzel, A. R.. Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 278–324.
Bonner, W. N. (1968). The fur seal of South Georgia. British Antarctic Survey Scientific Report, 56, 81.
Bonnet, X., Guy, N. and Shine, R. (1999a). The dangers of leaving home: dispersal and mortality in snakes. Biological Conservation, 89, 39–50.
Bonnet, X., Naulleau, G., Shine, R. and Lourdais, O. (1999b). What is the appropriate timescale for measuring costs of reproduction in a ‘capital breeder’ such as the aspic viper? Evolutionary Ecology, 13, 485–97.
Bonnet, X., Shine, R., Naulleau, G. and Thiburce, C. (2001). Plastic vipers: genetic and environmental influences on the size and shape of Gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica. Journal of Zoology, London, 255, 341–51.
Booth, J. and Peters, J. A. (1972). Behavioural studies on the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in the sea. Animal Behaviour, 20, 808–12.
Bourne, W. R. P. and Warham, J. (1966). Geographical variation in the giant petrels of the genus Macronectes. Ardea, 54, 45–67.
Bowen, W. D., Oftedal, O. T. and Boness, D. J. (1985). Birth to weaning in 4 days: remarkable growth in the hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63, 2841–6.
Bowen, W. D., Read, A. J. and Estes, J. A. (2002). Feeding ecology. In Marine Mammal Biology: An Evolutionary Approach, ed. Hoelzel, A. R.. Oxford: Blackwell Science, pp. 217–46.
Bowers, M. A. (1994). Dynamics of age- and habitat-structured populations. Oikos, 69, 327–33.
Bowman, J., Jaeger, J. A. G. and Fahrig, L. (2002). Dispersal distance of mammals is proportional to home range size. Ecology, 83, 2049–55.
Bowyer, R. T. (1984). Sexual segregation in southern mule deer. Journal of Mammalogy, 65, 410–17.
, Bowyer R. T., Kie, J. G. and Ballengerghe, V. (1996). Sexual segregation in black-tailed deer: effects of scale. Journal of Wildlife Management, 60, 10–17.
Bowyer, R. T., Pierce, B. M., Duffy, L. K. and Haggstrom, D. A. (2001). Sexual segregation in moose: effects of habitat manipulation. Alces, 37, 109–22.
Boyd, I. L. (1993a). Pup production and distribution of breeding Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at South Georgia. Antarctic Science, 5, 17–24.
Boyd, I. L. (1993b). Trends in marine mammal science. In Marine Mammals: Advances in Behavioural and Population Biology, ed. Boyd, I. L.. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 1–12.
Boyd, I. L. and Croxall, J. P. (1996). Dive durations in pinnipeds and seabirds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74, 1696–1705.
Boyd, I. L., Arnbom, T. A. and Fedak, M. A. (1994). Biomass and energy consumption of the South Georgia population of southern elephant seals. In Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behaviour, and Physiology, eds. Boeuf, B. J. and Laws, R. M.. Berkley: University of California Press.
Boyd, I. L., Lockyer, C. and Marsh, H. D. (1996). Reproduction in marine mammals. In Biology of Marine Mammals, eds. Reynolds, J. E. and Rommel, S. A.. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Boyd, I. L., McCafferty, D. J., Reid, K., Taylor, R. and Walker, T. R. (1998). Dispersal of male and female Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 845–52.
Boyd, I. L., Staniland, I. J. and Martin, A. R. (2002). Distribution of foraging by female Antarctic fur seals. Marine Ecology, Progress Series, 242, 285–94.
Bradbury, J. W. (1977). Lek mating behaviour in the hammer-headed bat. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 45, 225–55.
Bradbury, J. W. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1976a). Social organisation and foraging in emballonurid bats. I. Field studies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1, 337–81.
Bradbury, J. W. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1976b). Social organisation and foraging in emballonurid bats. II. A model for the determination of group size. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1, 383–404.
Bradbury, J. W. and Vehrencamp, S. L. (1977). Social organisation and foraging in emballonurid bats. III. Mating systems. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2, 1–17.
Bradshaw, S. D. and Bradshaw, F. J. (2002). Short-term movements and habitat use of the marsupial honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). Journal of Zoology, 258, 343–8.
Brana, F. (1993). Shifts in body temperature and escape behaviour of female Podarcis muralis during pregnancy. Oikos, 66, 216–22.
Brana, F. (1996). Sexual dimorphism in lacertid lizards: male head increase vs. female abdomen increase? Oikos, 75, 511–23.
Breitwisch, R. (1989). Mortality patterns, sex ratios and parental investment in monogamous birds. In Current Ornithology 6, ed. Power, D.. New York and London: Plenum Press.
Bried, J. and Jouventin, P. (2002). Site and mate choice in seabirds: an evolutionary approach. In Biology of Marine Birds, eds. Schreiber, E. A. and Burger, J.. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, pp. 263–305.
Brodie, E. D. I. (1989). Behavioural modification as a means of reducing the cost of reproduction. American Naturalist, 134, 225–38.
Brodie, P. F. (1971). A reconsideration of aspects of growth, reproduction, and behavior of the white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), with reference to the Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island, population. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 28, 1309–18.
Brooke, A. P. (1990). Tent selection, roosting ecology and social organization of the tent-making bat, Ectophylla alba, in Costa Rica. Journal of Zoology, London, 221, 11–19.
Brooks, G. R. and Mitchell, J. C. (1989). Predator-prey size relations in three species of lizard from Sonora, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist, 34, 541–6.
Broome, L. (2001). Density, home range, seasonal movements and habitat use of the mountain pygmy-possum Burramys parvus (Marsupialia: Burramyidae) at Mount Blue Cow, Kosciuszko National Park. Austral Ecology, 26, 275–92.
Brothers, N. (1990). Albatross mortality and associated bait loss in the Japanese longline fishery in the Southern Ocean. Biological Conservation, 55, 255–68.
Brothers, N., Gales, R. and Reid, T. (1999). The influence of environmental variables and mitigation measures on seabird catch rates in the Japanese tuna longline fishery within the Australian Fishing Zone, 1991–1995. Biological Conservation, 88, 85–101.
Brown, D. R., Strong, C. M. and Stouffer, P. C. (2002). Demographic effects of habitat selection by hermit thrushes wintering in a pine plantation landscape. Journal of Wildlife Management, 66, 407–16.
Brown, G. P. and Brooks, R. J. (1993). Sexual and seasonal differences in activity in a northern population of snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. Herpetologica, 49, 311–18.
Brown, G. P. and Shine, R. (2004). Effects of reproduction on the antipredator tactics of snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 56, 257–62.
Brown, G. P. and Weatherhead, P. J. (2000). Thermal ecology and sexual size dimorphism in northern water snakes, Nerodia sipedon. Ecological Monographs, 70, 311–30.
Brownell Jr, R. L. and Cipriano, F. (1989). Dusky dolphin – Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray, 1828). In Handbook of Marine Mammals: The Second Book of Dolphins and the Porpoises, vol. 6, eds. Ridgway, S. H. and Harrison, R.. London: Academic Press, pp. 85–104.
Bubenik, A. B. (1984). Ernaehrung, Verhalten und Umwelt des Schalenwildes. München: BLV Verlagsgesellschaft.
Bull, J. J. (1983). Evolution of Sex Determining Mechanisms. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co.
Bull, J. J. and Charnov, E. L. (1989). Enigmatic reptilian sex ratios. Evolution, 43, 1561–6.
Bullis, H. R. (1967). Depth segregations and distribution of sex-maturity groups in the marbled catshark, Galeus arae. In Sharks, Skates and Rays, eds. Gilbert, P. W., Mathewson, R. F. and Rall, D. P.. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 141–8.
Bunnell, F. L. and Gillingham, M. P. (1985). Foraging behavior: dynamics of dining out. In Bioenergetics of Wild Herbivores, eds. Hudson, R. J. and White, R. G.. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc., pp. 53–75.
Bunnell, F. L. and Harestad, A. S. (1983). Dispersal and dispersion of black-tailed deer: models and observations. Journal of Mammalogy, 64, 201–9.
Burger, A. E. (1991). Maximum diving depths and underwater foraging in alcids and penguins. In Studies of High Latitude Seabirds I. Behavioural, Energetic and Oceanographic Aspects of Seabird Feeding Ecology, eds. W. A. Montevecchi A. J. Gaston. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Papers, pp. 9–15.
Burgman, M. A., Ferson, S. and Akcakaya, H. R. (1993). Risk Assessment in Conservation Biology. London: Chapman and Hall.
Burke, R. L. and Mercurio, R. J. (2002). Food habits of a New York population of Italian wall lizards, Podarcis sicula (Reptilia, Lacertidae). American Midland Naturalist, 147, 368–75.
Burland, T. M., Barratt, E. M., Beaumont, M. A. and Racey, P. A. (1999). Population genetic structure and gene flow in a gleaning bat, Plecotus auritus. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 266, 975–80.
Burland, T. M., Barratt, E. M., Nichols, R. A. and Racey, P. A. (2001). Mating patterns, relatedness and the basis of natal philopatry in the brown long-eared bat, Plecotus auritus. Molecular Ecology, 10, 1309–21.
Burns, J. M., Trumble, S. J., Castellini, M. A. and Testa, J. W. (1998). The diet of Weddell seals in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica as determined from scat collections and stable isotope analysis. Polar Biology, 19, 272–82.
Bury, R. B. (1972). Habits and home range of the Pacific pond turtle, Clemmys marmorata, in a stream community. Ph.D. Thesis, Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Bury, R. B. (1986). Feeding ecology of the turtle, Clemmys marmorata. Journal of Herpetology, 20, 515–21.
Busack, S. D. and Jaksic, F. M. (1982). Autecological observations of Acanthodactylus erythrurus (Sauria: Lacertidae) in southern Spain. Amphibia-Reptilia, 3, 237–55.
Busse, C. D. (1984). Spatial structure of chacma baboon groups. International Journal of Primatology, 5, 247–61.
Butler, P. J. and Taylor, E. W. (1975). The effect of progressive hypoxia on respiration in the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) at different seasonal temperatures. Journal of Experimental Biology, 63, 117–30.
Buttemer, W. A. and Dawson, W. R. (1993). Temporal pattern of foraging and microhabitat use by Galapagos marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus. Oecologia, 96, 56–64.
Byers, J. A. (1997a). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Byers, J. A. (1997b). Mortality risk to young pronghorns from handling. Journal of Mammalogy, 78, 894–9.
Byers, J. A. and Walker, C. (1995). Refining the motor training hypothesis for the evolution of play. American Naturalist, 146, 25–40.
Caister, L. E., Shields, W. M. and Gosser, A. (2003). Female tannin avoidance: a possible explanation for habitat and dietary segregation of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) in Niger. African Journal of Ecology, 41, 201–10.
Cameron, E., Linklater, W. L., Stafford, K. J. and Minot, E. O. (2003). Social grouping and maternal behaviour in feral horses (Equus caballus): the influence of males on maternal protectiveness. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53, 92–101.
Cameron, E. Z. and du Toit, J. T. (2005). Social influences on vigilance behaviour in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Animal Behaviour 69, 1337–44.
Camilleri, C. and Shine, R. (1990). Sexual dimorphism and dietary divergence: differences in trophic morphology between male and female snakes. Copeia, 1990, 649–58.
Campagna, C., Werner, R., Karesh, W.et al. (2001). Movements and location at sea of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Journal of Zoology, 2, 205–20.
Campbell, A. (1999). Staying alive: evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 203–52.
Campbell, A., Shirley, L., Heywood, C. and Crook, C. (2000). Infants' visual preference for sex-congruent babies, children, toys, and activities: a longitudinal study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18, 479–98.
Campbell, D. W. and Eaton, W. O. (1999). Sex differences in the activity level of infants. Infant and Child Development, 8, 1–17.
Campredon, P. (1983). Sexe et age ratios chez le canard siffleur Anas penelope en periode hivernale en Europe de l'ouest. Revue d'Ecologie (Terre et Vie), 37, 117–28.
Carbone, C. and Owen, M. (1995). Differential migration of the sexes of pochard Aythya ferina: results from a European survey. Wildfowl, 46, 99–108.
Caro, T. (1998). Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Carpenter, C. C. (1956). Body temperatures of three species of Thamnophis. Ecology, 37, 732–5.
Carrier, J. C., Pratt, H. L. and Martin, L. K. (1994). Group reproductive behaviours in free-living nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Copeia, 1994, 646–56.
Carson, J., Burks, V. and Parke, R. (1993). Parent-child physical play: determination and consequences. In Parent-child Play, ed. MacDonald, K.. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 197–220.
Carter, S. L., Haas, C. A. and Mitchell, J. C. (1999). Home range and habitat selection of bog turtles in southwestern Virginia. Journal of Wildlife Management, 63, 853–60.
Catry, P., Campos, A., Almada, V. and Cresswell, W. (2004). Winter segregation of migrant European robins Erithacus rubecula in relation to sex, age and size. Journal of Avian Biology, 35, 204–9.
Catry, P., Phillips, R. A. and Furness, R. W. (1999). Evolution of reversed sexual size dimorphism in skuas and jaegers. Auk, 116, 158–68.
Caughley, G. and Sinclair, A. R. E. (1994). Wildlife Ecology and Management. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science.
Cederlund, B.-M. (1987). Parturition and early development of moose (Alces alces L.) calves. Swedish Wildllife Research Supplement, 1, 399–422.
Cederlund, G. and Sand, H. K. G. (1992). Dispersal of subadult moose (Alces alces) in nonmigratory population. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70, 1309–14.
Cederlund, G., Sandegren, F. and Larsson, K. (1987). Summer movements of female moose and dispersal of their offspring. Journal of Wildlife Management, 51, 342–52.
Censky, E. J. (1995). The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in the teiid lizard Ameiva plei. Behaviour, 132, 529–57.
Cerling, T. E., Harris, J. M. and Passey, B. H. (2003). Diets of East African Bovidae based on stable isotope analysis. Journal of Mammalogy, 84, 456–70.
Cerling, T. E., Harris, J. M. and Passey, B. H.Chambers (The) Encyclopedic English Dictionary. (1994). Edinburgh: Chambers.
Chapman, C. A. (1990). Association patterns of spider monkeys: the influence of ecology and sex on social organization. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 26, 409–14.
Chapman, C. A. and Wrangham, R. W. (1993). Range use of the forest chimpanzees of Kibale: implications for the understanding of chimpanzee social organization. American Journal of Primatology, 31, 263–73.
Chapman, C. A., Wrangham, R. W. and Chapman, L. J. (1995). Ecological constraints on group size: an analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 32, 199–209.
Charland, M. B. and Gregory, P. T. (1990). The influence of female reproductive status on thermoregulation in a viviparous snake, Crotalus viridis. Copeia, 1990, 1089–98.
Chase, J. D., Dixon, K. R., Gates, J. E., Jacobs, D. and Taylor, G. J. (1989). Habitat characteristics, population size, and home range of the bog turtle, Clemmys muhlenbergii, in Maryland. Journal of Herpetology, 23, 356–62.
Cheney, D. L. (1978). The play partners of immature baboons. Animal Behaviour, 26, 1038–50.
Chism, J. and Rowell, T. (1986). Mating and residence patterns of male patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Ethology, 103, 109–26.
Chivers, D. J. (1974). The Siamang in Malaysia. Basel: S. Karger.
Chivers, D. P., Brown, G. E. and Smith, R. J. F. (1995). Familiarity and shoal cohesion in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) – implications for antipredator behaviour. Canadian Journal of Zoology – Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 73, 955–60.
Choudhury, S. and Black, J. M. (1991). Testing the behavioural dominance and dispersal hypothesis in pochard. Ornis Scandinavica, 22, 155–9.
Christal, J. and Whitehead, H. (1997). Aggregations of mature male sperm whales on the Galápagos Islands breeding ground. Marine Mammal Science, 13, 59–69.
Christal, J., Whitehead, H. and Lettevall, E. (1998). Sperm whale social units: variation and change. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76, 1431–40.
Ciofi, C. and Chelazzi, G. (1994). Analysis of homing pattern in the colubrid snake Coluber viridiflavus. Journal of Herpetology, 28, 477–84.
Clapham, P. J. (1996). The social and reproductive biology of humpback whales: an ecological perspective. Mammal Review, 26, 27–49.
Clarke, J., Manly, B., Kerry, K. R.et al. (1998). Sex differences in Adélie penguin foraging strategies. Polar Biology, 20, 248–58.
Clauss, M., Frey, R., Kiefer, B.et al. (2003). The maximum attainable body size of herbivorous mammals: morphophysiological constraints on foregut, and adaptations of hindgut fermenters. Oecologia, 136, 14–27.
Clemmons, J. R. and Buchholz, R. (1997). Behavioural Approaches to Conservation in the Wild. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clinton, W. L. (1994). Sexual selection and growth in male northern elephant seals. In Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behaviour and Physiology, eds. Boeuf, B. J. and Laws, R. M.. Berkley: University of California Press, pp. 154–68.
Clutton-Brock, J., Dennis-Bryan, K., Armitage, P. L. and Jewell, P. A. (1990). Osteology of the Soay sheep. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History, 56, 1–56.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1977). Some aspects of intra-specific variation in feeding and ranging behaviour in primates. In Primate Ecology, ed. Clutton-Brock, T. H.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 539–56.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1983). Selection in relation to sex. In Evolution: From Molecules to Men, ed. Bendall, D. S.: Cambridge University Press, pp. 457–81.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1988). Reproductive success. In Reproductive Success, ed. Clutton-Brock, T. H.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 472–85.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1989). Mammalian mating systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 236, 339–72.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D. and , Guinness F. E. (1985). Parental investment and sex differences in juvenile mortality in birds and mammals. Nature, 313, 131–3.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D. and , Guinness F. E. (1987b). Interactions between population density and maternal characteristics affecting fecundity and juvenile survival in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Animal Ecology, 56, 857–71.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D. and Guinness F. E. (1988). Reproductive success in male and female red deer. In Reproductive Success, ed. Clutton-Brock, T. H.. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 325–43.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Guinness, F. E. and Albon, S. D. (1982). Red Deer: behavior and ecology of two sexes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Iason, G. R. and Guinness, F. E. (1987a). Sexual segregation and density-related changes in habitat use in male and female red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Zoology, London, 211, 275–89.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., Major, M. and Guinness, F. E. (1985). Population regulation in male and female red deer. Journal of Animal Ecology, 54, 831–46.
Cochran, P. A. and McConville, D. R. (1983). Feeding by Trionyx spiniferus in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River. Journal of Herpetology, 17, 82–6.
Cockburn, A. and Lazenby-Cohen, K. A. (1992). Use of nest trees by Antechinus stuartii a semelparous lekking marsupial. Journal of Zoology, London, 226, 657–80.
Cockcroft, V. G. and Ross, G. J. B. (1990). Food and feeding of the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin off Southern Natal, South Africa. In The Bottlenose Dolphin, eds. Leatherwood, S. and Reeves, R. R.. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 295–308.
Cogger, H. G. (2000). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Sydney: Reed New Holland.
Collar, N. J. (1996). Family Otididae (Bustards). In Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3., eds. Hoyo, J. del, Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J.. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Compagno, L. J. V. (1984). FAO Species Catalogue. Volume 4 Sharks of the World, Parts 1 and 2. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Compagno, L. J. V. (1999). Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Sharks, Skates and Rays: The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes, ed. Hamlett, W. C.. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 471–98.
Connor, R. C.