In the writing of this book, the editors wanted to create a text that would inform and guide students and practitioners of early childhood science. Using current research, both that of the authors and through review of the research literature, the book provides information that is relevant and responsive to its intended audience. Each chapter helps to develop content knowledge of areas of science and instructs on how to guide children's learning in that area. Many different approaches to science learning are taken, with an understanding that science is inter-related with most other curriculum areas and, in particular, with an understanding that young children tend to learn in an holistic way. There is a growing recognition of the importance of science explorations in children's lives as they try to make sense of the world around them. Cognitively, it is very important to have input into children's developing science understandings and to be able to guide their concept development. The book is designed to complement the Australian Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) with references in each chapter to the alignment of content with the philosophy and anticipated outcomes of the guidelines. Internationally, the ‘early years’ comprise a period recognised as that time between birth and eight years of age, and this book provides resources for practitioners working in this age range. In recognition of the general acceptance in the early years' community of ‘learning through play’, this book highlights varied types of learning and learning environments: naturalistic, informal and formal.