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Regulating Islam

Book description

Many countries in the Arab world have incorporated Islam into their state- and nation-building projects, naming it the 'religion of the state'. Regulating Islam offers an empirically rich account of how and why two contemporary Arab states, Morocco and Tunisia, have sought to regulate religious institutions and discourse. Drawing on a range of previously unexamined sources, Sarah J. Feuer traces and analyzes the efforts of Moroccan and Tunisian policymakers to regulate Islamic education as part of the respective regimes' broader survival strategies since their independence from French rule in 1956. Out of the comparative case study emerges a compelling theory to account for the complexities of religion-state dynamics across the Arab world today, highlighting the combined effect of ideological, political, and institutional factors on religious regulation in North Africa and the Middle East. The book makes an important and timely contribution to the on-going scholarly and policy debates concerning religion, politics, and authoritarian governance in the post-uprisings Arab landscape.

Reviews

‘The apposite institutionalization of religion poses a political quandary for many states in the Arab world. Regulating Islam deftly explores a cocktail of three factors: ideology, political opponent profile, and institutional endowment that interact to shape the state's stance on religion. Tracing the evolution in state policy on religious education in Morocco and Tunisia over the past 60 years, Feuer accounts for the variation found in these policies across time and case, explains paradoxical outcomes (e.g. traditionally-minded states that choose to reduce state support for religion) and introduces new concepts such as ‘identity bargaining' where political leaders, faced with daunting political and resource constraints, ‘split the difference' between linguistic and religious dimensions of identity, and ultimately privilege an emphasis on Islam in the state educational system. An enlightening contribution to the politics of religion in the Arab world and beyond.'

Eva Bellin - Myra and Robert Kraft Professor of Arab Politics, Crown Center for Middle East Studies, Brandeis University, Massachusetts

‘Sarah J. Feuer combines theoretical sophistication with extensive fieldwork in Morocco and Tunisia to bring new insight into how governments regulate religion in general and religious education in particular. First she demonstrates that existing theories, while providing insight, fail to fully explain Tunisia and Morocco. She then weaves an intricate yet accessible and understandable theory based on the interaction between a government's ideology, its institutional strength, and the nature of its opposition to explain how governments formulate religion policy. This thoughtful and insightful book will influence how we think about religion policy well beyond Morocco and Tunisia.'

Jonathan Fox - Yehuda Avner Professor of Religion and Politics, Bar Ilan University, Israel

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Interviews (positions listed were at the time of interview)
Abbadi, Ahmed, Secretary General of the League of Moroccan Ulama. Washington, DC, May 8, 2015.
Kacem, Samir Abu, Office of Curricula at the Ministry of Education, former member of Islamic Education reform committee. Rabat, December 18, 2012.
Zahir, Hassan Al, Dean of Sharia College, Qarawiyyin University. Fes, December 31, 2012.
Anonymous, Student at Dar al-Hadith al-Hassaniyya. Rabat, January 6, 2016, October 7, 2015, and December 1, 2016.
Benabdallaoui, Mokhtar, Professor at Hassan II University and former member of Islamic education reform committee. Casablanca, December 15, 2012.
Bendaoud, Abdelwahab, Director of Traditional Education at the Ministry of Pious Endowments and Islamic Affairs. Rabat, January 16, 2013 and February 11, 2015.
Bennis, Mohammed, Professor of English, Sidi Ben Abdellah University. Fes, June 21, 2011.
Boutarboush, Mohammed, Head of Salé Regional Council of Ulama, Salé, January 3, 2013.
Chbani, Aziz, Director of Literacy and Professional Training Program/Consultant with the Millennium Challenge Corporation. Rabat, June 24, 2011.
Elahmadi, Mohsine, Professor at Cadi Ayyad University. Rabat, January 7, 2013.
Elarbi, Imad, Director of the Moroccan Center for Civic Education. Casablanca, January 8, 2013.
Elamrani, Rached, Director of the Office of Textbooks at the Ministry of Education. Rabat, December 18, 2012.
Ezzaki, Abdelkader, Consultant with Project ITQANE (Improving Training for Quality Advancement in National Education). Rabat, June 10, 2011.
Haddad, Lahcen, Education consultant with MSI Morocco. Rabat, June 10, 2011.
Hakim, Abdellatif, Professor of English, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University. Fes, June 21, 2011.
Hami el-Din, Abdelali, member of PJD's executive council. Rabat, February 12, 2015.
Kansoussi, Jaafar, Member of Islamic Affairs Minister Ahmed Toufiq's cabinet, former director of the ministry's Islamic Affairs Directorate for the Marrakesh region. Rabat, January 17 and 25, 2013; Marrakesh, February 8, 2015.
Khtou, Hssein, Professor of English at Dar al-Hadith al-Hassaniyya. Rabat, December 9, 2013.
Machrouh, Brahim, Assistant Director of Dar al-Hadith al-Hassaniyya. Rabat, October 7, 2015.
Melouk, Mohamed, Professor of Education at Mohamed V University. Rabat, June 15, 2011 and December 18, 2012.
Messari, Nizar, Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Al-Akhawayn University. Ifrane, January 10, 2013.
Moubtassime, Mohammed, Professor of English at Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University. Fes, June 21, 2011.
Monette, Connell, Coordinator of imam training program at Al-Akhawayn University. Rabat, December 26, 2012.
Potter, Kristen, Director of USAID Education office, U.S. Embassy. Rabat, June 15, 2011.
Rddad, Sadik, Professor of English and Sociology at Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fes, June 21, 2011.
Ramh, Mohamed, Vice-Dean for Sciences and Cooperation at Sharia College, Qarawiyyin University. Fes, December 31, 2012.
Rami, Abderrahmane, Former Director of Pedagogy at the Ministry of Education. Rabat, June 14, 2011.
Saqi, Khalid, Assistant Director of Dar al-Hadith al-Hassaniyya. Rabat, December 9, 2013.
Saqi, Khalid, Director of Mohamed VI Insititute for Quranic Readings and Studies. Rabat, October 6, 2015.
Shafiki, Fouad, Director of Office of Curricula, Moroccan Ministry of Education. Rabat, January 3, 2013.
Students in the Muhammad VI Institute for the Training of Imams. Rabat, October 8, 2015.
Talidi, Bilal, member of PJD's executive council. Rabat, October 7, 2015.
Abd El-Moula, Mohamed Nejbi, Mayor of Sfax. Sfax, July 3, 2012.
Abdessalem, Rafik, former Foreign Affairs Minister and member of Ennahda's Shura Council. Tunis, February 2, 2015.
al-ʿAbidi, Hussayn, Shaykh of the Zaytuna Grand Mosque. Tunis, February 5, 2015.
Allani, Alaya, Professor at Manouba University. Tunis, February 6, 2016.
Arbi, Chiraz, staff person in the National Democratic Institute's Tunisia office. February 6, 2015.
Ayachi, Mokhtar, Director of the Tunisian Museum of National Education. Tunis, October 18, 2012.
Hmida, Bochra Belhaj, former President of l'Association Tunisienne des Femmes Democrates. Tunis, June 28, 2012.
Abdeljelil, Moncef Ben, Professor and former member of Education Minister Mohamed Charfi's cabinet. Sousse, October 23, 2012.
Salem, Hatem Ben, Director of Tunisian Institute for Strategic Studies and former Minister of Education. Tunis, September 23, 2016.
Charfi, Faouzia, Minister Mohamed Charfi's widow. Tunis, September 17, 2012.
Jaballah, Hamadi Ben, former high school philosophy teacher. Tunis, October 12, 2012.
Romdhane, Mahmoud Ben, founding member of Nida’ Tunis Party. Tunis, February 3, 2015.
Civil society activists, Kairouan, June 29, 2012.
Ennaifer, Hmida, former member of Education Minister Mohamed Charfi's cabinet. Tunis, September 19, 2012, October 11, 2012, and February 2, 2015.
Ferchiou, Ridha, President of l'Institut Tunis-Dauphine. Tunis, September 4, 2012.
Ferjani, Said, Member of Ennahda's Shura Council. Tunis, February 5, 2015.
Gharbi, Iqbal, Professor at Zaytuna University. Tunis, October 30, 2012.
Kahlaoui, Tarek, Director of the Tunisian Institute for Strategic Studies. Tunis, June 29, 2012.
Kazdaghli, Habib, Dean of the Manouba University Faculty of Humanities. Tunis, February 3, 2016.
Moakhar, Riadh, Member of Parliament with the Afaq Tunis Party. Tunis, February 4, 2016.
Nouira, Asma, Professor of Political Science at the University of Tunis. Tunis, June 26, 2012.
Sayah, Habib, Security sector consultant. Tunis, February 4, 2016.
Sghaier, Oussama, Member of Parliament with Ennahda and member of Ennahda's Shura Council. Tunis, September 23, 2016.
Suwaihi, Mongea, Professor at Zaytuna University. Tunis, October 19, 2012 and February 2, 2016.
Tlili, Munir, Professor at Zaytuna University. Tunis, October 10, 2012.
Tlili, Munir, Former Minister of Religious Affairs. Tunis, February 5, 2016.
Triki, Sami, member of Ennahda's Shura Council. Tunis, February 5, 2015.
Yahyaoui, Amira, Founder of al-Bawsala. Tunis, February 5, 2016.

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