Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: May 2017

17 - Climate and Environment Reconstructions Based on Speleothems from the Levant

from Part II: - Palaeoclimates
Affek, H.P., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Matthews, A. & Eiler, J.M. 2008. Glacial/interglacial temperature variations in Soreq cave speleothems as recorded by ‘clumped isotope’ thermometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72: 5351–60.
Affek, H.P., Matthews, A., Ayalon, A. et al. 2014. Accounting for kinetic isotope effects in Soreq 1 Cave (Israel) speleothems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 143: 303–18.
Akazawa, T. & Muhesen, S. (eds.) 2002. Neanderthal Burials: Excavations of the Deberiyeh Cave, Efrin Syria: Studies in Honor of Hisashi Suzuki. Kyoto: International Research Center for Japanese Studies.
Almogi-Labin, A., Bar-Matthews, M. & Ayalon, A. 2004. Climate variability in the Levant and northeast Africa during the Late Quaternary based on marine and land records. In Human Paleoecology in the Levantine Corridor, ed. Goren-Inbar, N. & Speth, J.D.. Oxford: Oxbow Press, pp. 117–34.
Almogi-Labin, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Shriki, D. et al. 2009. Climatic variability during the last ∼90 ka of the southern and northern Levantine basin as evident from marine records and speleothems. Quaternary Science Reviews 28: 2882–96.
Amit, R., Enzel, Y. & Sharon, D. 2006. Permanent Quaternary hyperaridity in the Negev, Israel, resulting from regional tectonics blocking Mediterranean frontal systems. Geology 34: 509–12.
Amit, R., Enzel, Y., Grodek, T. et al. 2010. The role of rare rainstorms in the formation of calcic soil horizons on alluvial surfaces in extreme deserts. Quaternary Research 74: 177–87.
Avni, Y., Bartov, Y., Garfunkel, Z. & Ginat, H. 2001. The Arava formation – A Pliocene sequence in the Arava Valley and its western margin, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 50: 101–20.
Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M. & Sass, E. 1998. Rainfall-recharge relationships within a karstic terrain in the eastern Mediterranean semi-arid region, Israel: δ18O and δD characteristics. Journal of Hydrology 207: 1831.
Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M. & Kaufman, A. 1999. Petrography, strontium, barium, and uranium concentrations, and strontium and uran-ium isotope ratios in speleothems as paleoclimatic proxies: Soreq Cave, Israel. The Holocene 9: 715–22.
Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M. & Kaufman, A. 2002. Climatic conditions during marine isotopic stage 6 in the eastern Mediterranean region as evident from the isotopic composition of speleothems: Soreq Cave, Israel. Geology 30: 303–6.
Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M. & Schilman, B. 2004. Rainfall isotope characteristics at various sites in Israel and the relationships with unsaturated zone water. Geological Survey of Israel Report GSI/16/04.
Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Frumkin, A. & Matthews, A. 2013. Last glacial warm events on Mount Hermon; The southern extension of the Alpine karst range of the east Mediterranean. Quaternary Science Reviews 59: 4356.
Bar-Matthews, M. 2014. History of water in the Middle East and North Africa. In Treatise on Geochemistry Vol. 14, ed. Holland, H.D. & Turekian, K.K., 2nd edn. Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 109–28.
Bar-Matthews, M. & Ayalon, A. 2011. Mid-Holocene climate variations revealed by high resolution speleothem records from Soreq Cave, Israel and their correlation with cultural changes. The Holocene 21: 163–71.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Matthews, A., Sass, E. & Halicz, L. 1996. Carbon and oxygen isotope study of the active water-carbonate system in a karstic Mediterranean cave: Implications for paleoclimate research in semi-arid regions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60: 337–47.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. & Kaufman, A. 1997. Late Quaternary paleoclimate in the eastern Mediterranean region from stable isotope ana-lysis of speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel. Quaternary Research 47: 155–68.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. & Kaufman, A. 1998. Middle to late Holocene (6500 years period) paleoclimate in the eastern Mediterranean region from stable isotopic composition of speleothems from Soreq Cave, Israel. In Water, Environment and Society in Times of Climate Change, ed. Issar, A.S. & Brown, N.. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 203–14.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Kaufman, A. & Wasserburg, G.J. 1999. The Eastern Mediterranean paleoclimate as a reflection of regional events: Soreq Cave, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 166: 8595.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. & Kaufman, A. 2000. Timing and hydrological conditions of Sapropel events in the eastern Mediterranean, as evident from speleothems, Soreq Cave, Israel. Chemical Geology 169: 145156.
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Gilmour, M., Matthews, M. & Hawkesworth, C. 2003. Sea–land isotopic relationships from planktonic foraminifera and speleothems in the eastern Mediterranean region and their implications for paleorainfall during interglacial intervals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67: 3181–199.
Bar-Yosef, O. & Callander, J. 1999. The woman from Tabun: Garrod's doubts in historical perspective. Journal of Human Evolution 37: 879–85.
Bar-Yosef, O., Vandermeersch, B., Arensburg, B. et al. 1992. The excavations in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel. Current Anthropology 33: 497550.
Belmaker, M. 2008. Analysis of ungulate diet during the last glacial (MIS 5–2) in the Levant: Evidence for long-term stability in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28: 50a.
Ben Israel, M., Enzel, Y., Amit, R. & Erel, Y. 2015. Provenance of the various grain-size fractions in the Negev loess and potential changes in major dust sources to the eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Research 83: 105–15.
Cerling, T.E. & Quade, J. 1993. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil carbonates. In Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Records, ed. Swart, P.K., Lohmann, K.C., McKenzie, J. & Savin, S., Geophysical Monograph Series 78. Washington: American Geophysical Union, pp. 217–31.
Cheng, H., Sinha, A., Wang, X., Cruz, F.W.R. & Edwards, L. 2012. The Global Paleomonsoon as seen through speleothem records from Asia and the Americas. Climate Dynamics 39: 1045–62.
Cheng, H., Edwards, L., Shen, C-C. et al. 2013. Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U–Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 371372: 8291.
Crouvi, O., Amit, R., Porat, N. et al. 2009. Significance of primary hilltop loess in reconstructing dust chronology, accretion rates and sources: An example from the Negev desert, Israel. Journal of Geophysical Research 114: 116.
Danin, A. 1988. Flora and vegetation of Israel and adjacent areas. In The Zoogeography of Israel, ed. Yom-Tov, Y. & Tchernov, E.. Dordrecht: Dr W. Junk Publishers.
Dansgaard, W. 1964. Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16: 436–68.
Dayan, U. 1986. Climatology of back trajectories from Israel based on synoptic analysis. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 25: 591–95.
deMenocal, P.B. 1995. Plio-Pleistocene African climate. Science 270: 53–9.
deMenocal, P.B. 2004. African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene–Pleistocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 220: 324.
Derricourt, R. 2005. Getting ‘Out of Africa’: sea crossings, land crossings. Journal of World Prehistory 19: 119–32.
Dreybrodt, W. & Deininger, M. 2014. The impact of evaporation to the isotope composition of DIC in calcite precipitating water films in equilibrium and kinetic fractionation models. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 125: 433–9.
Ehleringer, J.R. 1988. Carbon isotope ratios and physiological processes in aridland plants. In Applications of Stable Isotopic Ratios to Eco-logical Research, ed. Rundel, P.W., Ehleringer, J.R. & Nagy, K.A.. New York: Springer, pp. 4154.
Ehleringer, J.R., Sage, R.F., Flanagan, L.B. & Pearcy, R.W. 1991. Climate change and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6: 9599.
Emeis, K.C., Schulz, H.M., Struck, U. et al. 1998. Stable isotope and alkenone temperature records of sapropels from sites 964 and 967: constraining the physical environment of sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program – Scientific Results Vol. 160, ed. Robertson, A.H.F., Emeis, K.C., Richter, C. & Camerlengi, A.. College Station: Ocean Drilling Program, pp. 309–31.
Emeis, K.C., Struck, U., Schulz, H.M. et al. 2000. Temperature and salinity variations of Mediterranean Sea surface waters over the last 16,000 years from records of planktonic stable oxygen isotopes and alkenone unsaturation ratios. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 158: 259–80.
Enzel, Y., Amit, R., Dayan, U. et al. 2008. The climatic and physiographic controls of the eastern Mediterranean over the late Pleistocene climates in the southern Levant and its neighboring deserts. Global and Planetary Change 60: 165–92.
Even, H., Carmi, I., Magaritz, M. & Gersson, R. 1986. Timing the transport of waters through the upper vadose zone in a karstic system above a cave in Israel. Earth Surface. Processes and Landforms 11: 181–91.
Feng, X. 1999. Trends in intrinsic water-use efficiency of natural trees for the past 100–200 years: A response to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63: 1891–903.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mudelsee, M. et al. 2003a. Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from Southern Oman. Science 300: 1737–9.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Neff, U., Mangini, A. & Matter, A. 2003b. Changing moisture sources over the last 330,000 years in Northern Oman from fluid-inclusion evidence in speleothems. Quaternary Research 60: 223–32.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Pekala, M. et al. 2011. Holocene and Pleistocene pluvial periods in Yemen, southern Arabia. Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 783–7.
Frumkin, A. & Stein, M. 2004. The Sahara–East Mediterranean dust and climate connection revealed by strontium and uranium isotopes in a Jerusalem speleothem. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 217: 451–64.
Frumkin, A., Ford, D.C. & Schwarcz, H.P. 1999. Continental oxygen isotopic record of the last 170,000 years in Jerusalem. Quaternary Research 51: 317–27.
Frumkin, A., Ford, D. & Schwarcz, H.P. 2000. Paleoclimate and vegetation of the Last Glacial cycles in Jerusalem from a speleothem record. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14: 863–70.
Frumkin, A., Bar-Matthews, M. & Vaks, A. 2008. Paleoenvironment of Jawa basalt plateau, Jordan, inferred from calcite speleothems from a lava tube. Quaternary Research 70: 358–67.
Frumkin, A., Bar-Yosef, O. & Schwarcz, H.P. 2011. Possible paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic effects on hominin migration and occupation of the Levantine Middle Paleolithic. Journal of Human Evolution 60: 437–51.
Garcea, E.A.A. 2004. Crossing deserts and avoiding seas: Aterian North African–European relations. Journal of Anthropological Research 60: 2753.
Gasse, F., Vidal, L., Van Campo, E. et al. 2015. Hydroclimatic changes in northern Levant over the past 400,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 111: 18.
Gat, J.R. 1996. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hydrologic cycle. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 24: 225–62.
Gat, J.R. & Carmi, I. 1987. Effect of climate changes on the precipitation patterns and isotopic composition of water in a climate transition zone: Case of the eastern Mediterranean Sea area. In: The Influence of Climate Change and Climatic Variability on the Hydrologic Regime and Water Resources, Proceedings of the Vancouver Symposium, August 1987, IAHS Publication No. 168, pp. 513–23.
Genty, D., Baker, A., Massault, M. et al. 2001. Dead carbon in stalagmites: Carbonate bedrock paleodissolution vs. ageing of soil organic matter. Implication for 13C variation in speleothems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65: 3443–57.
Gopher, A., Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M. et al. 2010. The chronology of the late Lower Paleolithic in the Levant based on U–Th ages of speleothems from Qesem Cave, Israel. Quaternary Geochronology 5: 644–56.
Grant, K.M., Rohling, E.J., Bar-Matthews, M. et al. 2012. Rapid coupling between ice volume and polar temperature over the past 150 kyr. Nature 491: 744–7.
Greenbaum, N., Porat, N., Rhodes, E. & Enzel, Y. 2006. Large floods during late Oxygen Isotope Stage 3, southern Negev desert, Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 704–19.
Grün, R. & Stringer, C. 2000. Tabun revisited: Revised ESR chronology and new ESR and U-series analyses of dental material from Tabun C1. Journal of Human Evolution 39: 601–12.
Grün, R., Stringer, C., McDermott, F. et al. 2005. U-series and ESR analyses of bones and teeth relating to the human burials from Skhul. Journal of Human Evolution 49: 316–34.
Hall, J. 1997. Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Israel and Environs,1:500000. Israel Geological Survey.
Hershkovitz, I., Marder, O., Ayalon, A. et al. 2015. Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans. Nature 520: 216–19.
Kahana, R., Ziv, B., Enzel, Y. & Dayan, U. 2002. Synoptic climatology of major floods in the Negev Desert, Israel. International Journal of Climatology 22: 867–82.
Kallel, N., Paterne, M., Duplessy, J.-C. et al. 1997. Enhanced rainfall in the Mediterranean region during the last sapropel event. Oceanologica Acta 20: 697712.
Kaufman, A., Wasserburg, G.J., Porcelli, D. et al. 1998. U–Th isotope systematics from the Soreq Cave Israel and climatic correlations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 156: 141–55.
Kolodny, Y., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. & McKeegan, K.D. 2003. A high spatial resolution δ18O profile of a speleothem using an ion-microprobe. Chemical Geology 197: 21–8.
Kolodny, Y., Stein, M. & Machlus, M. 2005. Sea–rain–lake relation in the Last Glacial East Mediterranean revealed by δ18O–δ13C in Lake Lisan aragonites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 16: 4045–60.
Lisker, S., Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Porat, R. & Frumkin, A. 2009. Stromatolites in caves of the Dead Sea Fault escarpment: Implications to latest Pleistocene lake levels and tectonic subsidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 28: 8092.
Lisker, S., Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Porat, R. & Frumkin, A. 2010. A Late Pleistocene palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Dead Sea area (Israel), based on speleothems and cave stromatolites. Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 1201–211.
Livnat, A. & Kronfeld, J. 1985. Paleoclimatic implications of U-series dates for lake sediments and travertines in the Arava Rift Valley, Israel. Quaternary Research 24: 164–72.
Martrat, B., Grimalt, J.O., Lopez-Martinez, C. et al. 2004. Abrupt temperature changes in the western Mediterranean over the past 250,000 years. Science 306: 1762–5.
Matthews, A., Ayalon, A. & Bar-Matthews, M. 2000. D/H ratios of fluid inclusions of Soreq Cave (Israel) speleothems as a guide to the eastern Mediterranean meteoric line relationships in the last 120 ky. Chemical Geology 166: 183–91.
McBrearty, S. & Brooks, A.S. 2000. The revolution that wasn't: A new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 39: 453563.
McDermott, F. 2004. Palaeo-climate reconstruction from stable isotope variations in speleothems: A review. Quaternary Science Reviews 23: 901–18.
McDougall, I., Brown, F.H. & Fleagle, J.G. 2005. Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia. Nature 433: 733–6.
McGarry, S., Bar-Matthews, M., Matthews, A. et al. 2004. Constraints on hydrological and paleotemperature variations in the eastern Mediterranean region in the last 140 ka given by the dD values of speleothem fluid inclusions. Quaternary Science Reviews 23: 919–34.
Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Bar-Yosef, O et al. 1993. Thermoluminescence date for the Mousterian burial site of Es-Skhul, Mt. Carmel. Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 169–74.
Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Valladas, G. et al. 1995. TL dates of burnt flints from Jelinek's excavations at Tabun and their implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 22: 495509.
Merlivat, L. & Jouzel, J. 1979. Global climatic interpretation of the deuterium–oxygen 18 relationship for precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research 84: 5029–33.
Nadel, D., Tsatskin, A., Belmaker, M. et al. 2004. On the shore of a fluctuating lake: Environmental evidence from Ohalo II (19,500 B.P.). Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 53: 207–23.
Orland, I.J., Bar-Matthews, M., Kita, N.T. et al. 2009. Climate deterioration in the eastern Mediterranean as revealed by ion microprobe analysis of a speleothem that grew from 2.2 to 0.9 ka in Soreq Cave, Israel Quaternary Research 71: 2735.
Orland, I.J., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. et al. 2012. Seasonal resolution of eastern Mediterranean climate change since 34 ka from a Soreq Cave speleothem. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 89: 240–55.
Orland, I.J., Burstyn, Y., Bar-Matthews, M. et al. 2014. Seasonal climate signals (1998–2008) in a modern Soreq Cave stalagmite as revealed by high-resolution geochemical analysis. Chemical Geology 363: 322–33.
Petraglia, M.D. & Alsharekh, A. 2003. The Middle Palaeolithic of Arabia: Implications for modern human origins, behaviour and dispersals. Antiquity 77: 671–84.
Rabinovich, R. 2003. The Levantine Upper Paleolithic faunal record. In More than Meets the Eye: Studies on Upper Palaeolithic Diversity in the Near East, ed. Goring-Morris, A.N. & Belfer-Cohen, A.. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. 3348.
Rindsberger, M., Magaritz, M., Carmi, I. & Gilad, D. 1983. The relation between air mass trajectories and the water isotope composition of rain in the Mediterranean Sea area. Geophysical Research Letters 10: 43–6.
Rink, W.J., Schwarcz, H.P., Lee, H.K. et al. 2001. Electron spin reson-ance (ESR) and thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) 230Th/234U dating of teeth in Middle Paleolithic layers at Amud Cave, Israel. Geoarchaeology 16: 701–17.
Rossignol-Strick, M. 1983. African monsoon, an immediate response to orbital insolation. Nature 304: 46–9.
Rossignol-Strick, M. 1985. Mediterranean Quaternary sapropels, an immediate response of the African monsoon to variation of insolation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 49: 237–63.
Rozanski, K., Araguas-Araguas, L. & Gonfiantini, R. 1993. Isotopic patterns in modern global precipitation. In Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Record, ed. Swart, P.K., Lohman, K.L., McKenzie, J.A. & Savin, S.. Geophysical Monograph Series 78. Washington: American Geophysical Union, pp. 137.
Schwarcz, H.P. 1980. Absolute age determination of archeological sites by uranium series dating of travertines. Archaeometry 22: 324.
Schwarcz, H.P., Blackwell, B., Goldberg, P. & Marks, A.E. 1979. Uran-ium series dating of travertine from archaeological sites, Nahal Zin, Israel. Nature 277: 558–60.
Schwarcz, H.P., Grün, R.V.B., Bar-Yosef, O., Valladas, H. & Tchernov, E. 1988. ESR dates from the hominid burial site of Kafzeh in Israel. Journal of Human Evolution 17: 733–7.
Schwarcz, H.P., Buhay, W.M., Grün, R. et al. 1989. ESR dating of the Neanderthal site of Kebara Cave, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science 16: 653–9.
Sharon, D. & Kutiel, H. 1986. The distribution of rainfall intensity in Israel, its regional and seasonal variations and its climatological evaluation. Journal of Climatology 6: 277–91.
Shay-El, Y. & Alpert, P. 1991. A diagnostic study of winter diabatic heating in the Mediterranean in relation with cyclones. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 117: 715–47.
Shea, J.J. 2008. Transitions or turnovers? Climatically-forced extinctions of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in the East Mediterranean Levant. Quaternary Science Reviews 27: 2253–70.
Smith, J.R., Giegengack, R. & Schwarcz, H.P. 2004. Constraints on Pleistocene pluvial climates through stable-isotope analysis of fossil-spring tufas and associated gastropods, Kharga Oasis, Egypt. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 206: 157–75.
Smith, J.R., Hawkins, A.L., Asmerom, Y., Polyak, V. & Giegengack, R. 2007. New age constraints on MSA occupation, Western Desert, Egypt. Journal of Human Evolution 52: 690701.
Solecki, R.S. & Solecki, R.L. 1993. The pointed tools from the Mouster-ian occupations of Shanidar Cave, Northern Iraq. In The Paleolithic Prehistory of the Zagros-Taurus, ed. Olszewski, D.I. & Dibble, H.L.. Philadelphia: The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, pp. 119–46.
Stringer, C.B. & Barton, R.N.E. 2008. Putting North Africa on the map of modern human origins. Evolutionary Anthropology 17: 57.
Stringer, C.B., Grün, R., Schwarcz, H.P. & Goldberg, P. 1989. ESR dates for the hominid burial site of Es Skhul in Israel. Nature 338: 756–58.
Tchernov, E. 1988. The age of Ubeidiya Formation (Jordan Valley, Israel) and the earliest hominids in the Levant. Paleorient 14: 63–5.
Torfstein, A., Goldstein, S., Kushnir, Y. et al. 2015. Dead Sea drawdown and monsoonal impacts in the Levant during the last interglacial. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 412: 235–44.
Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. et al. 2003. Paleoclimate reconstruction based on the timing of speleothem growth, oxygen and carbon isotope composition from a cave located in the ‘rain shadow’, Israel. Quaternary Rresearch 59: 182–93.
Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. et al. 2006. Paleoclimate and location of the border between Mediterranean climate region and the Saharo-Arabian desert as revealed by speleothems from the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 249: 384–99.
Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A. et al. 2007. Desert speleothems reveal climatic window for African exodus of early modern humans. Geology 35: 831–4.
Vaks, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Matthews, A., Ayalon, A. & Frumkin, A. 2010. Middle-Late Quaternary paleoclimate of northern margins of the Saharan-Arabian Desert: reconstruction from speleothems of Negev Desert, Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 2647–662.
Vaks, A., Gutareva, O.S., Breitenbach, S.F.M. et al. 2013a. Speleothems reveal 500,000-year history of Siberian permafrost, Science 340: 183–6.
Vaks, A., Woodhead, J., Bar-Matthews, M. et al. 2013b. Pliocene–Pleistocene climate of the northern margin of Saharan–Arabian Desert recorded in speleothems from the Negev Desert, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 368: 88100.
Valladas, H., Joron, J.L., Valladas, G. et al. 1987. Thermoluminescence dates for the Neanderthal burial site at Kebara in Israel. Nature 330: 159–60.
Valladas, H., Reyss, J.L., Joron, J.L. et al. 1988. Thermoluminescence dating of Mousterian ‘proto-Cro-Magnon’ remains from Israel and the origin of the modern man. Nature 331: 614–16.
Valladas, H., Mercier, N., Hovers, E. et al. 1999. TL dates for the Neanderthal site of Amud Cave, Israel. Journal of Archeological Science 26: 259–68.
Verheyden, S., Nader, F.H., Cheng, H.J., Edwards, L.R. & Swennen, R. 2008. Paleoclimate reconstruction in the Levant region from the geochemistry of a Holocene stalagmite from the Jeita cave, Lebanon. Quaternary Research 70: 368–81.
Vermeersch, P.M. 2001. ‘Out of Africa’ from an Egyptian point of view. Quaternary International 75: 103–12.
Vogel, J.C., Fuls, A. & Danin, A. 1986. Geographical and environmental distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in Sinai, Negev, and Judean deserts. Oecologia 70: 258–65.
Waldmann, N., Torfstein, A. & Stein, M. 2010. Northward intrusions of low- and midlatitude storms across the Saharo-Arabian belt during past interglacials. Geology 38: 567–70.
Walter, C., Buffler, R.T., Bruggemann, J.H. et al. 2000. Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial. Nature 405: 65–9.
Weinstein-Evron, M. 1987. Palynology of Pleistocene travertines from the Arava Valley, Israel. Quaternary Research 27: 82–8.
Yair, A. 1990. The role of topography and surface cover upon soil formation along hillslope in arid climate. Geomorphology 3: 287–99.
Zangvil, A. & Druian, P. 1990. Upper air trough axis orientation and the spatial distribution of rainfall over Israel. International Journal of Climatology 10: 5762.