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  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: March 2016

2 - International regulation and cross-country comparisons

from Part I - International, cross-border and global issues
American Medical Association (2001). ‘Code of medical ethics’. Available at www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics.page.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) (2010). ‘Oversight of assisted reproductive technology’. Available at www.asrm.org/uploadedFiles/Content/About_Us/Media_and_Public_Affairs/OversiteOfART%20(2).pdf.
Arons, J. (2007). ‘Future choices: assisted reproductive technologies and the law’. Center for American Progress. Available at www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2007/12/pdf/arons_art.pdf.
Benagiano, G., Filippi, V., Sgargi, S. and Gianaroli, L. (2014). ‘Italian Constitutional Court removes the prohibition on gamete donation in Italy’. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 29, 662–4.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). ‘2011 Assisted Reproductive Technology: Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report’. Available at www.cdc.gov/art/ART2011/PDFs/ART_2011_Clinic_Report-Full.pdf.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (2014). Available at www.cms.gov/.
Cohen, I.G. (ed.) (2013). The Globalization of Health Care: Legal and Ethical Issues. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, I.G. and Adashi, E.Y. (2013). ‘Made-to-order embryos for sale – a brave new world?New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 2517–9.
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) (2007). ‘Financial compensation of oocyte donors’. Fertility and Sterility, 88, 305–9.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) (2012). Risk Assessment on Change of Testing Requirements for Partner Donation of Reproductive Cells. Stockholm: ECDC.
European Parliament (2005). ‘Planned egg cell trade’. European Parliament resolution on the trade in human egg cells. P6 TA (2005)0074.
European Parliament (2012). ‘Voluntary and unpaid donation of tissues and cells’. European Parliament resolution of 11 September 2012 on voluntary and unpaid donation of tissues and cells (2011/2193(INI)). P7 TA(2012)0320.
European Parliament and Council (2009). ‘Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare’ (COM(2008)0414 – C6–0257/2008 – 2008/0142(COD)). Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety.
Food and Drug Administration (2001; updated 2005). 7341.002 – Inspection of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) (Covers HCT/Ps recovered after 5/25/2005). Available at www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ComplianceActivities/Enforcement/CompliancePrograms/ucm095207.htm. Accessed 20 July 2015.
Garrison, J., Yoshino, K. and Ho, C. (2009). ‘Octuplets’ birth spawns outrage from public’. The Los Angeles Times, 7 February 2009. Available at www.articles.latimes.com/2009/feb/07/local/me-octuplets7.
Gianaroli, L., Crivello, A.M., Stanghellini, I., Ferraretti, A.P. et al. (2014). ‘Reiterative changes in the Italian legislation on IVF: the effect on PGD patients' reproductive decisions’. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 28, 125–32.
Harris, D. (2010). ‘Octomom doc Kamrava: “it was done the right way”’. ABC News, 13 July 2010. Available at www.abcnews.go.com/Nightline/doctor-kamrava-octomom-nadya-suleman/print?id=11145533.
Hennessy-Fiske, M. (2010). ‘Expert says fertility doctor implanted far too many embryos in Nadya Suleman’. The Los Angeles Times, 19 October 2010. Available at www.articles.latimes.com/2010/oct/19/local/la-meoctuplets-doctor-20101019.
Hinson, D.S. (2013). ‘State by state surrogacy law: actual practices’. Available at www.creativefamilyconnections.com/state-map-surrogacy-law-practices.
Hinson, D.S. and McBrien, M. (2011). ‘Surrogacy across America: both the law and the practice’. Family Advocate, 34, 32–6.
Keehn, J.E., Holwell, E., Abdul-Karim, R., Chin, L.J. et al. (2012). ‘Recruiting egg donors online: an analysis of IVF clinic and agency websites’ adherence to ASRM guidelines’. Fertility and Sterility, 98, 9951000.
Krawiec, K.D. (2014). ‘Egg donor price fixing and Kamakahi v. American Society for Reproductive Medicine’. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 16, 5762.
Lin, II R.-G. (2011). ‘Michael Kamrava's medical license revoked’. The Los Angeles Times, 1 June 2011. Available at www.documents.latimes.com/michael-kamrava-disciplinary-decision/.
Luk, J. and Petrozza, J.C. (2008). ‘Evaluation of compliance and range of fees among American Society for Reproductive Medicine listed egg donor and surrogacy agencies’. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 53, 847–52.
Magureanu, G. (2005). ‘Egg donation and conflict within the Romanian legal framework’. Paper presented at the CORE European seminar: Human egg trading and the exploitation of women. Brussels: European Parliament, 30 June 2005. Available at www.handsoffourovaries.com/pdfs/appendixg.pdf.
Mahalatchimy, A. (2010). ‘Bioethics and European Union: the advanced therapy medicinal products’ case’. Opinio Juris in Comparatione, 2, 122.
Pennings, G. (2004). ‘Legal harmonization and reproductive tourism in Europe’. Human Reproduction, 19, 2689–94.
Pennings, G., de Mouzon, J., Shenfield, F., Ferraretti, A-P. et al. (2014). ‘Socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors in eleven European countries’. Human Reproduction, 29, 1076–89.
Practice Committee of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, and Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (2006). ‘Guidelines on number of embryos transferred’. Fertility and Sterility, 86, S51S52.
Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine, and Practice Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (2013a). ‘Criteria for number of embryos to transfer: a committee opinion’. Fertility and Sterility, 99, 44.
Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine, and Practice Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (2013b). ‘Recommendations for gamete and embryo donation: a committee opinion’. Fertility and Sterility, 99, 4762.
Rao, R. (2011). ‘How (not) to regulate ARTs: lessons from octomom’. Albany Law Journal of Science and Technology, 21, 313–21.
Wadham, J., Mountfield, H., Prochaska, E. and Brown, C. (2011). Blackstone's Guide to the Human Rights Act 1998, 6th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press), para 2.78, citing Clayton and Tomlinson, The Law of Human Rights, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 315.
Wingfield, M. and Cottell, E. (2010). ‘Viral screening of couples undergoing partner donation in assisted reproduction with regard to EU Directives 2004/23/EC, 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC: what is the evidence for repeated screening?Human Reproduction, 25, 3058–65.
Yoshino, K. (2009). ‘House where octuplets’ mother lives is in danger of foreclosure’. The Los Angeles Times, 19 February 2009. Available at www.articles.latimes.com/2009/feb/19/local/me-octuplets19.
Zarembo, A. (2012). ‘An ethics debate over embryos on the cheap’. The Los Angeles Times, 12 November 2012. Available at www.articles.latimes.com/2012/nov/19/local/la-me-embryo-20121120.
Zegers-Hochschild, F., Dickens, B.M. and Dughman-Manzur, S. (2013a). ‘Human rights to in vitro fertilization’. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 123, 86–9.
Zegers-Hochschild, F., Schwarze, J.E., Crosby, J. and Do Carmo Borges de Souza, M. (2011). ‘Twenty years of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Latin America’. JBRA Assisted Reproduction, 15, 1930.
Zegers-Hochschild, F., Schwarze, J.E., Crosby, J., Musri, C. and Do Carmo Borges de Souza, M. (2013b). ‘Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2011’. JBRA Assisted Reproduction, 17, 216–21.
Zegers-Hochschild, F., Schwarze, J.E., Crosby, J.A., Carolina Musri, C. and do Carmo Borges de Souza, M. (2014). ‘Assisted Reproductive Technology in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2012’. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 30, 4351.
Corte Costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana, 2014. Sentenza 162/2014 [Ruling 162/2014].
S.H. and others v. Austria [2011]ECHR.
A, B & C v. Ireland, App No 25579/05, (2011) 53 EHRR 13.
Evans v. United Kingdom (2007) App No 6339/05, (2008) 46 EHRR 34.
Murillo, Artaviaet al. (‘In Vitro Fertilization’) v. Costa Rica [2012]I/A Court H.R. 12361.
Corte Costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana, 2014. Sentenza 162/2014 [Ruling 162/2014].
S.H. and others v. Austria [2011]ECHR.
A, B & C v. Ireland, App No 25579/05, (2011) 53 EHRR 13.
Evans v. United Kingdom (2007) App No 6339/05, (2008) 46 EHRR 34.
Murillo, Artaviaet al. (‘In Vitro Fertilization’) v. Costa Rica [2012]I/A Court H.R. 12361.
Conselho Federal Dd Medicina (Federal Council of Medicine).
Resolution CFM No 2.013/2013. Article 4, Doacao de Gametas ou Embrioes (Gametes and embryo donation).
Técnicas de Reproducción Humana Asistida. Ley N. 19.167.
Artificial Procreation Act 1992.
European Convention on Human Rights.
Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on setting standards of quality and safety for the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells.
Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare.
Directive 2006/17/ EC and Patient Mobility Directive.
Constitution of the United States.
Conselho Federal Dd Medicina (Federal Council of Medicine).
Resolution CFM No 2.013/2013. Article 4, Doacao de Gametas ou Embrioes (Gametes and embryo donation).
Técnicas de Reproducción Humana Asistida. Ley N. 19.167.
Artificial Procreation Act 1992.
European Convention on Human Rights.
Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on setting standards of quality and safety for the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells.
Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare.
Directive 2006/17/ EC and Patient Mobility Directive.
Constitution of the United States.