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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: August 2014

14 - Families created by assisted reproduction

from Part II - Experiencing relatedness


Baxter, N. (2002). Our Story: A Book for Young Children about Their Conception Through Donor Sperm to Lesbian Parents. Nottingham: Donor Conception Network.
Beeson, D. R., Jennings, P. K. and Kramer, W. (2011). ‘Offspring searching for their sperm donors: how family type shapes the process’. Human Reproduction, 26, 2415–24.
Blake, L., Casey, P., Readings, J., Jadva, V. et al. (2010). ‘“Daddy ran out of tadpoles”: how parents tell their children that they are donor conceived, and what their 7-year-olds understand’. Human Reproduction, 25, 2527–34.
Blake, L., Casey, P., Jadva, V. and Golombok, S. (2013). ‘“I was quite amazed”: donor conception and parent-child relationships from the child’s perspective’. Children and Society, doi: 10.1111/chso.12014.
Christensen, P. and James, A. (2008). ‘Introduction’, in P. Christensen and A. James (eds.), Research with Children: Perspectives and Practices, second ed., Oxford: Routledge.
Cooke, I. (1991). My Story. England: Jessop Hospital for Women.
Dunn, J. (2008). Family Relationships: Children’s Perspectives. London: One Plus One.
Ehrensaft, D. (2000). ‘Alternatives to the stork: fatherhood fantasies in donor insemination families’. Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 1, 371–97.
Ehrensaft, D. (2008). ‘When baby makes three or four or more: attachment, individuation, and identity in assisted-conception families’. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 63, 3–26.
Freeman, T. and Golombok, S. (2012). ‘Donor insemination families: a follow-up study of disclosure decisions, family relationships and child adjustment at adolescence’. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 25, 193–203.
Freeman, T., Jadva, V., Kramer, W. and Golombok, S. (2009). ‘Gamete donation: parents’ experiences of searching for their child’s donor siblings and donor’. Human Reproduction, 24, 505–16.
Golombok, S., Brewaeys, A., Cook, R., Giavazzi, M.T. et al. (1996). ‘The European study of assisted reproduction families: family functioning and child development’. Human Reproduction, 11, 2324–31.
Golombok, S., Readings, J., Blake, L., Casey, P. et al. (2011). ‘Children conceived by gamete donation: psychological adjustment and mother-child relationships at age 7’. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 230–39.
Grace, V.M. and Daniels, K.R. (2007). ‘The (ir)relevance of genetics: engendering parallel worlds of procreation and reproduction’. Sociology of Health and Illness, 29, 692–710.
Guasp, A. (2010). Different Families. London: Stonewall.
Hargreaves, K. and Daniels, K.R. (2007). ‘Parents’ dilemmas in sharing donor insemination conception stories with their children’. Children and Society, 21, 420–31.
Hertz, R. (2002). ‘The father as an idea: a challenge to kinship boundaries by single mothers’. Symbolic Interaction, 25, 1–31.
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) (2004). Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (Disclosure of Donor Insemination Regulations). Available at:
Jadva, V., Freeman, T., Kramer, W. and Golombok, S. (2009). ‘The experiences of adolescents and adults conceived by sperm donation: comparisons by age of disclosure and family type’. Human Reproduction, 24, 1909–19.
Jadva, V., Freeman, T., Kramer, W. and Golombok, S. (2010). ‘Experiences of offspring searching for and contacting their donor siblings and donor’. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 20, 523–32.
Jadva, V., Blake, L., Casey, P. and Golombok, S. (2012). ‘Surrogacy families ten years on: relationship with the surrogate, decisions over disclosure and children’s understanding of their surrogacy origins’. Human Reproduction, 27, 3008–14.
Kirkman, M. (2003). ‘Parents’ contributions to the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception’. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 2229–42.
Lalos, A., Gottlieb, C. and Lalos, O. (2007). ‘Legislated right for donor-insemination children to know their genetic origin: a study of parental thinking’. Human Reproduction, 22, 1759–68.
Landau, R. and Weissenberg, R. (2010). ‘Disclosure of donor conception in single-mother families: views and concerns’. Human Reproduction, 25, 942–8.
Lycett, E., Daniels, K. R., Curson, R. and Golombok, S. (2005). ‘School-aged children of donor insemination: a study of parents’ disclosure patterns’. Human Reproduction, 20, 810–19.
MacCallum, F., Lycett, E., Murray, C., Jadva, V. et al. (2003). ‘Surrogacy: the experience of commissioning couples’. Human Reproduction, 18, 1334–42.
MacDougall, K., Becker, G., Scheib, J. E. and Nachtigall, R. D. (2007). ‘Strategies for disclosure: how parents approach telling their children that they were conceived with donor gametes’. Fertility and Sterility, 87, 524–33.
Mason, K. and Tipper, B. (2008). ‘Being related: how children define and create kinship’. Childhood, 15, 441–60.
Morrow, V. and Richards, M. (1996). ‘The ethics of social research with children: an overview’. Children and Society, 10, 90–105.
O’Brien, M., Alldred, P. and Jones, D. (1996). ‘Children’s constructions of family and kinship’, in J. Brannen and M. O’Brien (eds.), Children in Families: Research and Policy. London: Falmer Press.
Readings, J., Blake, L., Casey, P., Jadva, V. et al. (2011). ‘Secrecy, disclosure and everything in-between: decisions of parents of children conceived by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy’. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 22, 485–95.
Rumball, A. and Adair, V. (1999). ‘Telling the story: parents’ scripts for donor offspring’. Human Reproduction, 14, 1392–9.
Scheib, J. E. (2003). ‘Choosing identity-release sperm donors: the parents’ perspective 13–18 years later’. Human Reproduction, 18, 1115–27.
Scheib, J. E., Riordan, M. and Rubin, S. (2005). ‘Adolescents with open-identity sperm donors: reports from 12–17 year olds’. Human Reproduction, 20, 239–52.
Smart, C. (2003). ‘Introduction: new perspectives on childhood and divorce’. Childhood, 10, 123–29.
Vanfraussen, K. (2001). ‘An attempt to reconstruct children’s donor concept: a comparison between children’s and lesbian parents’ attitudes towards donor anonymity’. Human Reproduction, 16, 2019–25.
Zadeh, S., Freeman, T. and Golombok, S. (2013). ‘Ambivalent identities of single women using sperm donation’. International Review of Social Psychology, 26, 97–123.