Ahmad, Feroz. 1969. The Young Turks: The Committee of Union and Progress in Turkish politics, 1908–1914. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Ahmad, Feroz. 1982. “Unionist Relations with the Greek, Armenian, and Jewish Communities of the Ottoman Empire, 1908–1914.” In Braude, Benjamin and Lewis, Bernard, eds., Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society, pp. 401–34. New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers.
Akcam, Taner. 2012. The Young Turks Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Allcock, John.2002. “Rural Urban Differences and the Breakup of Yugoslavia.” Balkanologie VI (1–2): 01–125.
Alesina, Alberto, Spolaore, Enrico. 2005. The Size of Nations. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Alexandris, Alexis. 1992. The Greek Minority of Istanbul and Greek-Turkish Relations. 1918–1974. Athens: Center for Asia Minor Studies.
Alexandris, Alexis. 1999. “The Greek Census of Anatolia and Thrace (1910–1912): A contribution to Ottoman Historical Demography.” In Gondicas, Dimitri and Issawi, Charles, eds., Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism, pp. 45–77. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press.
Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
Anderson, David. 2005. Histories of the Hanged: The Dirty War in Kenya and the End of Empire. New York: W.W. Norton.
Anderson, Perry. 1974. Lineages of the Absolutist State. London: Verso.
Andjelic, Neven. 2005. Bosnia-Herzegovina: The End of a Legacy. London: Taylor and Francis.
Angi, János. 2003. “The Expulsion of the Germans from Hungary after World War II.” In Várdy, S. B., Tooley, T. H., and Várdy, A. H., eds., Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. New York: East European Monographs, Columbia University Press.
Apor, Balazs. 2004. “The Expulsion of the German Speaking Population from Hungary.” In Prausen, Steffen and Rees, Affron, eds., The Expulsion of the “German” Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War, pp. 33–47. European University Institute, Working Paper HCES Number 2004 (1). San Domenico, FI.
Arendt, Hannah. 1951. Origins of Totalitarianism. London: Secker & Warburg.
Arnautovic, Suad. 1996. Izbori u Bosni i Hercegovini 1990: Analiza Izbornog Procesa. Sarajevo: Promocult.
Augustinos, Gerasimos. 1992. The Greeks of Asia Minor: Confession, Community, and Ethnicity in the Nineteenth Century. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
Ballinger, Pamela. 2003. History in Exile: Memory and Identity at the Borders of the Balkans. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bakic, Ibrahim. 1994. Nacija i Religija. Bosna Public.
Banac, Ivo. 1993. “Bosnian Muslims: From Religious Community to Socialist Nationhood and Postcommunist Statehood, 1918–1992.” In Pinson, Mark, ed., The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina: The Historic Development from the Middle Ages to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia, chapter 5. Cambridge, MA: Middle Eastern Studies of Harvard University, distributed by Harvard University Press.
Barth, Fredrik, ed., 1969. “Introduction.” In Bart, Fredrik (ed.), Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, pp. 9–39. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
Bates, Robert H. 1974. “Ethnic Competition and Modernization in Contemporary Africa.” Comparative Political Studies 6(4): 457–83.
Beck, Philip. 2004. Oradour: The Death of a Village. UK, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword.
Beinin, Joel. 1998. The Dispersion of Egyptian Jewry: Culture, Politics, and the Creation of a Modern Diaspora. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew. 1996. Ethnic Cleansing. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Benes, Eduard. 1954 (translated by Lias, Godfrey). Memoirs of Dr. Eduard Benes: From Munich to New War and New Victory. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Benes, Jakub. 2013. “Socialist Popular Literature and the Czech-German Split in Austrian Social Democrats, 1890–1914.” Slavic Review, 72(2): 327–51.
Bera, Matt. 2008. “Raise the White Flag: Conflict and Collaboration in Alsace.” The Canadian Centre for German and European Studies Working Paper Series (13). Toronto, Canada: York University.
Bienen, H. and Herbst, J.. 1996. “The Relationship between Political and Economic Reform in Africa.” Comparative Politics 29(1): 23–42.
Birici, Ali. 1990. Hürriyet ve Itilâf Fırkası: II. Meşrutiyet devrinde İttihat ve Terrakki’ye karşı çıkanlar. İstanbul, Turkey: Dergâh Yayınları.
Bisogno, Marcelo and Chong, Albert. 2002. “On the Determinants of Economic Inequality in Bosnia.” Economic of Transition 10(2): 311–37.
Blakeley, Ruth. 2009. State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. New York: Routledge.
Blanke, Richard. 1993. Orphans of Versailles: The Germans in Western Poland, 1918–1939. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.
Boix, Carles. 2008. “Economic Roots of Civil Wars and Revolutions in the Contemporary World.” World Politics 60(3): 390–437.
Boswell, Laird. 1999. “Franco‐Alsatian Conflict and the Crisis of National Sentiment during the Phoney War.” The Journal of Modern History 71(3): 552–84.
Botev, Nikolai. 1994. “Where East Meets West: Ethnic Intermarriage in the Former Yugoslavia, 1962 to 1989.” American Sociological Review 59(3): 461–80.
Bougarel, Xavier. 1999. “Yugoslav Wars: ‘Revenge of the Countryside’: Between Sociological Reality and Nationalist Myth.” East European Quarterly XXXIII(2): 157–175.
Bougarel, Xavier. 2003. “Islam and Politics in the Post-Communist Balkans (1990–2000).” In Keridis, Dimitris and Perry, Charles, eds., New Approaches to Balkan Studies, pp. 345–60. Dulles, VA: Brassey's.
Boura, Catherine. 1999. “The Greek Millet in Turkish Politics: Greeks in the Ottoman Parliament (1908–1918).” In Gondicas, Dimitri and Issawi, Charles, eds., Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism, pp. 193–207. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press.
Boyer, John. 1986. “The End of an Old Regime: Visions of Political Reform in Late Imperial Austria.” Journal of Modern History 58(1): 159–93.
Boyer, John. 1995. Culture and Political Crisis in Vienna: Christian Socialism in Power, 1897–1918. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Bringa, Toni. 1995. Being Muslim the Bosnian Way: Identity and Community in a Central Bosnian Village. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Brinkley, George A. 1966. The Volunteer Army and Allied Intervention in South Russia, 1917–1921; A Study in the Politics and Diplomacy of the Russian Civil War. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Brower, Daniel and Lazzerini, Edward. 1997. Russia’s Orient Imperial Borderlands and Peoples: 1700–1917. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Brown, Judith M. 2006. Global South Asians: Introducing the Modern Diaspora. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Browning, Chris. 1992. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins.
Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brubaker, Rogers. 1992. Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bugai, Nikolai F. 1996. The Deportation of Peoples in the Soviet Union. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Bullock, David L., and Bujeiro, Ramiro. 2009. The Czech Legion 1914–20. Oxford: Osprey.
Bulutgil, Zeynep H. 2015. “Social Cleavages, Wartime Experience, and Ethnic Cleansing in Europe.” Journal of Peace Research 52(5): 577–590.
Bulutgil, Zeynep H. 2016. Ethnic Cleansing and Its Alternatives during War: A Comparison of Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian Empires. Paper presented at the faculty WiP seminar, Fletcher School, Tufts University.
Bunce, Valerie. 1999. Subversive Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Burds, Jeffrey. 2007. “The Soviet War against Fifth Columnists: The Case of Chechnya, 1942–4.” Journal of Contemporary History 42(2): 267–314.
Burg, Steven, and Shoup, Paul. 1999. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Caspersen, Nina. 2010. Contested Nationalism: Serb Elite Rivalry in Croatia and Bosnia in the 1990s. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Cassia, Paul Sant. 2007. Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus. US: Berghahn Books.
Cederman, Lars-Erik; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, & Hug, Simon. 2013. “Elections and Ethnic Civil War.” Comparative Political Studies 46(3): 387–417. Cemal, Pasa. 1922. Hâtırât 1913–1922. Istanbul, Turkey: Ahmet Ihsan ve Sürekâsı.
Chadwick, Owen. 1975. The Secularization of the European Mind in the 19th Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2005. “Ethnic Parties and Democratic Stability.” Perspectives on Politics, 3(2): 235–52.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2006. “What Is Ethnic Identity and Does It Matter?” Annual Review of Political Science 9: 397–424.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2012. Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chazan, Naomi. 1982. “Politics and Ethnicity in Ghana.” Political Science Quarterly XLVII(3): 461–84.
Chazan, Naomi. 1999. “The Diversity of African Politics: Trends and Approaches.” In Chazan, N. et al. Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa, pp. 5–34. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Cheney, Kristen E. 2007. Pillars of the Nation: Child Citizens and Ugandan National Development. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Chickering, Roger Philip. 1968. “The Reichsbanner and the Weimar Republic, 1924–26.” The Journal of Modern History 40(4): 524–34.
Childers, Thomas. 1991. “The Middle Classes and National Socialism.” In Blackbourn, David and Evans, Richard J., eds., The German Bourgeoisie, pp. 318–37. London and New York: Routledge.
Chodakiewicz, Marek Jan. 2004. Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939–1947. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Christia, Fotini. 2008. “Following the Money: Muslim vs. Muslim in Bosnia’s Civil War.” Comparative Politics 40(4): 461–80.
Christia, Fotini. 2012. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Christopher, A.J. 1994. The Atlas of Apartheid. London: Routledge.
Chu, Winson. 2002. “Revenge of the Periphery: Regionalism and the German Minority In Lodz, 1918–1939.” Paper Presented at the Conference Titled, Contours of Legitimacy in Central Europe: New Approaches in Graduate Studies. European Studies Center, St. Antony’s College, Oxford, UK, 24–26 May.
Clark, Bruce. 2006. Twice a Stranger: The Mass Expulsions That Forged Modern Greece and Turkey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Clogg, Richard. 1982. “The Greek Millet in the Ottoman Empire.” In Braude, Benjamin and Lewis, Bernard, eds., Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society, Vol 1, pp. 185–209. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers.
Clogg, Richard. 1999. “A Millet within a Millet: The Karamanlides.” In Gondicas, Dimitri and Issawi, Charles, eds., Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism, pp. 115–43. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press.
Cocker, Mark. 1998. Rivers of Blood, Rivers of Gold: Europe’s Conquest of Indigenous Peoples London: Jonathan Cape.
Cohen, Gary B. 2007. “Nationalist Politics and the Dynamics of State and Civil Society in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1867–1914.” Central European History 40(2): 241–78.
Cohen, Robin. 1988. Endgame in South Africa?: The Changing Structures and Ideology of Apartheid. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
Collier, Paul. 2009. Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places. NY: Harper Collins.
Comins-Richmond, Walter. 2002. “The Deportation of the Karachays.” Journal of Genocide Research 4(3): 431–39.
Conquest, Robert. 1973. The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties. New York: Macmillan.
Coppel, Charles A. 1976. “Anti-Chinese Outbreaks in Indonesia 1959–1968.” In Mackie, J., ed., The Chinese in Indonesia. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai.
Cornell, Svante E. 1999. “The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict.” Department of East European Studies Report no. 46. Sweden: Uppsala University.
Crampton, Richard J. 1994. Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. New York: Routledge.
Crowe, David. 1995. A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Csaki, Csaba and Nash, John. 1997. “The Agrarian Economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Situation and Perspectives.” World Bank Discussion Paper 387. Washington, DC.
Cunsolo, Richard. 1990. Italian Nationalism from Its Origins to World War II. Malabar, FL: R.E. Krieger Pub.
Dahl, Robert Alan. 1956. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Dahl, Robert Alan. 1982. Dilemmas of Pluralist Democracy: Autonomy vs. Control. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Dahrendorf, Ralf. 1959. Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Dakin, Douglas. (1966) 1993. The Greek Struggle in Macedonia, 1897–1913. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies.
Dallin, Alexander. 1981. German Rule in Russia, 1941–1945: A Study of Occupation Policies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Darden, Keith. (in press). Resisting Occupation in Eurasia: Mass Schooling and the Formation of Durable National Loyalties. Cambridge University Press.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. 1975. The War against the Jews 1933–1945. New York: Bantam Books.
de Figueiredo, Rui J.P. and Weingast, Barry R. 1999. “The Rationality of Fear: Political Opportunism and Ethnic Conflict.” In Walter, Barbara and Snyder, Richard eds., Civil Wars, Insecurity, and Intervention, pp. 261–302. New York: Columbia University Press.
De Waal, Alex. 2010. “Genocidal Warfare in Northeast Africa.” In Bloxham, Donald and Moses, A. Dirk, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Deak, Istvan. 1990. Beyond Nationalism: A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1848–1918. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Deak, Istvan. 2000. “Introduction.” In Deák, István, Gross, Jan T., and Judt, Tony, eds., The Politics of Retribution in Europe: World War II and Its Aftermath, pp. 3–15. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Debo, Richard. 1992. Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918–1921. Montreal: McGill Queen’s University Press.
Derogy, Jacques. 1986. Operation Nemesis. Paris: Fayard.
Dolan, Chris. 2009. Social Torture: The Case of Northern Uganda, 1986–2006. New York: Berghahn Books.
Downes, Alexander. 2006. “Desperate Times, Desperate Measures: The Causes of Civilian Victimization in War” International Security 30(4): 152–195.
Downes, Alexander B. 2007. “Restraint or Propellant? Democracy and Civilian Fatalities in Interstate Wars.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 51(6): 872–904.
Downes, Alexander B. 2008. Targeting Civilians in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Dowty, Alan. 1986. “Emigration and Expulsion in the Third World.” Third World Quarterly 8(1): 151–76.
Dragojević, Mila. 2013. “Memory and Identity: Inter-generational Narratives of Violence among Refugees in Serbia.” Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity 41(6): 1065–82.
Dragostinova, Theodora. 2011. Between Two Motherlands: Nationality and Emigration among the Greeks of Bulgaria, 1900–1949. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Du Toit, Brian M. 1998. The Boers in East Africa: Ethnicity and Identity. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Dulic, Tomislav. 2005. Utopias of the Nation: Local Mass Killing in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1941–42. Sweden: Uppsala University Press.
Dunning, Thad and Harrison, Lauren. 2010. “Cross-Cutting Cleavages and Ethnic Voting: An Experimental Study of Cousinage in Mali.” American Political Science Review 104(1): 21–39.
Dziewanowski, M.K. 1976. The Communist Party of Poland: An Outline of History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Edinger, Lewis J. 1953. “German Social Democracy and Hitler’s “National Revolution” of 1933: A Study in Democratic Leadership.” World Politics 5(3): 330–67.
Egan, Anthony and Taylor, Rupert. 2003. “South Africa: The Failure of Ethnoterritorial Politics.” In Coakley, John, ed., The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict, pp. 99–117. London: Frank Cass.
Eley, Geoff. 2002. Forging Democracy: The History of the Left in Europe, 1850–2000. New York: Oxford University Press.
Elkins, Caroline. 2005. Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain’s Gulag in Kenya. New York: H. Holt.
Eminov, Ali. 1997. Turkish and other Muslim Minorities in Bulgaria. New York: Routledge.
Erickson, Edward J. 2001. Ordered to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Eryilmaz, Bilal. 1990. Osmanli Yonetiminde Gayrimuslim Teba’nin Yonetimi. Istanbul, Turkey: Risale. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from www.search.eb.com.
Evans, Richard J. 2003. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Books.
Fearon, James D. 2003. “Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country.” Journal of Economic Growth 8(2): 195–222.
Fein, Helen. 1979. Accounting for Genocide: National Responses and Jewish Victimization during the Holocaust, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Fenyo, Mario D. 1972. Hitler, Horthy, and Hungary: German-Hungarian Relations, 1941–1944. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Foster, Charles. 1980. Nations without a State: Ethnic Minorities in Western Europe. New York: Praeger.
Frangakis-Syrett, . 1991. “The Economic Activities of the Greek Community of Izmir in the Second Half of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.” In Gondicas, Dimitri and Issawi, Charles, eds., Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism, pp. 17–45. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press.
Gagnon, V.P. 2004. The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gardikas, Katerina. 2011. “Health Policy and Private Care: Malaria Sanitization in Early Twentieth Century Greece.” In Promitzer, Christian, Trubeta, Sevasti, Turda, Marius, eds., Health, Hygiene, and Eugenics in Southeastern Europe to 1945. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press.
Garver, Bruce. 1978. The Young Czech Party 1874–1901 and the Emergence of a Multiparty System. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Gatrell, Peter and Nivet, Philippe. 2013. “Refugees and Exiles.” In Winter, Jay, ed., Cambridge History of the First World War, Vol III, pp. 186–216. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gaunt, David. 2006. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I. NJ: Gorgias Press LLC.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, CT: Cornell University Press.
Gellner, Ernest. 1992. “Nations in a Vacuum.” In Motyl, Alexandre, ed., Thinking Theoretically about Soviet Nationalities: History and Comparison in the Study of the USSR, pp. 243–55. NY: Columbia University Press.
Douglas, Gibler N., Hutchison, Marc L., and Miller, Steven V.. 2012. “Individual Identity Attachments and International Conflict: The Importance of Territorial Threat.” Comparative Political Studies 45(12): 1655–83.
Glaeser, Edward L. 2005. “The Political Economy of Hatred.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 120 (1): 45–86.
Goldhagen, Daniel. 1996. Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Gondola, Ch. Didier. 2002. The History of Congo. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Gooch, John. 2005. “Re-conquest and Suppression: Fascist Italy’s Pacification of Libya and Ethiopia, 1922–39.” Journal of Strategic Studies 28(6): 1005–32.
Gooch, John. 2014. The Italian Army and the First World War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Good, David. 1984. The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire 1780–1914. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Gordon, Raymond G. Jr., ed., 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Fifteenth Edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online Version. <www.ethnologoue.com>.
Green, Donald P., Kim, Soo Yeon and Yoon, David H.. 2001. “Dirty Pool.” International Organization, 55(2): 441–68.
Grdešić, Ivan. 1992. Hrvatska u izborima '90. Zagreb: Naprijed, 1991.
Gross, Feliks. 1979. Ethnics in a Borderland: An Inquiry into the Nature of Ethnicity and Reduction of Ethnic Tensions in a One-Time Genocide Area. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Gross, Jan Tomasz. 1979. Polish Society under German Occupation: The GeneralGouvernement, 1939–1944. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Groth, Alexander J. 1964. “Proportional Representation in Prewar Poland.” Slavic Review 23(1): 103–16.
Groth, Alexander J. 1968. “The Legacy of Three Crises: Parliament and Ethnic Issues in Prewar Poland.” Slavic Review 27(4): 564–80.
Gubler, Joshua R. and Selway, Joel Sawat. 2012. “Horizontal Inequality, Crosscutting Cleavages, and Civil War.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(2): 206–32.
Haag, John. 1973. “Knights of the Spirit: Kameradschaftsbund.” Journal of Contemporary History 8(30): 133–53.
Hacic-Vlahovic, Ana. 2008. “(De)Secularization in Bosnia-Herzegovina: An Examination of Religiosity Trends in a Multi-Ethnic Society.” Amsterdam Social Science 1(1): 72–86.
Hale, Henry. 2004. “Explaining Ethnicity.” Comparative Political Studies 37(4): 458–85.
Hardin, Russell. 1995. One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Harff, Barbara. 2003. “No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust: Assessing Risks of Genocide and Mass Murder since 1955.” American Political Science Review 97(1): 57–73.
Harsch, Donna. 1993. German Social Democracy and the Rise of Nazism. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Hechter, Michael. 1975. Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hechter, Michael. 2000. Containing Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Henckaerts, Jean-Marie. 1995. Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice. Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and Power in Africa Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Heston, Alan, Summers, Robert, and Aten, Bettina.2002. Penn World Table Version 6. Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania.
Hitchens, Christopher. 1997. Hostage to History: Cyprus from the Ottomans to Kissinger. London: Verso.
Hobelt, Lothar. 1996. “Late Imperial Paradoxes: Old Austria’s Last Parliament 1917–18.” Parliaments, Estates & Representation 16(1): 207–16.
Hobelt, Lothar. 2002. “Well-Tempered Discontent: Austrian Politics.” In Cornwall, Mark, ed., The Last Years of Austria-Hungary: A Multi-National Experiment in Early Twentieth-Century Europe. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press.
Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Program, Myth, Reality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hodgkin, Thomas. 1961. African Political Parties an Introductory Guide. London: Penguin Books.
Horowitz, Donald. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Horthy, Milos. 1978. Memoirs. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hovannisian, Richard G. 1967. Armenia on the Road to Independence. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hull, Isabel V. 2005. Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Ithaca, CT: Cornell University Press.
Human Rights Watch. 1994. Zaire. World Report.
Human Rights Watch. 1998. Africa Overview. World Report.
Huth, Paul K. and Alle, Todd L. 2002. The Democratic Peace and Territorial Conflict in the Twentieth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huth, Paul and Valentino, Benjamin. 2007. “Mass Killing of Civilians in Time of War: 1945–2000.” In Hewitt, J. Joseph, Wilkenfeld, Jonathan, and Gurr, Ted Robert, eds., Peace and Conflict Boulder: Paradigm.
Inglot, Tomasz. 2008. Welfare States in East Central Europe, 1919–2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
International Centre for Ethnic Studies. 1995. Minorities in Cambodia. London: Minority Rights Group.
Jackson, Robert H. and Rosberg, Carl G.. 1982. “Why Africa’s Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood.” World Politics 35(1): 1–24.
Jankoviak, Stanislaw. 2001. “Cleansing Poland of Germans: The Province of Pomenaria 1945–1949.” In Ther, Philipp and Siljak, Ana, eds., Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948. Lanham, MD.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Jaszi, Oscar. 1961. The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Jenne, Errin K. 2007. Ethnic Bargaining: The Paradox of Minority Empowerment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Jha, Saumitra, and Wilkinson, Steven. 2012. “Does Combat Experience Foster Organizational Skill? Evidence from Ethnic Cleansing during the Partition of South Asia.” American Political Science Review 106(4): 883–907.
Judson, Pieter M. 1996. Exclusive Revolutionaries: Liberal Politics, Social Experience, and National Identity in the Austrian Empire, 1848–1914. MI: University of Michigan Press.
Hamalainen, Pekka Kalevi. 1978. In Time of Storm: Revolution, Civil War, and the Ethnolinguistic Issue in Finland. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2008. “Ethnic Defection in Civil Wars.” Comparative Political Studies 41(8): 1043–68.
Kalyvas, Stathis and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2005. “Bosnia’s Civil War: Origins and Violence Dynamics.” In Collier, Paul and Sambanis, Nicholas, eds., Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, pp. 191–229. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Kann, Robert A. 1964. The Multinational Empire Nationalism and National Reform in the Habsburg Monarchy. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kann, Robert A. 1974. A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526–1918. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kaplan, Marion A. 1998. Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaplan, Robert D. 1993. Balkan Ghosts: A Journey through History. New York: Random House.
Karpat, Kemal. 1985. Ottoman Population, 1830–1914: Demographic Characteristics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Kaufman, Stuart J. 2001. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kaufman, Stuart J. 2006. “Symbolic Politics or Rational Choice? Testing Theories of Extreme Ethnic Violence.” International Security 30(4): 45–86.
Kaufmann, Chaim. 1996. “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars.” International Security 20(4): 136–75.
Kaufmann, Chaim. 2006. “Separating Iraqis, Saving Iraq.” Foreign Affairs 85(4): 156–60.
Kayalı, Hasan.1995. “Elections and the Electoral Process in the Ottoman Empire, 1876–1919.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 27(3): 265–86.
Kechriotis, Vangelis. 2005. “Greek-Orthodox, Ottoman Greeks or Just Greeks? Theories of Coexistence in the Aftermath of the Young Turk Revolution.” Etudes Balkanique (1):51–71.
Kennan, George, ed., 1993. Report of the International Commission of Inquiry into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars. In Kennan, George F., ed., The Other Balkan Wars: 1913 Carnegie Report (Washington, DC).
Kersten, Krystyna. 2001. “Forced Migration and the Transformation of Polish Society.” In Ther, Philipp and Siljak, Ana, eds., Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948, pp. 75–87. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Kertesz, Stephen. 1953. “The Expulsion of the Germans from Hungary: A Study in Postwar Diplomacy.” Review of Politics 15(2): 179–208.
King, Gary, and Zeng, Langche. 2001. “Explaining Rare Events in International Relations.” International Organization 55(3): 693–715.
Kirby, David G. 1995. The Baltic World 1772–93: Europe’s Northern Periphery in an Age of Change. New York: Longman.
Kitromilides, Paschalis M. 1990 “Imagined Communities and the Origins of the National Question in the Balkans.” In Blinkhorn, Martin and Veremis, Thanos, eds., Modern Greece: Nationalism and Nationality, pp. 23–66. Athens: Sage-Eliamep.
Kocovic, Boguljup. 1985. Zrtve Drugog Svetskog Rata U Jugoslaviji. London: Veritas Foundation Press.
Kogan, Arthur G. 1949. “The Social Democrats and the Conflict of Nationalities in the Habsburg Monarchy.” The Journal of Modern History, 21(3): 204–17.
Koliopoulos, John S. 1987. Brigands with a Cause: Brigandage and Irredentism in Modern Greece, 1821–1912. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
Komjathy, Anthony, and Stockwell, Rebecca. 1980. German Minorities and the Third Reich: Ethnic Germans of East Central Europe between the Wars. New York: Holmes & Meier.
Kopstein, Jeffrey and Wittenberg, Jason. 2006. “Ethnic Diversity, Democracy and Electoral Extremism in Interwar Czechoslovakia.” Working Paper, National Council for Eurasian and East European Research, November.
Kopstein, Jeffrey S. and Wittenberg, Jason. 2011. “Between State Loyalty and National Identity: Electoral Behavior in Interwar Poland.” Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry 9(24): 171–86.
Kosary, Domokos. 1941. A History of Hungary. New York: The Benjamin Franklin Bibliophile Society.
Krain, Matthew. 1997. “State Sponsored Mass Murder: The Onset and Severity of Genocides and Politicides.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (3): 331–360.
Kramer, Alan. 2007. Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kuepper, William G. 1975. Ugandan Asians in Great Britain: Forced Migration and Social Absorption. London: C. Helm.
Kuper, Leo. 2005. Race, Class, and Power: Ideology and Revolutionary Change in Plural Societies. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Kuru, Ahmet. 2009. Secularism and State Policies toward Religion: The United States, France, and Turkey. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Labanca, Nicola. 2004. “Colonial Rule, Colonial Repression and War Crimes in the Italian Colonies.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 9(3): 300–13.
Ladas, Stephen. 1932. The Exchange of Minorities; Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey. New York: Macmillan Company.
Laitin, David. 1998. Identity in Formation, the Russian Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Ithaca, CT: Cornell University Press.
Lake, David A. and Rothchild, Donald. 1996. “Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict.” International Security 21(2): 41–75.
Laskier, Michael M. 1992. The Jews of Egypt, 1920–1970: In the Midst of Zionism, Anti-Semitism, and the Middle East Conflict. New York: New York University Press. Lemarchand, René. 2008. “The Burundi Killings of 1972.” In Jacques Semelin ed., Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. SciencePo. Available from <www.massviolence.org>
Levai, Csaba. 2006. “Citizenship and Minorities: The Hungarian Minority in Czechoslovakia after the Second World War.” In Ellis, S.G., Halfdanarson, G., and Isaacsin, A. K., eds., Citizenship in Historical Perspective. Italy: Pisa University Press.
Levene, Mark. 2005. Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: The Rise of the West and the Coming of Genocide. London: I.B. Tauris.
Levi, Margaret. 1988. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Levin, Dov. 1995. The Lesser of Two Evils: Eastern European Jewry under Soviet Rule, 1939–1941. Philadelphia, Jerusalem: Jewish Publication Society.
Lewis, Bernard. 1961. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press.
Lewis, Paul G. 2000. Political Parties in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. London: Routledge.
Lidow Hart, Nikolai. 2011. Violent Order: Rebel Organization and Liberia's Civil War. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Lieberman, Benjamin. 2006. Terrible Fate: Ethnic Cleansing in the Making of Modern Europe. Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee.
Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lipset, Martin. 1959. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Lipset, Seymour M. and Rokkan, Stein. 1969. “Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignments.” In Lipset, Seymour M. and Rokkan, Stein, eds., Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross-National Perspectives, pp. 1–63. New York: The Free Press.
Livanios, Dimitris. 2008. The Macedonian Question: Britain and the Southern Balkans 1939–1949. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lohr, Eric. 2001. “The Russian Army and the Jews: Mass Deportation, Hostages, and Violence during World War I.” Russian Review 60(3): 404–19.
Luebbert, Gregory M. 1991. Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Luza, Radomir. 1964. Then Transfer of the Sudeten Germans: A Study of Czech-German Relations, 1933–1962. New York: New York University Press.
Mackie, Thomas and Rose, Richard. 1991. International Almanac of Electoral History. London: MacMillan.
Maddison, Angus. 1995. Monitoring the World Economy, 1820–1992. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Magocsi, Paul R. 1996. A History of Ukraine. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
Makiya, Kanan. 1993. Cruelty and Silence: War, Tyranny, Uprising, and the Arab World. New York: W.W. Norton.
Malcolm, Noel. 1999. Kosovo: A Short History. New York: New York University Press.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 2002. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mann, Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mardin, Serif. 1989. Religion, Society and Modernity in Turkey. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Mardin, Serif. 2005. Center and Periphery in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Syracuse University Press.
Marrus, Michael. 1985. The Unwanted, European Refugees in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martin, Terry. 1998. “The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing.” The Journal of Modern History 70(4): 813–61.
Martin, Terry. 2001. “An Affirmative Action Empire: The Soviet Union as the Highest Form of Imperialism.” In Suny, Ronald and Martin, Terry, eds., A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin, pp. 67–93. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McCarthy, Justin. 1995. Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press.
McDoom, Omar. 2013. “Who Killed in Rwanda’s Genocide: Micro-Space, Social Influence, and Individual Participation in Intergroup Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 50(4): 453–67.
McDowall, David. 2004. A Modern History of the Kurds. New York: I. B. Tauris.
McLeod, Hugh. 2000. Secularization in Western Europe 1848–1914. London: Palgrave, MacMillan Press.
Meissner, Frank. 1958. “Co-operative Farming in Pre-Communist Czechoslovakia.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 18(1): 57–60.
Midlarsky, Manus. 2005. The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Midlarsky, Manus. 2011. Origins of Political Extremism: Mass Violence in the Twentieth Century and Beyond. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Minorities at Risk Project. 2005. “Minorities at Risk Dataset.” College Park, MD: Center for International Development and Conflict Management. Retrieved from www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/on July 2008.
Mitrovic, Andrej. 2005. Serbia’s Great War, 1914–1918. London: C. Hurst & Co.
Monzali, Luciano. 2009. The Italians of Dalmatia from Italian Unification to World War I. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Motyl, Alexander J. 1980. “The Turn to the Right: The Ideological Origins and Development of Ukrainian Nationalism.” East European Monograph Series (65). New York: distributed by Columbia University Press.
Motyl, Alexander J. 1985. “Ukrainians Nationalist Political Violence in Inter-War Poland, 1921–1939.” East European Quarterly 19(1): 45–55.
Mulligan, Timothy. 1988. The Politics of Illusion and Empire: German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union 1941–43. New York: Praeger.
Mylonas, Harris. 2013. The Politics of Nation-Building: The Making of Co-Nationals, Refugees, and Minorities. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Naimark, Norman. 2001. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in the Twentieth Century Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Nichols, Johanna. 1992. Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Niewyk, Donald L. 2001. The Jews in Weimar Germany. London, UK: Transaction Publishers.
Nohlen, D and Stöver, P. 2010. Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook. Germany: Nomos Publishers.
Novak, Bogdan C. 1970. Trieste, 1941–1954: the Ethnic, Political, and Ideological Struggle. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Nzongola-Ntalaja, George. 2007. “The Politics of Citizenship in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” In Dorman, Sarah Rich, Hammett, Daniel Patrick, and Nugent, Paul, eds., Making Nations, Creating Strangers: States and Citizenship in Africa, pp. 69–83, Leiden: Brill.
Oberling, Pierre. 1982. The Road to Bellapais: The Turkish Cypriot Exodus to Northern Cyprus. Social Science Monographs, Boulder CO; New York: Columbia University Press.
Okey, Robin. 2001. The Habsburg Monarchy 1765–1918. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.
Oppenheim, Ran Jean-Marc. 2003. “Egypt and the Sudan,” In Simon, Reeva Spector, Laskier, Michael Menachem, and Reguer, Sara, eds., The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times, pp. 409–10. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ortayli, Ilber. 1999. “Greeks in the Ottoman Administration during the Tanzimat Period.” In Gondicas, Dimitri and Issawi, Charles, eds., Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism, pp. 161–69. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press.
Paikert, G.C. 1967. The Danube Swabians: German Populations in Hungary, Rumania and Yugoslavia and Hitler's Impact on Their Patterns. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Pallis, A.A. 1925. “Racial Migrations in the Balkans during the Years 1912–1924.” The Geographical Journal 66(4): 315–31.
Panikos, Panayi. 2000. Ethnic Minorities in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Germany. Essex, England: Pearson Education.
Papastefanaki, Leda. 2011. “Politics, Modernization, and Public Health in Greece: The Case of Occupational Health, 1900–1940.” In Promitzer, Christian, Trubeta, Sevasti, and Turda, Marius, eds., Health, Hygiene, and Eugenics in Southeastern Europe to 1945. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press.
Paris, Edmond. 1961. Genocide in Satellite Croatia, 1941–45. Chicago, IL: American Institute for Balkan Affairs.
Pavlowitch, Stevan K. 2002. Serbia: The History behind the Name. London: Hurst & Co Publishers.
Pearson, Raymond. 1983. National Minorities in Eastern Europe, 1848–1945. New York: St. Martins.
Pejanović, Mirko. 2004. Through Bosnian Eyes: The Political Memoirs of a Bosnian Serb. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.
Perica, Vjekoslav. 2002. Balkan Idols: Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterlini, Oskar. 1997. Autonomy and the Protection of Ethnic Minorities in Trentino and South Tyrol-Trentino. Italy: The Presidium of the Regional Parliament of South Tyrol-Trentino.
Petersen, Roger. 2002. Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred and Resentment in Twentieth Century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pleterski, Janko. 2002. “The Southern Slav Question.” In Cornwall, Mark, ed., The Last Years of Austria-Hungary: A Multi-National Experiment in Early Twentieth-Century Europe. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Pohl, Otto. 1999. Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937–1949. West Port, CT: Greenwood Press.
Polian, P.M. 2004. Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR. Budapest: Central European University Press.
Popper, Karl. 1970. “Normal Science and Its Dangers.” In Lakatos, Imre and Musgrave, Alan, eds., Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Popova, Kristina. 2011. “Combating Infant Mortality in Bulgaria: Welfare Activities, National Propaganda, and the Establishment of Pediatrics, 1900–1940.” In Promitzer, Christian, Trubeta, Sevasti, and Turda, Marius, eds., Health, Hygiene, and Eugenics in Southeastern Europe to 1945. Budapest, Hungary: Central European University Press.
Posen, Barry R. 1993. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.” Survival 35(1): 27–47.
Posner, Daniel N. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Power, Samantha. 2002. “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Basic.
Preston, Paul. 1978. The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution, and Revenge. London: Harper Perennial.
Proudfoot, Malcolm. 1957. European Refugees: 1939–52: A Study in Forced Population Movement. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Prunier, Gerard. 2005. Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Prunier, Gerard. 2009. Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of Continental Catastrophe. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press.
Radziejowski, Janusz. 1983. The Communist Party of Western Ukraine, 1919–1929. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta.
Rae, Heather. 2002. State Identities and the Homogenization of Peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ramet, Sabrina. 1992. Balkan Babel: Politics, Culture and Religion in Yugoslavia. Boulder, CO.: Westview Press.
Ramet, Sabrina P. 1996. Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to Ethnic War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Rauchensteiner, Manfred. 2014. The First World War and the End of Habsburg Monarchy. Germany: Böhlau verlag wien.
Redlich, Joseph. 1929. Austrian War Government. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Redzic, Enver. 1998. Bosna i Hercegovina u Drugom Svjetskom Ratu. Sarajevo: Oko.
Reece, Jack E. 1977. The Bretons against France: Ethnic Minority Nationalism in Twentieth-Century Brittany. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Reno, William. 1997. “Sovereignty and Personal Rule in Zaire.” African Studies Quarterly 1(3): 39–64.
Rigoulot, Pierre. 1997. L'Alsace-Lorraine pendant la guerre, 1939–1945. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Robbins, Keith. 1969. “Konrad Henlein and the Sudeten Question and British Foreign Policy.” The Historical Journal 12(4): 674–97.
Roessignh, Martijn. 1996. Ethnonationalism and Political Systems in Europe: A State of Tension. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Rogowski, Ronald. 1989. Commerce and Coalitions: How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rood, Leslie L. 1976. Nationalization and Indigenization in Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies 14(3): 427–47.
Rose, William J. 1935. The Drama of Upper Silesia. Brattleboro, VT: Stephen Daye Press.
Rothschild, Joseph. 1974. East Central Europe between Two World Wars. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
Rummel, R. J. 1995. “Democracy, Power, Genocide, and Mass Murder.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 39(1): 3–26.
Saideman, Stephen and Ayres, William. 2008. For Kin and Country: Xenophobia, Nationalism, and War. New York: Columbia University Press.
Sarkees, Meredith Reid and Wayman, Frank (2010). Resort to War: 1816–2007. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Schechtman, Joseph B. 1946. European Population Transfers 1939–1945. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schechtman, Joseph B. 1962. European Population Transfers 1945–1955. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Seddon, David. 2009. “Popular Protest and Class Struggle in Africa,” In Zeilig, Leo, ed., Class Struggle and Resistance in Africa. Bristol, UK: New Clarion Press.
Seton-Watson, Hugh. 1967. Europe between the Wars, 1918–1941. New York: Harper & Row.
Shaw, Stanford J. 2000. From Empire to Republic: The Turkish War of National Liberation, 1918–1923: A Documentary Study. Ankara, Turkey: Türk Tarıh Kurumu Basimevı.
Silber, Laura and Little, Allan. 1996. Yugoslavia: The Death of a Nation. TV Books.
Simsir, Bilal. 1990. Lozan telgrafları: Türk diplomatik belgelerinde Lozan Barış Konferansı. Ankara, Turkey: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi.
Smelser, Ronald M. 1975. The Sudeten Problem, 1933–1938: Volkstumspolitik and the Formulation of Nazi Foreign Policy. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Smith, Michael Llewellyn. 1973. Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Snyder, Jack L. 2000. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: Norton.
Snyder, Timothy. 1999. “To Resolve the Ukrainian Problem Once and for All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943–1947.” Journal of Cold War Studies 1(2): 86–120.
Snyder, Timothy. 2003. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Belorus. 1569–1999. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Snyder, Timothy. 2010. Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books.
Somel, Selcuk. 2001. The Modernization of Public Education in the Ottoman Empire 1839–1908: Islamization, Autocracy, Discipline. The Netherlands, Leiden: Brill.
Speller, Ian. 1964. “An African Cuba? Britain and the Zanzibar Revolution.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35(2): 285.
Staub, Ervin. 1990. The Roots of Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Steele, Abbey. 2011. “Electing Displacement: Political Cleansing in Apartadó, Colombia.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 55(3): 423–45.
Stola, Dariusz. 1992. “Forced Migrations in Central European History.” International Migration 26(2): 324–41.
Straus, Scott A. 2006. The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press.
Straus, Scott A. 2012. “Retreating from the Brink: Theorizing Mass Violence and the Dynamics of Restraint.” Perspectives on Politics 10(2): 343–62.
Straus, Scott A. 2015. Making and Unmaking Nations: War, Leadership and Genocide in Modern Africa. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Strauss, Léon. 2010. Réfugiés, expulsés, évadés d’Alsace et de Moselle (1940–1945). Colmar, France Jérôme-Do Betzinger.
Sudetic, Chuck. 1998. Blood and Vengeance: One Family’s Story of the War in Bosnia. New York: Norton.
Sullivan, Brian R. 1993. “The Italian-Ethiopian War, October 1935–November 1941: Causes, Conduct, and Consequences,” In Hamish Ion, A. and Errington, E.J., eds., Great Powers and Little Wars: The Limits of Power, Westport, CT: Praeger.
Suny, Ronald G. 2015. “They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else”: A History of Armenian Genocide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Swett, Pamela E. 2004. Neighbors and Enemies: The Culture of Radicalism in Berlin, 1929–1933. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, Michael and Rae, Douglas. 1969. “An Analysis of Crosscutting between Political Cleavages.” Comparative Politics 1 (4): 534–47.
Tekeste, Negash. 1997. Eritrea and Ethiopia: The Federal Experience. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Ther, Philipp. 2014. The Dark Side of Nation States: Ethnic Cleansing in Modern Europe. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Ther, Philipp and Siljak, Ana, eds., 2001. Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948. Harvard Cold War Studies Book Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Thompson, Mark. 2009. The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front 1915–1919. London: Bloomsbury.
Tilly, Charles. 1984. Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Tilly, Charles. 1992. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1990. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Tir, Jaroslav, Schafer, Philip, Diehl, Paul F., and Goertz, Gary. 1998. “Territorial Changes, 1816 –1996.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 16: 89–97.
Todorova, Maria N. 1997. Imagining the Balkans. New York: Oxford University Press.
Toft, Monica D. 2003. The Geography of Ethnic Violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Toft, Monica D. 2007. “Population Shifts and Civil War: A Test of Power Transition Theory.” International Interactions 33(3): 243–269.
Tomasevich, Jozo. 2001. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–45. Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Tomz, Michael, Wittenberg, Jason, and King, Gary. 2003. CLARIFY: Software for Interpreting and Presenting Statistical Results In Journal of Statistical Software. Vol. 8, copy at http://j.mp/k3k0rx.
Toscano, Mario. 1975. Alto Adige, South Tyrol: Italy’s Frontier with the German World. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Tucker, Spencer, Wood, Laura Matysek, Murphy, Justin D.. 1999. The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Tunaya, Tarik Zafer. 1984. Turkiye’de Siyasal Partiler. Istanbul: Hurriyet Vakfi Yayinlari.
Tversky, Amos & Kahneman, David. 1973. “Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability.” Cognitive Psychology 5(2): 207–232.
Umar, Bilge. 2002. Yunanlıların ve Anadolu Rumlarının anlatımıyla İzmir savaşı. İstanbul, Turkey: İnkılâp.
Valdis, Lumans O. 1993. Himmler's Auxiliaries: The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe, 1933–1945. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Valentino, Benjamin. 2004. Final Solutions: Mass Killings and Genocide in Twentieth Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Valentino, Benjamin, Huth, Paul, and Balch-Lindsay, Dylan. 2004. “‘Draining the Sea’: Mass Killing and Guerilla Warfare.” International Organization 58(2): 375–407.
Vanhanen, Tatu. 2003. Democratization and Power Resources 1850–2000 [computer file]. FSD1216, version 1.0 (2003-03-10). Tampere: Finnish Social Science Data Archive [distributor], 2003.
Vardy, Stephen B. and Tooley, T.H.. 2003. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth Century Europe. Eastern European Monographs Series. Boulder, CO: Columbia University Press.
Velikonja, Mitja. 2003. Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A & M University Press.
Veremis, Thanos. 1999. “The Hellenic Kingdom and the Ottoman Greeks: The Experiment of the ‘Society of Constantinople.’” In Gondicas, Dimitri and Issawi, Charles, eds., Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism, pp. 181–93. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press.
Vickers, Miranda. 2002. “Cham Issue: Albanian Property and National Claims in Greece.” Conflict Studies Research Center, Eastern Europe Series G 109. Surrey: England.
Vickers, Miranda. 1995. The Albanians: A Modern History. London: I.B. Tauris.
Vinen, Richard. 1995. Bourgeois Politics in France, 1945–1951. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Walters, Garrison E. 1987. The Other Europe: Eastern Europe to 1945. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Ward, James J. 1981. “‘Smash the Fascists – ’ German Communist Efforts to Counter the Nazis, 1930–31.” Central European History 14(1): 30–62.
Waters, Timothy William (2013). The Milosevic Trial, An Autopsy. Oxford University Press.
Wayman, Frank W. and Tago, Atsushi. 2010. “Explaining the Onset of Mass Killing, 1949–87.” Journal of Peace Research 47(3): 3–13.
Weber, Eugen. 1976. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Weber, Max. 1978 (1922). Economy and Society. In Roth, G. and Wittich, C., eds., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Weeks, Theodore R. 1996. Nation and State in Late Imperial Russia: Nationalism and Russification on the Western Frontier, 1863–1914. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press.
Weiner, Myron. 1971. “The Macedonian Syndrome: An Historical Model of International Relations and Political Development.” World Politics 23(4): 665–83.
Weiner, Myron. 1992 “Security, Stability, and International Migration.” International Security 17(3): 91:126.
Weiner, Myron & Özbudun, Ergun. 1987. Competitive Elections in Developing Countries. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Whiteside, Andrew G. 1962. Austrian National Socialism Before 1918. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Whiteside, Andrew G. 1975. The Socialism of Fools: Georg Ritter von Schonerer and the Austrian Pan-Germanism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Wiatr, Jerzy J. 1988. The Soldier and the Nation: The Role of the Military in Polish Politics, 1918–1985. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Wien, Markus. 2004. “The Germans in Romania: The Ambiguous Fate of a Minority.” In Prauser, Steffen and Rees, Afron, eds., The Expulsion of the “German” Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War, pp. 59–71. European University Institute, Working Paper HEC No.2004/1. San Domenico, FL.
Wimmer, Andreas. 2002. Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflicts. Shadows of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wimmer, Andreas. 2006. “Ethnic Exclusion in Nationalizing States.” In Delanty, G. and Kumar, K., eds., SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism, pp. 334–45. London: Sage Publications.
Wimmer, Andreas. 2012. Waves of War: Nationalism and Ethnic Politics in the Modern World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wimmer, Andreas. 2013. Ethnic Boundary Making. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wingfield, Nancy M. 2003. “The Battle of Zborov and the Politics of Commemoration in Czechoslovakia.” East European Politics and Societies 17(4): 654–81.
Winkler, Heinrich August. 1990. “Choosing the Lesser Evil: The German Social Democrats and the Fall of the Weimar Republic.” Journal of Contemporary History 25(2/3): 205–27.
Winnifrith, Tom. 2002. Badlands-Borderlands: A History of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania. London: Duckworth.
Wiskemann, Elizabeth. 1938. Czechs and Germans: A Study of the Struggles in the Historic Provinces of Bohamia and Moravia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wittenberg, Jason. 2006. Crucibles of Political Loyalty: Church Institutions and Electoral Continuity in Hungary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Woodward, Susan L. 1995. Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the cold War. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Worden, Nigel. 2000. The Making of Modern South Africa. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Wuscht, Johann. 1963. Population Losses in Yugoslavia during World War II. Bonn-Bruxelles-New York: Edition Atlantic Forum.
Wynot, Edward. 1972. “The Polish Germans, 1919–1939: National Minority in a Multinational State.” Polish Review 27: 23–64.
Yildirim, Onur. 2006. Diplomacy and Displacement: Reconsidering the Turco-Greek exchange of Populations. New York: Routledge
Young, Crawford. 1986. “Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Class in Africa: A Retrospective.” Cahiers d'Etudes africaines 103(3): 421–95.
Young, Crawford. 1994. The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Zariski, Raphael. 1956. “Problems and Prospects of Democratic Socialism in France and Italy.” Journal of Politics (18)2: 254–80.
Zerjavic, Vladimir. 1989. Gubici Stanovnistva Jugoslavije u drugom svetskom ratu. Zagreb.
Zolberg, Aritiste R. 1989. Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World. New York: Oxford University Press.