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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: September 2011

Section 1 - Principles of writing

  • Edited by Alec Buchanan, Yale University, Connecticut, Michael A. Norko, Yale University, Connecticut
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • pp 11-92

References

Allnutt, S. H. & Chaplow, D. (2000) General principles of forensic report writing. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 34: 980–987.
Anonymous (1882a) The Guiteau trial. American Journal of Insanity 38: 303–448.
Anonymous (1882b) Guiteaumania. American Journal of Insanity 39: 62–68 (reprinted from British Medical Journal, June 24, 1882).
Anonymous (1882c) Case of Guiteau. American Journal of Insanity 39: 199–207 (reprinted from the Journal of Medical Science, July 1882).
Anonymous (1938) The Uniform Expert Testimony Act. Columbia Law Review 38: 369–375.
Appelbaum, K. L. (2010) Commentary: the art of forensic report writing. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 38: 43–45.
Bigelow, G. T. & Bemis, G. (1844) Report of the Trial of Abner Rogers, Jr. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown.
Bucknill, J. C. (1882) The plea of insanity in the case of Charles Julius Guiteau. American Journal of Insanity 39: 181–198.
Ciccone, J. R. (1992) Murder, insanity, and expert witnesses. Archives of Neurology 49: 608–611.
Danto, B. L. (1973) Writing psychiatric reports for the court. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 17: 123–128.
Enfield, R. (1987) A model for developing the written forensic report. In Innovations in Clinical Practice: A Sourcebook, vol. 6, ed. P. A. Keller & S. R. Heyman SR. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc., pp. 379–394.
Farkas, G. M., DeLeon, P. H., & Newman, R. (1997) Sanity examiner certification: an evolving national agenda. Professional Psychology 28: 73–76.
Fein, R. A., Appelbaum, K. L., Barnum, R., et al. (1991) The designated forensic professional program: a state government-university partnership to improve forensic mental health services. Journal of Mental Health Administration 18: 223–230.
Giorgi-Guarnieri, D., Janofsky, J., Keram, E., et al. (2002) AAPL practice guideline for forensic psychiatric evaluation of defendants raising the insanity defense. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 30 (suppl): S1–S40.
Gold, L. H. & Davidson, J. E. (2007) Do you understand your risk? Liability and third-party evaluations in civil litigation. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35: 200–210.
Gold, L. H., Anfang, S. A. S., Drukteinis. A. M., et al. (2008) AAPL practice guideline for the forensic evaluation of psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36 (suppl): S1–S50.
Griffith, E. E. H. & Baranoski, M. V. (2007) Commentary: the place of performative writing in forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35: 27–31.
Griffith, E. E. H., Stankovic, A., & Baranoski, M. V. (2010) Conceptualizing the forensic psychiatry report as performative narrative. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 38: 32–42.
Grisso, T. (2010) Guidance for improving forensic reports: a review of common errors. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology 2: 102–115.
Gutheil, T. G. (2005) The history of forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33: 259–262.
Hammond, W. A. (1866) Opinion Relative to the Testamentary Capacity of the Late James C. Johnston, of Chowan County, North Carolina. New York: Baker, Voorhis & Co.
Harno, A. J. (1938) Uniform Expert Testimony Act. Journal of the American Judicature Society 21: 156–159.
Hecker, J. E. & Scoular, R. J. (2004) Forensic report writing. In Handbook of Forensic Psychology: Resource for Mental Health and Legal Professionals, ed. W. T. O’Donohue & E. R. Levensky. New York: Elsevier Science, pp. 63–81.
Hoffman, B. F. (1986) How to write a psychiatric report for litigation following a personal injury. American Journal of Psychiatry 143: 164–169.
Lee, C. A. (1870) Medical Opinion of Charles A. Lee, M.D., in the Matter of Carlton Gates, Deceased. New York: William J. Read.
Lewis, E. B. (1894) The Law of Expert Testimony. Philadelphia: Rees Welsh & Co.
Lindqvist, P. & Skipworth, J. (2000) Evidence-based rehabilitation in forensic psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry 176: 320–323.
Mohr, J. C. (1993) Doctors and the Law: Medical Jurisprudence in Nineteenth-Century America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Mossman, D., Noffsinger, S. G., Ash, P., et al. (2007) AAPL practice guideline for the forensic psychiatric evaluation of competence to stand trial. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35 (suppl): S1–S72.
Mullen, P. E. (2000) Forensic mental health. British Journal of Psychiatry 176 307–311.
Nicholson, R. A. & Norwood, S. (2000) The quality of forensic psychological assessments, reports, and testimony: acknowledging the gap between promise and practice. Law and Human Behavior 24: 9–44.
Ordover, A. P. (1974) The use of written direct testimony in jury trials: a proposal. Hofstra Law Review 2: 67–95.
Overholser, W. (1953) The psychiatrist as expert witness. In The Psychiatrist and the Law. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., pp. 103–134.
Pollack, S. (1971) Psychiatric consultation for the court. In Offender Therapies Series APTO Monograph #3: The Court and the Expert: Writing Reports, vol. 1, Essays in Comparative Psychiatry, ed. F. Ferracuti. Published by The International Journal of Offender Therapy, July.
Pollack, S. (1974) Suggested format for psychiatric report to attorney or court. In Forensic Psychiatry in Criminal Law. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, pp. 171–173
Ray, I. (1873) Contributions to Mental Pathology. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. Facsimile edition (1973) with an introduction by J. M. Quen. Delmar, NY: Scholars’ Facsimiles & Reprints.
Redfield, I. F. (1866) The Law of Wills, 2nd edn. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., Part I.
Report of the Proceedings in the Case of the United States vs. Charles J. Guiteau, tried in the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, holding a Criminal Term, and beginning November 14, 1881, 3 vols. (1882). Washington, DC.
Robinson, R. & Acklin, M. W. (2010) Fitness in paradise: quality of forensic reports submitted to the Hawaii judiciary. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 33: 131–137.
Rosenberg, C. E. (1968) The Trial of the Assassin Guiteau. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Silva, J. A., Weinstock, R., & Leong, G. B. (2003) Forensic psychiatric report writing. In Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry, 2nd edn., ed. R. Rosner. London: Arnold, pp. 31–36.
Simon, R. I. (2007) Authorship in forensic psychiatry: a perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35: 18–26.
Skeem, J. L., Golding, S. L., Cohn, N. B., et al. (1998) Logic and reliability of evaluations of competence to stand trial. Law and Human Behavior 22: 519–547.
Svendsen, B. B. (1971) Denmark: Psychiatrists, the medico-legal council and the courts. In Offender Therapies Series APTO Monograph #3: The Court and the Expert: Writing Reports, vol. 1, Essays in Comparative Psychiatry, ed. F. Ferracuti. Published by The International Journal of Offender Therapy, July, 1971.
Watson, A. S. (1978) On the preparation and use of psychiatric expert testimony: some suggestions in an ongoing controversy. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 6: 226–246.
Watson, J., Brown, D. T., Ranney, M. H. G., et al. (1857) The Parish Will Case Before the Surrogate of the City of New York. New York: John F. Trow.
Weiner, I. B. (1999) Writing forensic reports. In The Handbook of Forensic Psychology, 2nd edn., ed. A. K. Hess & I. B. Weiner. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 501–520.
Wettstein, R. M. (2005) Quality and quality improvement in forensic mental health evaluations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33: 158–175.
Wettstein, R. M. (2010a) The forensic psychiatric examination and report. In The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic Psychiatry, 2nd edn., ed. R. I. Simon & L. H. Gold. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pp. 175–203.
Wettstein, R. M. (2010b) Commentary: conceptualizing the forensic psychiatry report. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 38: 46–48.
Wigmore, J. H. (1910) A Pocket Code of the Rules of Evidence in Trials at Law. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.
Winslow, F. (1854) Lettsomian Lectures on Insanity. London: John Churchill.

References

American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL). (2005) Ethical Guidelines for the Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. Adopted May 2005. Available at: http://www.aapl.org/ pdf/ethicsgdlns.pdf [Accessed May 23, 2009].
American Medical Association (2005) Peer Review of Medical Expert Witness Testimony. H-265.993. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/no-index/advocacy/11760.shtml [Accessed September 30, 2009].
Diamond, B. (1959) The fallacy of the impartial expert. Archives of Criminal Psychodynamics 3: 221–230.
Federation of State Medical Boards. Expert Witness Qualifications by State (Updated July 1, 2008). Available at: http://www.fsmb.org/pdf/grpol_expertwitness.pdf [Accessed October 15, 2009].
Goldyne, A. J. (2007) Minimizing the influence of unconscious bias in evaluations: a practical guide. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35: 60–66.
Gutheil, T. G. (2009) The Psychiatrist as Expert Witness, 2nd edn. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Gutheil, T. G. & Simon, R. I. (2004) Narcissistic dimensions of expert witness practice. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33: 55–58.
Gutheil, T. G., Bursztajn H, Hilliard J. T., et al. (2004) “Just say no”: experts’ late withdrawal from cases to preserve independence and objectivity. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 32: 390–394.
Katz, J. (1992) “The fallacy of the impartial expert” revisited. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 11: 379–382.
Wills, C. (2007) PRAMS: a systematic method for evaluating penal institutions under litigation. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35: 103–108.
Wills, C. (2008) The CHESS method of forensic opinion formulation: striving to checkmate bias. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36: 535–540.

References

AAPL Task Force (1999) Videotaping of forensic psychiatric evaluations. Zonana, H., Bradford, J. M., Giorgi-Guarnieri, D., Dietz, P. E., Hoge, S. K., Sprehe, D. J., Teich, S. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 27: 345–358.
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (2008) Ethical Guidelines for the Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. Bloomfield, CT: AAPL.
American Medical Association (2009) Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions With Annotations. Chicago, IL: AMA.
American Psychiatric Association (2009) The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry, 2009 Edition Revised. Arlington, VA: APA.
Flippin, S. (2003) Military Rule of Evidence (MRE) 513: A shield to protect communications of victims and witnesses to psychotherapists. Army Lawyer 2003: 1.
Gainelli, P. (2004) Ake v. Oklahoma: The right to expert assistance in a post Daubert, post-DNA world. Cornell Law Review 89: 1305.
Giorgi-Guarnieri, D., Janofsky, J., Keram, E., et al. (2002) Practice guideline – forensic psychiatric evaluation of defendants raising the insanity defense. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 30: S3–S40.
Hayden, D. L. (1987) Should there be a psychotherapist privilege in military courts-martial? Military Law Review 123: 31.
Imwinkelried, E. J. (1990) The applicability of the attorney-client privilege to non-testifying experts: reestablishing the boundaries between the attorney-client privilege and the work product protection. Washington Law Quarterly 68: 19.
Joint Service Committee on Military Justice (2008) Manual for Courts-Martial, United States.
Kent, M. & Kent, T. (2000) Michigan civil rights claimants: should they be required to give up their physician-patient privilege when alleging garden-variety emotional distress? University of Detroit Mercy Law Review 77: 479–501.
Maringer, E. F. (1993) Witness for the prosecution: prosecutorial discovery of information generated by non-testifying defense psychiatric experts. Fordham Law Review 62: 653.
Mosk, S. (1993) Psychotherapist and patient in the California Supreme Court: ground lost and ground regained. Pepperdine Law Review 20: 415–424.
Saltzburg, S. A. (2006) Military Rule of Evidence Manual. Conklin, NY. LexisNexis Matthew Bender.
Strasburger, L. H., Gutheil, T. G., & Brodsky, A. B. (1997) On wearing two hats: Role conflict in serving as both psychotherapist and expert witness. American Journal of Psychiatry 154: 448–456.
Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2001) Potential erosion of the psychotherapist-patient privilege beyond California: dangers of “criminalizing” Tarasoff. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 19: 437–449.
Legal cases, statutes, and regulations
14 ALR 4th 594, 2(a) (1982) Application of the attorney-client privilege when a third party is involved.
75 Md. Op. Atty. Gen 76 (1990).
Ake v. Oklahoma (1985) 407 US 68.
Doe v. City of Chula Vista (1999) 196, FRD 562.
Doe v. Oberweis Dairy (2006). 456 F. 3d 704.
Exec. Order No. 13,140 (Oct. 12, 1999). 64 Fed. Reg. 55, 115.
Gray v. District Court (1994) 884 P.2d 286.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (1996) (HIPAA), Public Law 104–191.
HHS (2010) Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information; Final Rule: 45 CFR Parts 160 and 164.
Houston v. State (1979) 602 P.2d 784.
Hutchinson v. People (1987) 742 P.2d 875.
Jaffee v. Redmond (1996) 518 US 1.
Koch v. Cox (2007) 489 F. 3d 384.
Lickey v. State (1992) 827 P.2d 824.
Maday v. Public Libraries of Saginaw (2007) 480 F.3d 815.
Miller v. District Court (1987) 737 P.2d 834.
ORS (2007). § 419B.010.
Pawlyk v. Wood (2001) 248 F.3d 815.
People v. Clark (1990) 789 P.2d 127.
People v. Edney (1976) 350 N.E.2d 400.
People v. Hilliker (1971) 185 N.W.2d 831.
People v. Knippenberg (1977) 362 N.E.2d 681.
People v. Knuckles (1995) 650 N.E.2d 974.
People v. Lines (1975) 531 P.2d 793.
Pouncy v. Florida (1977) 353 So.2d 640.
Sabree v. United Broth. of Carpenters & Joiners of America, Local No. 33, (1989) 26 FRD 422.
Schoffstall v. Henderson (2000) 223 F.3d 818.
State v. Bronson (2001) 779 A.2d 95.
State v. Carter (1982) 641 S.W.2d 54.
State v. Cosey (1995) 652 So.2d 993.
State v. Hamlet (1997) 944 P.2d 1026.
State v. Hitopoulus (1983) 309 S.E.2d 747.
State v. Kociolek (1957) 129 A.2d 417.
State v. Mingo (1978) 392 A.2d 590.
State v. Pawlyk (1990) 800 P.2d 338.
State v. Pratt (1979) 398 A.2d 421.
State v. Schaaf (1991) 819 P.2d 909, 918.
Taylor v. State (1996) 939 S.W.2d 148.
Trusky v. State (2000) 7 P.3d 5.
US ex rel. Edney v. Smith (1976) 425 F. Supp. 1038.
US v. Alvarez (1975) 519 F.2d 1036.
US v. Auster (2008) 517 F.3d 312.
US v. Chase (2003) 340 F.3d 978.
US v. Glass (1998) 133 F.3d 1356.
US v. Hayes (2000) 227 F.3d 578.
US v. Layton (1981) 90 FRD 520, 525.
US v. Mansfield (1993) 38 MJ 415, 418.
US v. Rodriguez (2000) 54 MJ 156 cert. denied (2001) 531 US 1151.
US v. Walker (1995) 910 F. Supp. 861.
Vanderbilt v. Town of Chilmark (1997) 174 FRD 225.

Legal cases, statutes, and regulations

14 ALR 4th 594, 2(a) (1982) Application of the attorney-client privilege when a third party is involved.
75 Md. Op. Atty. Gen 76 (1990).
Ake v. Oklahoma (1985) 407 US 68.
Doe v. City of Chula Vista (1999) 196, FRD 562.
Doe v. Oberweis Dairy (2006). 456 F. 3d 704.
Exec. Order No. 13,140 (Oct. 12, 1999). 64 Fed. Reg. 55, 115.
Gray v. District Court (1994) 884 P.2d 286.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (1996) (HIPAA), Public Law 104–191.
HHS (2010) Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information; Final Rule: 45 CFR Parts 160 and 164.
Houston v. State (1979) 602 P.2d 784.
Hutchinson v. People (1987) 742 P.2d 875.
Jaffee v. Redmond (1996) 518 US 1.
Koch v. Cox (2007) 489 F. 3d 384.
Lickey v. State (1992) 827 P.2d 824.
Maday v. Public Libraries of Saginaw (2007) 480 F.3d 815.
Miller v. District Court (1987) 737 P.2d 834.
ORS (2007). § 419B.010.
Pawlyk v. Wood (2001) 248 F.3d 815.
People v. Clark (1990) 789 P.2d 127.
People v. Edney (1976) 350 N.E.2d 400.
People v. Hilliker (1971) 185 N.W.2d 831.
People v. Knippenberg (1977) 362 N.E.2d 681.
People v. Knuckles (1995) 650 N.E.2d 974.
People v. Lines (1975) 531 P.2d 793.
Pouncy v. Florida (1977) 353 So.2d 640.
Sabree v. United Broth. of Carpenters & Joiners of America, Local No. 33, (1989) 26 FRD 422.
Schoffstall v. Henderson (2000) 223 F.3d 818.
State v. Bronson (2001) 779 A.2d 95.
State v. Carter (1982) 641 S.W.2d 54.
State v. Cosey (1995) 652 So.2d 993.
State v. Hamlet (1997) 944 P.2d 1026.
State v. Hitopoulus (1983) 309 S.E.2d 747.
State v. Kociolek (1957) 129 A.2d 417.
State v. Mingo (1978) 392 A.2d 590.
State v. Pawlyk (1990) 800 P.2d 338.
State v. Pratt (1979) 398 A.2d 421.
State v. Schaaf (1991) 819 P.2d 909, 918.
Taylor v. State (1996) 939 S.W.2d 148.
Trusky v. State (2000) 7 P.3d 5.
US ex rel. Edney v. Smith (1976) 425 F. Supp. 1038.
US v. Alvarez (1975) 519 F.2d 1036.
US v. Auster (2008) 517 F.3d 312.
US v. Chase (2003) 340 F.3d 978.
US v. Glass (1998) 133 F.3d 1356.
US v. Hayes (2000) 227 F.3d 578.
US v. Layton (1981) 90 FRD 520, 525.
US v. Mansfield (1993) 38 MJ 415, 418.
US v. Rodriguez (2000) 54 MJ 156 cert. denied (2001) 531 US 1151.
US v. Walker (1995) 910 F. Supp. 861.
Vanderbilt v. Town of Chilmark (1997) 174 FRD 225.

References

American Academy of Psychiatry and Law Governing Council (2005) Ethics guidelines for the practice of forensic psychiatry. The American Academy of Psychiatry and Law. Available from: http://www.aapl.org/ethics.htm. [Accessed September 15, 2009.]
Appelbaum, P. S. (1997) A theory of ethics for forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 25: 233–247.
Beauchamp, T. L. & Childress, J. F. (2001) Principles of Bioethics, 5th edn. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Booth, W. C. (1983) The Rhetoric of Fiction, 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Candilis, P. J. (2009) The revolution in forensic ethics: narrative, compassion, and robust professionalism. In Ethics in psychiatry: a review. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, guest ed. L. W. Roberts and J. G. Hoop. 32(2): 423–435.
Candilis, P. J., Martinez, R., & Dording, C. (2001) Principles and narrative in forensic psychiatry: toward a robust view of professional role. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 29: 167–173.
Candilis, P. J., Weinstock, R., & Martinez, R. (2007) Forensic Ethics and the Expert Witness. New York: Springer.
Chambers, T. (1999) The Fiction of Bioethics: Cases as Literary Texts. New York and London: Routledge.
Diamond, B. L. (1959) The fallacy of the impartial expert. Archives of Criminal Psychodynamics 3: 221–236.
Diamond, B. L. (1992) The forensic psychiatrist: consultant vs. activist in legal doctrine. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 20: 119–132.
Freedman, A. M. & Halpern, A. L. (1998) Forum – psychiatrists and the death penalty: some ethical dilemmas. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 11: 1–15.
Gilligan, C. (1982) In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Griffith, E. E. H. (1998) Ethics in forensic psychiatry: a response to Stone and Appelbaum. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 26: 171–184.
Griffith, E. E. H. & Baranoski, M. V. (2007) Commentary: the place of performative writing in forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35(1): 27–31.
Gutheil, T. G., Bursztajn, H. J., Brodsky, A., et al. (1991) Decision-making in Psychiatry and the Law. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
Lewis, N. A. (2005) Interrogators cite doctors’ aid at Guantanamo Prison Camp. The New York Times June 24, p. A1.
Margulies, J. (2007) Guantanamo and the Abuse of Presidential Power. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Martinez, R. (2009) Narrative ethics. In Psychiatric Ethics, 4th edn., ed. S. Bloch & S. A. Green. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martinez, R. & Candilis, P. J. (2005) Commentary: toward a unified theory of personal and professional ethics. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33: 382–385.
Miller, F. G. & Brody, H. (1995) Professional integrity and physician-assisted death. Hastings Center Report 25: 8–17.
Nagel, T. (1986) The View from Nowhere. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Norko, M. A. (2005) Commentary: compassion at the core of forensic ethics. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33: 386–389.
Phillips, R. T. M. (2005) Expanding the role of the forensic consultant. Newsletter of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 30(1): 4–5.
Pollack, S. (1974) Forensic Psychiatry in Criminal Law. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press.
Simon, R. I. (2007) Authorship in forensic psychiatry: a perspective. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35(1), 18–26.
Stone, A. A. (1980) Presidential address: conceptual ambiguity and morality in modern psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry 137: 887–891.
Stone, A. A. (1984) The ethical boundaries of forensic psychiatry: a view from the ivory tower. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 12: 209–219.
Strasburger, L. H., Gutheil, T. G., & Brodsky, A. (1997) On wearing two hats: role conflict in serving as both psychotherapist and expert witness. American Journal of Psychiatry 154: 448–456.
Toulmin, S. (1982) How medicine saved the life of ethics. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 25: 736–750.
Toulmin, S. & Jonsen, A. (1988) The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weinstock, R. (1988) Controversial ethical issues in forensic psychiatry: a survey. Journal of Forensic Sciences 33: 176–186.
Weinstock, R. (1989) Perceptions of ethical problems by forensic psychiatrists. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 17: 189–202.
Weinstock, R. (2001) Commentary: a broadened conception of forensic psychiatric ethics. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 29: 180–185.
Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (1990) The role of traditional medical ethics in forensic psychiatry. In Ethical Practice in Psychiatry and the Law, ed. R. Rosner & R. Weinstock. New York: Plenum Press.
Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (1991) Opinions by AAPL forensic psychiatrists on controversial ethical guidelines. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 19: 237–248.
Wynia, M. K., Lathan, S. R., Kao, A. C., Berg, J., & Emanuel, L. (1999) Medical professionalism in society. New England Journal of Medicine 341: 1612–1616.

References

Blanchard, M. (1991) The open grid: focalizing narrative studies. Modern Philology 89: 76–90.
Felman, S. & Laub, D. (1992) Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History. New York: Routledge.
Griffith, E. E. H. & Baranoski, M. V. (2007) Commentary: the place of performative writing in forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35: 27–31.
Hudgins, A. (1996) An autobiographer’s lies. American Scholar 65: 541–553.
Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. & Davis, J. H. (1997) The Art and Science of Portraiture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
Lebovits, G. (2008a) Fact vs. fiction: writing the facts – part I. New York State Bar Journal September, pp. 58–59, 64.
Lebovits, G. (2008b) Fact vs. fiction: writing the facts – part II. New York State Bar Journal October, pp. 57–60.
Melton, G. B., Petrila, J., Poythress, N. G., & Slobogin, C. (2007) Psychological Evaluations for the Courts. A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers, 3rd edn. New York: Guilford Press.
Menand, L. (2007) Lives of others: the biography business. The New Yorker August 6, pp. 64–66.
O’Grady, J. C. (2004) Report writing for the criminal court. Psychiatry 3: 34–36.
Peterson, E. E. & Langellier, K. M. (2006) The performance turn in narrative studies. Narrative Inquiry 16: 173–180.
Resnick, P. J. (2006) Principles of psychiatric – legal report writing. In the Course Syllabus of the Forensic Psychiatry Review Course, American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Scheub, H. (1977) Body and image in oral narrative performance. New Literary History 8: 345–367.
Silva, J. A., Weinstock, R., & Leong, G. B. (2003) Forensic psychiatric report writing. In Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry, 2nd edn., ed. R. Rosner. London: Arnold, pp. 31–36.
Suggested reading
Borum, R. & Grisso, T. (1996) Establishing standards for criminal forensic reports: an empirical analysis. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 24: 297–317.
Butts, H. (2002) The black mask of humanity: racial/ethnic discrimination and post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 30: 336–339.
Candilis, P. J. (2007) The place of narrative in the courtroom. Available at http://litsite.alaska.edu/uaa/healing/candilis.html [Accessed January 20, 2007].
Candilis, P. J., Weinstock, R., & Martinez, R. (2007) Forensic Ethics and the Expert Witness. New York: Springer Science.
Carter, R. T. (2007) Racism and psychological and emotional injury: recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. Counseling Psychologist 35: 13–105.
Cavallo, S. (2000–2001) Witness: the real, the unspeakable, and the construction of narrative. Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 33: 1–3, Autumn–Winter.
Conroy, M. A. (2006) Report writing and testimony. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice suppl: 237–260.
Giorgi-Guarnieri, D., Janofsky, J., Keram, E., et al. (2002) AAPL practice guideline for forensic psychiatric evaluation of defendants raising the insanity defense. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 30(2): S1–S40, Supplement.
Gold, L. H., Anfang, S. A., Drukteinis, A. M., et al. (2008) AAPL practice guideline for the forensic evaluation of psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36(Suppl): S1–S50.
Grunebaum-Ralph, H. (2001) Re-placing pasts, forgetting presents: narrative, place, and memory in the time of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Research in African Literatures 32: 198–212.
Hoffman, B. F. (1986) How to write a psychiatric report for litigation following a personal injury. American Journal of Psychiatry 143: 164–169.
Hollander, J. (1996) Legal rhetoric. In Law’s Stories: Narrative and Rhetoric in the Law, ed. P. Brooks & P. Gewirtz. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, pp. 176–186.
Morse, S. J. (2008) The ethics of forensic practice: reclaiming the wasteland. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36: 206–217.
Mossman, D., Noffsinger, S. G., Ash, P., et al. AAPL practice guideline for the forensic psychiatric evaluation of competence to stand trial. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35(suppl): S1–S72.
Noffsinger, S. G. & Resnick, P. J. (1999) Insanity defense evaluations. Directions in Psychiatry 19: 325–338.
Pollack, S. (1974) Forensic Psychiatry in Criminal Law. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press.
Wettstein, R. M. (2005) Quality and quality improvement in forensic mental health evaluations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33: 158–175.

Suggested reading

Borum, R. & Grisso, T. (1996) Establishing standards for criminal forensic reports: an empirical analysis. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 24: 297–317.
Butts, H. (2002) The black mask of humanity: racial/ethnic discrimination and post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 30: 336–339.
Candilis, P. J. (2007) The place of narrative in the courtroom. Available at http://litsite.alaska.edu/uaa/healing/candilis.html [Accessed January 20, 2007].
Candilis, P. J., Weinstock, R., & Martinez, R. (2007) Forensic Ethics and the Expert Witness. New York: Springer Science.
Carter, R. T. (2007) Racism and psychological and emotional injury: recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. Counseling Psychologist 35: 13–105.
Cavallo, S. (2000–2001) Witness: the real, the unspeakable, and the construction of narrative. Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 33: 1–3, Autumn–Winter.
Conroy, M. A. (2006) Report writing and testimony. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice suppl: 237–260.
Giorgi-Guarnieri, D., Janofsky, J., Keram, E., et al. (2002) AAPL practice guideline for forensic psychiatric evaluation of defendants raising the insanity defense. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 30(2): S1–S40, Supplement.
Gold, L. H., Anfang, S. A., Drukteinis, A. M., et al. (2008) AAPL practice guideline for the forensic evaluation of psychiatric disability. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36(Suppl): S1–S50.
Grunebaum-Ralph, H. (2001) Re-placing pasts, forgetting presents: narrative, place, and memory in the time of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Research in African Literatures 32: 198–212.
Hoffman, B. F. (1986) How to write a psychiatric report for litigation following a personal injury. American Journal of Psychiatry 143: 164–169.
Hollander, J. (1996) Legal rhetoric. In Law’s Stories: Narrative and Rhetoric in the Law, ed. P. Brooks & P. Gewirtz. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, pp. 176–186.
Morse, S. J. (2008) The ethics of forensic practice: reclaiming the wasteland. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36: 206–217.
Mossman, D., Noffsinger, S. G., Ash, P., et al. AAPL practice guideline for the forensic psychiatric evaluation of competence to stand trial. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35(suppl): S1–S72.
Noffsinger, S. G. & Resnick, P. J. (1999) Insanity defense evaluations. Directions in Psychiatry 19: 325–338.
Pollack, S. (1974) Forensic Psychiatry in Criminal Law. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press.
Wettstein, R. M. (2005) Quality and quality improvement in forensic mental health evaluations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33: 158–175.

References

Babitsky, S. & Mangraviti, J. J. (2002) Writing and Defending Your Expert Report: The Step by Step Guide With Models. Falmouth, MA: Seak, Inc.
Griffith, E. & Baranoski, M. (2007) Commentary: the place of performative writing in forensic psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 35(1): 28.
Guthiel, T. (2009) The Psychiatrist as Expert Witness, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., pp. 95–102.
Lebovits, G. (2005) Problem words and pairs in legal writing – Part III. New York State Bar Association Journal May, p. 59.
Lebovits, G. (2008a) Do’s, don’ts, and maybes: legal writing punctuation – Part I. New York State Bar Association Journal 80(2): 55, 57.
Lebovits, G. (2008b) Do’s, don’ts, and maybes: legal writing punctuation – Part III. New York State Bar Association Journal 80(4): 54.
Lebovits, G. (2008c) “Do’s, don’ts, and maybes”: Usage controversies – Part I. New York State Bar Association Journal 80(5): 60.
Lebovits, G. (2008d) “Do’s, don’ts, and maybes”: Usage controversies – Part II. New York State Bar Association Journal August, p. 58.
Lebovits, G. (2008e) Plain English: eschew legalese. New York State Bar Association Journal November/December: 59, 60.
Pollack, S. (1969) The psychiatrist as expert witness: Cross examination of the psychiatrist. Presented to First Annual Practicing Law institute, Criminal Advocacy Institute, “Are Your Techniques Obsolete?” January 25, 1969.
Strunk, W. & White, E. B. (2000) The Elements of Style, 4th edn. London: Longman.
Zinsser, W. (1988) Writing to Learn. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. viii.