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Public Procurement Regulation in Africa
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Book description

Public procurement regulation in Africa is not widely researched. To address the shortage of scholarship in this area and to promote future research, this book analyses the law governing public procurement in a number of African systems and looks at key themes relevant to all African states. Part I discusses the regulatory regimes of nine African systems using a common framework, providing both a focused view of these African systems and an accessible comparative perspective. In Part II, key regulatory issues in public procurement that are particularly relevant in the African context are assessed through a comparative approach. The chapters consider the influence of international regulatory regimes (particularly the UNCITRAL Model Law on procurement) on African systems and provide insights into the way public procurement regulation is approached in Africa.

Reviews

'… a comprehensive introduction into sub-Saharan public procurement systems and essential as well as critical public procurement issues from a comparative point of view … the book is an excellent starting point for academic research and debate and the promotion of engagement with this significant topic.'

Anne Schmidt Source: Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America

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Contents

Materials on public procurement regulation in Africa

General and comparative works

B. Basheka, ‘Public Procurement Reforms in Africa: A Tool for Effective Governance and the Public Sector and Poverty Reduction’ in K. V. Thai (ed.), International Handbook of Public Procurement (Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis, 2009), p. 131
E. Caborn and S. Arrowsmith, ‘Procurement Methods in the Public Procurement Systems of Africa’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 12
A. Fall and M. Frilet, ‘Public Procurement in Francophone Africa’ in R. Hérnandez Garcia (ed.), International Public Procurement: A Guide to Best Practice (London: Globe Law and Business, 2009), p. 75
K. Jacobs, ‘Naval Programmes – Procurement Programmes of Middle-East and North-African Navies’ (2007) 27 Naval Forces 83
S. R. Karangizi, ‘Framework Arrangements in Public Procurement: A Perspective from Africa’ in S. Arrowsmith (ed.), Reform of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Procurement: Procurement Regulation for the 21st Century (Eagan, MN: West, 2009), p. 243
J. O. Kuye and U. Kakumba, ‘The Ombudsman Institutions in the Procurement of Legal Responsibilities in the Commonwealth: An Overview of Canada, South Africa and Uganda’ (2008) 43(3) Journal of Public Administration 156
A. La Chimia, ‘Donors’ Influence on Developing Countries’ Procurement Systems, Rules and Markets: A Critical Analysis’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 11
F. Lichere and B. Martor, ‘On the Development of Public–Private Partnerships in Africa: Current Reforms and Future Prospects’ (2007) 3 International Business Law Journal 297
W. Odhiambo and P. Kamau, ‘Public Procurement: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda’ (OECD Development Centre, 2006), www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/fulltext/5lgsjhvj7843.pdf?expires=1289653149&id=0000&accname=guest&checksum=21011C9633AD1509062E3309A11D170B
G. Quinot, ‘A Comparative Perspective on Supplier Remedies in African Public Procurement Systems’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 13
G. Quinot,‘Promotion of Social Policy through Public Procurement in Africa’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 15
G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith, ‘Introduction’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 1
Report on the Proceedings of the Conference of the Public Procurement Reform in Africa, Abijan, 1998 (World Bank, African Development Bank, United Nations Development Programme, International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, 1998)
S. Willet, ‘Defence Expenditures, Arms Procurement and Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa’ (2009) 36 Review of African Political Economy 335
S. Williams-Elegbe, ‘A Perspective on Corruption and Public Procurement in Africa’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 14

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)

S. R. Karangizi, ‘The COMESA Public Procurement Reform Initiative’ (2005) 14 Public Procurement Law Review NA51
S. R. Karangizi and I. Ndahiro, ‘Public Procurement Reform and Development in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region’ in R. Hérnandez Garcia (ed.), International Public Procurement: A Guide to Best Practice (London: Globe Law and Business, 2009), p. 113
E. Nwogwugwu, ‘Towards the Harmonisation of International Procurement Policies and Practices’ (2005) 14 Public Procurement Law Review 131

Organization for the Harmonisation of Business Law in Africa (OHBLA)

P. K. Agboyibor, ‘OHBLA – Business Law in Africa’ (2000) International Business Law Journal 490
O. Fille-Lambie, ‘Legal Aspects of Project Financing as Applied to Public Utilities in the OHBLA Zone’ (2001) International Business Law Journal 925

Individual country materials

Botswana

R. Kumar and E. Caborn, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Botswana’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 2

Egypt

M. A. M. Ismail, ‘Legal Globalization and PPPs in Egypt: An Analytical and Comparative Perspective on the Current Legislative and Judicial Modifications to and Enhancements of the Administrative Contractual Regime on PPP Transactions’ (2010) 5 European Public Private Partnership Law 54
A. Y. Zohny, ‘Egypt's Procurement Regime and Building an Export Oriented Economy’ (2003) 18 Arab Law Quarterly 169

Ethiopia

T. H. Bahta, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Ethiopia’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 3
A. Y. Zohny,‘Adjudication and Arbitrability of Government Construction Contract Disputes in Ethiopia’ (2009) 3 Mizan Law Review 1
D. Rene, ‘Administrative Contracts in the Ethiopian Civil Code4(1) Journal of Ethiopian Law 143 (translated into English by Michael Kindred)

Gambia

W. A. Wittig and H. Jeng, ‘Challenges in Public Procurement: Comparative Views of Public Procurement Reform in Gambia’ in K. V. Thai, A. Araujo, R. Y. Carter et al. (eds.), Challenges in Public Procurement: An International Perspective (Boca Raton, FL: PrAcademics Press, 2005), vol. 3, p. 21

Ghana

D. N. Dagbanja, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Ghana’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 4
D. Rene,The Law of Public Procurement in Ghana (Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011)
D. Ofosu-Dorte, I. Boaten and F. Adadzi, ‘Ghana’ in H.-J. Prieß (ed.), Getting the Deal Through: Public Procurement 2010 (London: Law Business Research Ltd, 2010), p. 115
R. Verhage, J. van der Gronden, K. Awanyo and S. Boateng, ‘Procurement Reform in the Ghana Health Sector’ (2002) 2 Journal of Public Procurement 261

Kenya

J. M. M. Akech, ‘Development Partners and Governance of Public Procurement in Kenya: Enhancing Democracy in the Administration of Aid’ (2006) 3 International Law and Justice Working Paper (Global Administrative Law Series), www.iilj.org
A. J. M. Migai, ‘Development Partners and Governance of Public Procurement in Kenya: Enhancing Democracy in the Administration of Aid’ (2005) 37 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 829
V. Mosoti, ‘Reforming the Laws on Public Procurement in the Developing World: The Example of Kenya’ (2005) 54 International Commercial Law Quarterly 621
M. Nyaoga and C. Odhiambo, ‘Kenya’ in H.-J. Prieß (ed.), Getting the Deal Through: Public Procurement 2010 (London: Law Business Research Ltd, 2010), p. 152
M. Nyaoga and C. Odhiambo,‘Kenya’ in H.-J. Prieß (ed.), Getting the Deal Through: Public Procurement 2009: Public Procurement: An Overview of Regulation in 43 Jurisdictions Worldwide (London: Law Business Research Ltd, 2009), p. 136
M. Ogot, M. Mulinge and R. Muriuki, ‘Impact of Public Procurement Law in Profit-Oriented State-Owned Corporations in Kenya’ in K. V. Thai (ed.), Towards New Horizons in Public Procurement (Boca Raton, FL: PrAcademics Press, 2010), p. 372
K. T. Udeh, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Kenya’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 5

Lesotho

F. Darroch, ‘The Lesotho Corruption Trials – A Case Study’ (2003) 29 Commonwealth Law Bulletin 901

Liberia

D. Ofosu-Dorte, I. Boaten and F. Adadzi, ‘Liberia’ in H.-J. Prieß (ed.), Getting the Deal Through: Public Procurement 2010 (London: Law Business Research Ltd, 2010), p. 163

Mali

J. Ruche and E. Garandeau, ‘The Mali Donors’ Public Procurement Procedures: Towards Harmonisation with the National Law 6 (2000)’, available at http://webdomino1.oecd.org/COMNET/DCD/ProcurementCWS.nsf/viewHtml/index/$FILE/1_MaliProcurement-website.pdf.

Namibia

S. K. Amoo and S. Dicken, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Namibia’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 6
F. Links and C. Daniels, ‘The Tender Board: Need for Root and Branch Reform’, Anti-Corruption Research Programme Paper 3 (2011)
E. Tjirera, ‘Public Procurement in Namibia: The Role of Codes of Conduct in Reducing Corruption’, Anti-Corruption Research Programme Paper 3 (2011)

Nigeria

S. Ekpenkhio, ‘Public Sector Procurement Reforms: The Nigerian Experience’, paper presented to Regional Workshop on Procurement Reforms and Transparency in Government Procurement for Anglophone Countries, Tanzania, 16 January 2003
A. J. Osuntogun, ‘Procurement Law in Nigeria: Challenges in Attaining Its Objectives’ (2012) 21 Public Procurement Law Review (forthcoming)
G. Oyebode and O. Fayokun, ‘Nigeria’ in H.-J. Prieß (ed.), Getting the Deal Through: Public Procurement 2010 (London: Law Business Research Ltd, 2010), p. 185
K. T. Udeh and L. Ahmadu, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Nigeria’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 7
S. Williams, ‘The Development of Defence Procurement Policy in Nigeria and the Case for Reform’ (2005) 14 Public Procurement Law Review 153
S. Williams-Elegbe, ‘The Reform and Regulation of Nigerian Public Procurement’ (2011) 41 Public Contract Law Journal 339

Rwanda

I. Rugema, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Rwanda’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 8
F. Zigirinshuti, ‘Rwanda’ in R. Noguellou and U. Stelkens (eds.), Droit Comparé des Contrats Publics/Comparative Law on Public Contracts (Brussels: Bruylant, 2010), p. 858

Sierra Leone

F. J. Elliott, ‘Procurement Reform in Sierra Leone: A Public Choice Model of Analysis’ (2004) 3 International Public Procurement Conference Proceedings 189

South Africa

Books

P. Bolton, The Law of Government Procurement in South Africa (Durban: LexisNexis Butterworths, 2007)
T. E. Manchidi and I. Hammond, Targeted Procurement in the Republic of South Africa: An Independent Assessment (International Labour Organization, 2002)
G. Quinot, State Commercial Activity: A Legal Framework (Cape Town: Juta & Co., 2009)

Articles and essays in edited collections

P. Bolton, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in South Africa’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 9
P. Bolton,‘Afrique du Sud/South Africa’ in R. Noguellou and U. Stelkens (eds.), Droit Comparé des Contrats Publics/Comparative Law on Public Contracts (Brussels: Bruylant, 2010), p. 281
P. Bolton,‘Municipal Tender Awards and Internal Appeals by Unsuccessful Bidders’ (2010) 13:3 Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal 1
P. Bolton,‘South Africa’ in H.-J. Prieß (ed.), Getting the Deal Through: Public Procurement 2010 (London: Law Business Research Ltd, 2010), p. 227
P. Bolton,‘The Regulation of Preferential Procurement in State-Owned Enterprises’ (2010) Journal of South African Law 101
P. Bolton,‘Overview of the Government Procurement System in South Africa’ in K. V. Thai (ed.), International Handbook of Public Procurement (Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis, 2009), p. 357
P. Bolton,‘The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government’ (2009) 12(2) Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal 56
P. Bolton,‘The Status of Contracts Exceeding a Municipal Tender Call’ (2009) Journal of South African Law 382
P. Bolton,‘Incorporating Environmental Considerations into Government Procurement in South Africa’ (2008) Journal of South African Law 31
P. Bolton,‘Protecting the Environment through Public Procurement: The Case of South Africa’ (2008) 32(1) Natural Resources Forum 1
P. Bolton,‘The Public Procurement System in South Africa: Main Characteristics’ (2008) 37 Public Contract Law Journal 781
P. Bolton,‘An Analysis of the Preferential Procurement Legislation in South Africa’ (2007) 16 Public Procurement Law Review 36
P. Bolton,‘Government Procurement as a Policy Tool in South Africa’ (2006) 6 Journal of Public Procurement 193
P. Bolton,‘Grounds for Dispensing with Public Tender Procedures in Government Contracting’ (2006) 9(2) Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal 1
P. Bolton,‘The Exclusion of Contractors from Government Contract Awards’ (2006) 10 Law, Democracy and Development 25
P. Bolton,‘Scope for Negotiating and/or Varying the Terms of Government Contracts Awarded by Way of a Tender Process’ (2006) 17 Stellenbosch Law Review 266
P. Bolton,‘Government Contracts and the Fettering of Discretion – A Question of Validity’ (2004) 19 South African Public Law 90
P. Bolton,‘Government Dealings and the Intention to Create Legal Relations’ (2004) 16 South African Mercantile Law Journal 196
P. Bolton,‘The Use of Government Procurement as an Instrument of Policy’ (2004) 121 South African Law Journal 619
P. Bolton and G. Quinot, ‘Social Policies in Procurement and the Government Procurement Agreement: A Perspective from South Africa’ in S. Arrowsmith and R. D. Anderson (eds.), The WTO Regime on Government Procurement: Recent Developments and Challenges Ahead (Cambridge University Press, 2011), p. 459
D. C. Campbell, ‘US Firms and Black Labour in South Africa: Creating a Structure of Change’ (1986) 7 Journal of Labour Research 1
D. D. Caron, ‘The Structure and Pathologies of Local Selective Procurement Ordinances: A Study of Apartheid-Era South Africa Ordinances’ (2003) 21 Berkeley Journal of International Law 159
S. De la Harpe, ‘Green Public Procurement – An Option for South Africa?’ (2008) 22 Speculum Juris 53
G. Devenish, ‘The Legal and Constitutional Position of the Tender Board in KwaZulu-Natal and Related Matters’ (1998) Journal of South African Law 398
J. Dohrman and J. Aiello, ‘Public–Private Partnerships for Waste Management: Challenges for Policies and Procedures’ (1999) 16 Development South Africa 691
C. Ferreira, ‘The Quest for Clarity: An Examination of the Law Governing Public Contracts’ (2011) 128 South African Law Journal 172
R. Ferreira and I. Liebenberg, ‘Civil–Military Relations and Arms Procurement in South Africa: 1994–2002’ (2004) 35 Society in Transition 61
B. M. Jackson and M. Hlahla, ‘South Africa's Infrastructure Delivery Needs: The Role and Challenge for Public–Private Partnerships’ (1999) 16 Development South Africa 551
J.-P. Labuschagne, ‘Public–Private Partnerships in the Health Industry’ (1998) 15 Development South Africa 133
D. Letchmiah, ‘The Process of Public Sector Procurement Reform in South Africa’ (1999) 8 Public Procurement Law Review 15
C. McCrudden, ‘Social Policy Choices and the International and National Law of Government Procurement: South Africa as a Case Study’ in H. Corder (ed.), Global Administrative Law (Cape Town: Juta & Co., 2009), p. 123
J. C. Pauw and J. S. Wolvaardt, ‘Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Public Procurement – A Plan from the South’ (2009) 28 Politeia 66
G. Penfold and P. Reyburn, ‘Public Procurement’ in S. Woolman, T. Roux, J. Klaaren, A. Stein, M. Chaskalson and M. Bishop (eds.), Constitutional Law of South Africa (2nd edn, Cape Town: Juta & Co., 2008), pp. 25–1
C. Plasket, ‘Tendering for Government Contracts: Public Procurement and Judicial Review’ in G. Glover (ed.), Essays in Honour of A. J. Kerr (Durban: LexisNexis Butterworths, 2006), p. 159
G. Quinot, ‘Enforcement of Procurement Law from a South African Perspective’ (2011) 20 Public Procurement Law Review 193
G. Quinot,‘Towards Effective Judicial Review of State Commercial Activity’ (2009) Journal of South African Law 436
G. Quinot,‘Worse Than Losing a Government Tender: Winning It’ (2008) 19 Stellenbosch Law Review 101
R. Roos and S. De La Harpe, ‘Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study’ (2008) 11(2) Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal 1
C. Scott and P. Macklem, ‘Constitutional Ropes of Sand or Justiciable Guarantees? Social Rights in a New South African Constitution’ (1992) 141 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1
M. Sinclair, ‘Regulation and Facilitation of Public–Private Partnerships: The MSP Policy’ (1999) 16 Development Southern Africa 585
N. Steytler and J. De Visser, Local Government Law of South Africa (Durban: LexisNexis Butterworths, 2007), Chapter 14
H. Van As, ‘The Right to Information and the Tender Process’ (1999) 34 Journal of Public Administration 257
K. Van Vuuren and J. A. Badenhorst-Weiss, ‘South African Provincial Government Reform: Using a Shared Services Model to Transform “Back-Office” Support in Gauteng Province’ in L. Knight, C. Harland, J. Telgen, K. V. Thai, G. Callender and K. McKen (eds.), Public Procurement: International Cases and Commentary (London: Routledge, 2007), p. 278
R. Watermeyer, ‘Facilitating Sustainable Development through Public and Donor Procurement Regimes: Tools and Techniques’ (2004) 13 Public Procurement Law Review 30
R. Watermeyer,‘The Use of Targeted Procurement as an Instrument of Poverty Alleviation and Job Creation in Infrastructure Projects’ (2000) 9 Public Procurement Law Review 226
S. Williams, ‘The Use of Exclusions for Corruption in Developing Country Procurement: The Case of South Africa’ (2007) 51 Journal of African Law 1
S. Williams and G. Quinot, ‘To Debar or Not to Debar: When to Endorse a Contractor on the Register for Tender Defaulters’ (2008) 125 South African Law Journal 248
S. Williams and G. Quinot,‘Public Procurement and Corruption: The South African Response’ (2007) 124 South African Law Journal 339

Notes

P. Bolton, ‘Checks and Balances: Service Delivery by External Providers’ (2010) 12(1) Local Government Bulletin 15
P. Bolton,‘Tender Awards in the Spotlight: Limitations of Internal Appeal Procedures’ (2010) 12(3) Local Government Bulletin 18
P. Bolton,‘The Different Hats Worn by the Municipal Manager in the Tender / Bid Process’ (2010) 12(2) Local Government Bulletin 10
P. Bolton,‘Notifying the Correct Bidder of Its Success’ (2009) 11(5) Local Government Bulletin 25
P. Bolton,‘The Municipal Manager's Supervisory Role over Bid Committees’ (2009) 11(2) Local Government Bulletin 26
P. Bolton,‘The Roles and Functions of Bid Committees’ (2009) 11(4) Local Government Bulletin 19
P. Bolton,‘When Can Bidders with Bad Track Records Be Rejected?’ (2009) 11(1) Local Government Bulletin 22
P. Bolton,‘Who Excludes Bidders from Future Contracts?’ (2008) 10(5) Local Government Bulletin 22
P. Bolton,‘Supply Chain Management and Public–Private Partnership Provisions’ (2004) 6(4) Local Government Bulletin 4
B. M. Jackson and M. Hlahla, ‘South Africa's Infrastructure Service Delivery Needs: The Role and Challenge for Public–Private Partnerships’ (1999) 16 Development Southern Africa 1
V. Johnson, ‘Service Delivery Agreements: Who Reads Them?’ (2005) 7(2) Local Government Bulletin 7
G. Mawoneke, ‘The PPP Procurement Process’ (2005) 7(3) Local Government Bulletin 11
D. McMeekin, ‘State Procurement: The Public/Private Divide’ (2009) Responsa Meridiana 35
N. Muvangua, ‘Tokenism and the Constitutional Court Finding on Viking Pony Africa Pumps Africa and Hidro-Tech Systems (Pty) Ltd and City of Cape Town’ (Center for Constitutional Rights, 2009), www.polity.org.za/article/okenism-and-the-constitutional-court-finding-on-viking-pony-africapumps-pty-ltd-ta-tricom-africa-and-hidro-tech-systems-pty-ltd-and-cityof-cape-town-2010-11-29
G. Quinot, ‘Public Procurement’ (2012) Juta's Quarterly Review of South African Law
G. Quinot,‘Public Procurement’ (2011) Juta's Quarterly Review of South African Law
G. Quinot,‘Public Procurement’ (2010) Juta's Quarterly Review of South African Law
G. Quinot,‘Public Procurement’ (2009) Juta's Quarterly Review of South African Law
G. Quinot,‘Public Procurement’ (2008) Juta's Quarterly Review of South African Law
F. Venter, ‘Competitive Tendering: A Perspective on PPP/PFI from the Mangaung Maximum Security Prison, South Africa’ (2003) Prison Service Journal 149
P. J. Visser, ‘Damages Recoverable for Prospective Loss of Profit Caused by Non-Awarding of a Tender – Transnet Ltd v. Sechaba Photoscan (Pty) Ltd 2005 1 SA 299 (SCA)’ (2005) 68 Journal of Contemporary Roman Dutch Law 510

Uganda

E. Agaba and N. Shipman, ‘Procurement Systems in Uganda’ in K. V. Thai (ed.), International Handbook of Public Procurement (Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis, 2009), p. 393
B. C. Basheka, M. Tumutegyereize and E. Agaba, ‘Public Procurement Capacity Building Reform Initiatives in Uganda: A Performance Measurement Approach’ in K. V. Thai (ed.), Towards New Horizons in Public Procurement (Boca Raton, FL: PrAcademics Press, 2010), p. 60
J. M. Ntayi, I. Namugenyi and S Eyeaa, ‘Supplier Delivery Performance in Ugandan Public Procurement Contracts’ (2010) 4 Journal of Public Procurement 479
N. Shipman and E. Agaba, ‘Public Procurement Reform in Developing Countries: The Uganda Experience’ in G. Piga and K. V. Thai (eds.), Advancing Public Procurement: Practices, Innovation and Knowledge-Sharing (Boca Raton, FL: PrAcademics Press, 2007), p. 373
F. Ssennoga, ‘Discriminatory Public Procurement Policies’ (PhD thesis, University of Twente, 2010)

Zimbabwe

J. Zowa, N. Machingauta and P. Bolton, ‘The Regulatory Framework for Public Procurement in Zimbabwe’ in G. Quinot and S. Arrowsmith (eds.), Public Procurement Regulation in Africa (Cambridge University Press, 2012), Chapter 10