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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: August 2015

Chapter 6 - Regional anesthesia for ambulatory surgery

1.Mulroy, M. F., McDonald, S. B.. Regional anesthesia for outpatient surgery. Anesthesiol Clin North Am. 2003;21(2):289303.
2.Klein, S. M., Bergh, A., Steele, S. M., Georgiade, G. S., Greengrass, R. A.. Thoracic paravertebral block for breast surgery. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(6):1402–05.
3.Larsson, S., Lundberg, D.. A prospective survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting with special regard to incidence and relations to patient characteristics, anesthetic routines and surgical procedures. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1995;39(4):539–45.
4.Tan, T., Bhinder, R., Carey, M., Briggs, L.. Day-surgery patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain than those anesthetized with sevoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(1):8385.
5.Badrinath, S., Avramov, M. N., Shadrick, M., Witt, T. R., Ivankovich, A. D.. The use of a ketamine–propofol combination during monitored anesthesia care. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(4):858–62.
6.Himmelseher, S., Durieux, M. E.. Ketamine for perioperative pain management. Anesthesiology. 2005;102(1):211–20.
7.Williams, B. A., Orebaugh, S. L., Ben-David, B., Bigeleisen, P. E.. Electrical stimulation: An important force behind the growth of regional anesthesia. Can J Anaesth. 2007;54(7):585–86; author reply 586–87.
8.Orebaugh, S. L., Williams, B. A., Kentor, M. L.. Ultrasound guidance with nerve stimulation reduces the time necessary for resident peripheral nerve blockade. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32(5):448–54.
9.Jacob, A. K., Walsh, M. T., Dilger, J. A.. Role of regional anesthesia in the ambulatory environment. Anesth Clinics. 2010;28(2):251–66.
10.Tsui, B. C., Knezevich, M. P., Pillay, J. J.. Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): An in vitro study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33(2):168–73.
11.Tsui, B. C., Li, L. X., Pillay, J. J.. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures. Can J Anaesth. 2006;53(11):1098–102.
12.Carty, B. N. S.. Ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia. BJA: CEACCP Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain. 2007;7(Issue 1):2024.
13.O’Donnell, B. D., Iohom, G.. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. Anesthesiology. 2009;111(1):2529.
14.Eichenberger, U., Stockli, S., Marhofer, P., et al. Minimal local anesthetic volume for peripheral nerve block: A new ultrasound-guided, nerve dimension-based method. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34(3):242–46.
15.O’Donnell, B., Riordan, J., Ahmad, I., Iohom, G.. Brief reports: A clinical evaluation of block characteristics using one milliliter 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(3):808–10.
16.Abrahams, M. S., Aziz, M. F., Fu, R. F., Horn, J. L.. Ultrasound guidance compared with electrical neurostimulation for peripheral nerve block: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102(3):408–17.
17.Marhofer, P., Schrogendorfer, K., Koinig, H., Kapral, S., Weinstabl, C., Mayer, N.. Ultrasonographic guidance improves sensory block and onset time of three-in-one blocks. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(4):854–57.
18.Marhofer, P., Schrogendorfer, K., Wallner, T., Koinig, H., Mayer, N., Kapral, S.. Ultrasonographic guidance reduces the amount of local anesthetic for 3-in-1 blocks. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1998;23(6):584–88.
19.Liu, F. C., Liou, J. T., Tsai, Y. F., et al. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block: A comparative study with nerve stimulator-guided method. Chang Gung Med J. 2005;28(6):396402.
20.Sauter, A. R., Dodgson, M. S., Stubhaug, A., Halstensen, A. M., Klaastad, O.. Electrical nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance for lateral sagittal infraclavicular blocks: A randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, comparative study. Anesth Analg. 2008;106(6):1910–15.
21.Bryan, N. A., Swenson, J. D., Greis, P. E., Burks, R. T.. Indwelling interscalene catheter use in an outpatient setting for shoulder surgery: Technique, efficacy, and complications. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007;16(4):388–95.
22.Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z. J., Rasmussen, H., Hesselbjerg, L.. Pneumothorax after an ultrasound-guided lateral sagittal infraclavicular block. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52(8):1176–77.
23.Neal, J. M.. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and patient safety: An evidence-based analysis. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35(2 Suppl):S59–67.
24.Bhatia, A., Lai, J., Chan, V. W., Brull, R.. Case report: pneumothorax as a complication of the ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach for brachial plexus block. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(3):817–19.
25.Gray, A. T., Laur, J. J.. Regional anesthesia for ambulatory surgery: Where ultrasound has made a difference. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2011;49(4):1321.
26.Neal, J. M., Bernards, C. M., Butterworth, J. F. T., et al. ASRA practice advisory on local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35(2):152–61.
27.Brummett, C. M., Williams, B. A.. Additives to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blockade. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2011;49(4):104–16.
28.Candido, K. D., Winnie, A. P., Ghaleb, A. H., Fattouh, M. W., Franco, C. D.. Buprenorphine added to the local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus block prolongs postoperative analgesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27(2):162–67.
29.Candido, K. D., Hennes, J., Gonzalez, S., et al. Buprenorphine enhances and prolongs the postoperative analgesic effect of bupivacaine in patients receiving infragluteal sciatic nerve block. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(6):1419–26.
30.Stein, C.. Targeting pain and inflammation by peripherally acting opioids. Front Pharmacol. 2013;4:123.
31.Popping, D. M., Elia, N., Marret, E., Wenk, M., Tramer, M. R.. Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve and plexus blocks: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Anesthesiology. 2009;111(2):406–15.
32.McCartney, C. J., Duggan, E., Apatu, E.. Should we add clonidine to local anesthetic for peripheral nerve blockade? A qualitative systematic review of the literature. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32(4):330–38.
33.Tetzlaff, J. E., Yoon, H. J., Brems, J., Javorsky, T.. Alkalinization of mepivacaine improves the quality of motor block associated with interscalene brachial plexus anesthesia for shoulder surgery. Reg Anesth. 1995;20(2):128–32.
34.Wilson, S. H., Rest, C., Pearce-Smith, B., Hudson, M. E., Chelly, J. E.. Regional anesthesia for ambulatory surgery: The ideal technique for a growing practice. Anesthesiology News. 2013;Sect. 1.
35.Wulf, H.. New perspectives for day-case spinals! Old drugs for an ancient technique? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2011;55(3):257–58.
36.Salinas, F. V., Liu, S. S.. Spinal anaesthesia: Local anaesthetics and adjuncts in the ambulatory setting. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2002;16(2):195210.
37.Tong, D., Wong, J., Chung, F., et al. Prospective study on incidence and functional impact of transient neurologic symptoms associated with 1% versus 5% hyperbaric lidocaine in short urologic procedures. Anesthesiology. 2003;98(2):485–94.
38.Mulroy, M. F., Salinas, F. V., Larkin, K. L., Polissar, N. L.. Ambulatory surgery patients may be discharged before voiding after short-acting spinal and epidural anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2002;97(2):315–19.
39.Buckenmaier, C. C., 3rd, Nielsen, K. C., Pietrobon, R., et al. Small-dose intrathecal lidocaine versus ropivacaine for anorectal surgery in an ambulatory setting. Anesth Analg. 2002;95 (5):1253–57, table of contents.
40.Lennox, P. H., Vaghadia, H., Henderson, C., Martin, L., Mitchell, G. W.. Small-dose selective spinal anesthesia for short-duration outpatient laparoscopy: Recovery characteristics compared with desflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(2):346–50, table of contents.
41.Ben-David, B., DeMeo, P. J., Lucyk, C., Solosko, D.. Minidose lidocaine–fentanyl spinal anesthesia in ambulatory surgery: Prophylactic nalbuphine versus nalbuphine plus droperidol. Anesth Analg. 2002;95(6):1596–600, table of contents.
42.Lopez-Soriano, F., Lajarin, B., Rivas, F., Verdu, J. M., Lopez-Robles, J.. [Hyperbaric subarachnoid ropivacaine in ambulatory surgery: comparative study with hyperbaric bupivacaine]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2002;49(2):7175.
43.Whiteside, J. B., Burke, D., Wildsmith, J. A.. Comparison of ropivacaine 0.5% (in glucose 5%) with bupivacaine 0.5% (in glucose 8%) for spinal anaesthesia for elective surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2003;90(3):304–08.
44.Breebaart, M. B., Vercauteren, M. P., Hoffmann, V. L., Adriaensen, H. A.. Urinary bladder scanning after day-case arthroscopy under spinal anaesthesia: Comparison between lidocaine, ropivacaine, and levobupivacaine. Br J Anaesth. 2003;90(3):309–13.
45.Imarengiaye, C. O., Song, D., Prabhu, A. J., Chung, F.. Spinal anesthesia: Functional balance is impaired after clinical recovery. Anesthesiology. 2003;98(2):511–15.
46.Gupta, A., Axelsson, K., Thorn, S. E., et al. Low-dose bupivacaine plus fentanyl for spinal anesthesia during ambulatory inguinal herniorrhaphy: A comparison between 6 mg and 7. 5 mg of bupivacaine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003;47(1):1319.
47.Danelli, G., Berti, M., Casati, A., et al. Spinal block or total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil for gynaecological outpatient procedures. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19(8):594–99.
48.Korhonen, A. M., Valanne, J. V., Jokela, R. M., Ravaska, P., Korttila, K.. Intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine 3 mg + fentanyl 10 microg for outpatient knee arthroscopy with tourniquet. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003;47(3):342–46.
49.De Kock, M., Gautier, P., Fanard, L., Hody, J. L., Lavand’homme, P.. Intrathecal ropivacaine and clonidine for ambulatory knee arthroscopy: A dose–response study. Anesthesiology. 2001;94(4):574–78.
50.Merivirta, R., Kuusniemi, K., Jaakkola, P., Pihlajamaki, K., Pitkanen, M.. Unilateral spinal anaesthesia for outpatient surgery: A comparison between hyperbaric bupivacaine and bupivacaine–clonidine combination. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53(6):788–93.
51.Hendriks, M. P., de Weert, C. J., Snoeck, M. M., Hu, H. P., Pluim, M. A., Gielen, M. J.. Plain articaine or prilocaine for spinal anaesthesia in day-case knee arthroscopy: A double-blind randomized trial. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102(2):259–63.
52.Sell, A., Tein, T., Pitkanen, M.. Spinal 2-chloroprocaine: Effective dose for ambulatory surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52(5):695–99.
53.Hejtmanek, M. R., Pollock, J. E.. Chloroprocaine for spinal anesthesia: A retrospective analysis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2011;55(3):267–72.
54.Ben-David, B., Solomon, E., Levin, H., Admoni, H., Goldik, Z.. Intrathecal fentanyl with small-dose dilute bupivacaine: Better anesthesia without prolonging recovery. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(3):560–65.
55.Vaghadia, H., Viskari, D., Mitchell, G. W., Berrill, A.. Selective spinal anesthesia for outpatient laparoscopy. I: Characteristics of three hypobaric solutions. Can J Anaesth. 2001;48(3):256–60.
56.Ben-David, B., Maryanovsky, M., Gurevitch, A., et al. A comparison of minidose lidocaine–fentanyl and conventional-dose lidocaine spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2000;91(4):865–70.
57.Jankowski, C. J., Hebl, J. R., Stuart, M. J., et al. A comparison of psoas compartment block and spinal and general anesthesia for outpatient knee arthroscopy. Anesth Analg. 2003;97 (4):1003–09, table of contents.
58.Liu, S. S., McDonald, S. B.. Current issues in spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2001;94(5):888906.
59.Davis, B. R., Kopacz, D. J.. Spinal 2-chloroprocaine: the effect of added clonidine. Anesth Analg. 2005;100(2):559–65.
60.Dahl, V., Gierloff, C., Omland, E., Raeder, J. C.. Spinal, epidural or propofol anaesthesia for out-patient knee arthroscopy? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997;41(10):1341–45.
61.Labas, P., Ohradka, B., Cambal, M., Olejnik, J., Fillo, J.. Haemorrhoidectomy in outpatient practice. Eur J Surg. 2002;168(11):619–20.
62.Weinbroum, A. A., Lalayev, G., Yashar, T., Ben-Abraham, R., Niv, D., Flaishon, R.. Combined pre-incisional oral dextromethorphan and epidural lidocaine for postoperative pain reduction and morphine sparing: A randomised double-blind study on day-surgery patients. Anaesthesia. 2001;56(7):616–22.
63.Horlocker, T. T., Bajwa, Z. H., Ashraf, Z., et al. Risk assessment of hemorrhagic complications associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications in ambulatory pain clinic patients undergoing epidural steroid injection. Anesth Analg. 2002;95 (6):1691–97, table of contents.
64.Gilbert, A., Owens, B. D., Mulroy, M. F.. Epidural hematoma after outpatient epidural anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(1):7778, table of contents.
65.Park, E. Y., Kil, H. K., Park, W. S., Lee, N. H., Hong, J. Y.. Effect of epidural saline washout on regression of sensory and motor block after epidural anaesthesia with 2% lidocaine and fentanyl in elderly patients. Anaesthesia. 2009;64(3):273–76.
66.Wolf, A. R., Valley, R. D., Fear, D. W., Roy, W. L., Lerman, J.. Bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in infants and children: The optimal effective concentration. Anesthesiology. 1988;69(1):102–06.
67.Broadman, L. M., Hannallah, R. S., Belman, A. B., Elder, P. T., Ruttimann, U., Epstein, B. S.. Post-circumcision analgesia – A prospective evaluation of subcutaneous ring block of the penis. Anesthesiology. 1987;67(3):399402.
68.Fisher, Q. A., McComiskey, C. M., Hill, J. L., et al. Postoperative voiding interval and duration of analgesia following peripheral or caudal nerve blocks in children. Anesth Analg. 1993;76(1):173–77.
69.Cook, B., Doyle, E.. The use of additives to local anaesthetic solutions for caudal epidural blockade. Paediatr Anaesth. 1996;6(5):353–59.
70.Rawal, N.. Analgesia for day-case surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2001;87(1):7387.
71.Rawal, N., Holmstrom, B., Crowhurst, J. A., Van Zundert, A.. The combined spinal–epidural technique. Anesth Clin North Am. 2000;18(2):267–95.
72.Holmstrom, B., Laugaland, K., Rawal, N., Hallberg, S.. Combined spinal epidural block versus spinal and epidural block for orthopaedic surgery. Can J Anaesth. 1993;40(7):601–06.
73.Urmey, W. F., Stanton, J., Peterson, M., Sharrock, N. E.. Combined spinal–epidural anesthesia for outpatient surgery. Dose–response characteristics of intrathecal isobaric lidocaine using a 27-gauge Whitacre spinal needle. Anesthesiology. 1995;83(3):528–34.
74.Pawlowski, J., Sukhani, R., Pappas, A. L., et al. The anesthetic and recovery profile of two doses (60 and 80 mg) of plain mepivacaine for ambulatory spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2000;91(3):580–84.
75.Buckenmaier, C. C., 3rd, Steele, S. M., Nielsen, K. C., Martin, A. H., Klein, S. M.. Bilateral continuous paravertebral catheters for reduction mammoplasty. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002;46(8):1042–45.
76.Weltz, C. R., Klein, S. M., Arbo, J. E., Greengrass, R. A.. Paravertebral block anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair. World J Surg. 2003;27(4):425–29.
77.Klein, S. M., Pietrobon, R., Nielsen, K. C., et al. Paravertebral somatic nerve block compared with peripheral nerve blocks for outpatient inguinal herniorrhaphy. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27(5):476–80.
78.Exadaktylos, A. K., Buggy, D. J., Moriarty, D. C., Mascha, E., Sessler, D. I.. Can anesthetic technique for primary breast cancer surgery affect recurrence or metastasis? Anesthesiology. 2006;105(4):660–64.
79.Moller, J. F., Nikolajsen, L., Rodt, S. A., Ronning, H., Carlsson, P. S.. Thoracic paravertebral block for breast cancer surgery: A randomized double-blind study. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(6):1848–51, table of contents.
80.Petersen, P. L., Mathiesen, O., Torup, H., Dahl, J. B.. The transversus abdominis plane block: A valuable option for postoperative analgesia? A topical review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54(5):529–35.
81.Sviggum, H. P., Niesen, A. D., Sites, B. D., Dilger, J. A.. Trunk blocks 101: Transversus abdominis plane, ilioinguinal–iliohypogastric, and rectus sheath blocks. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2012;50(1):7492.
82.Heil, J. W., Ilfeld, B. M., Loland, V. J., Sandhu, N. S., Mariano, E. R.. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane catheters and ambulatory perineural infusions for outpatient inguinal hernia repair. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35(6):556–58.
83.Aasbo, V., Thuen, A., Raeder, J.. Improved long-lasting postoperative analgesia, recovery function and patient satisfaction after inguinal hernia repair with inguinal field block compared with general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002;46(6):674–78.
84.Ghani, K. R., McMillan, R., Paterson-Brown, S.. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilio-inguinal nerve blockade for day case inguinal hernia repair. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 2002;47(4):626–29.
85.Azemati, S., Khosravi, M. B.. An assessment of the value of rectus sheath block for postlaparoscopic pain in gynecologic surgery. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005;12(1):1215.
86.Willschke, H., Bosenberg, A., Marhofer, P., et al. Ultrasonography-guided rectus sheath block in paediatric anaesthesia – A new approach to an old technique. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97(2):244–49.
87.Wilson, S. H., Rest, C., Pearce-Smith, B., Hudson, M. E., Chelly, J. E.. Regional anesthesia for ambulatory surgery: The ideal technique for a growing practice. Anesthesiology News. 2013;39(4)(April 2013):111.
88.Hadzic, A., Williams, B. A., Karaca, P. E., et al. For outpatient rotator cuff surgery, nerve block anesthesia provides superior same-day recovery over general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2005;102(5):1001–07.
89.Casati, A., Borgi, B., Fanelli, G., et al. A double-blinded, randomized comparison of either 0.5% levobupivacaine or 0.5% ropivacaine for sciatic nerve block. Anesth Analg. 2002;94:98790.
90.Singelyn, F. J.. Single-injection applications for foot and ankle surgery. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2002;16:247–54.
91.Clough, T. M., Sander, D., Bale, R. S., Laurence, A. S.. The use of a local anesthetic foot block in patients undergoing outpatient bony forefoot surgery: A prospective randomized controlled trial. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003;42:2429.
92.Ilfeld, B. M., Enneking, F. K.. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home: A review. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1822–33.
93.Aguirre, J., Del Moral, A., Cobo, I., Borgeat, A., Blumenthal, S.. The role of continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Anesth Res Pract. 2012;2012:560879.
94.Hebl, J. R.. The importance and implications of aseptic techniques during regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:311–23.
95.Swenson, J. D., Cheng, G. S., Axelrod, D. A., Davis, J. J.. Ambulatory anesthesia and regional catheters: When and how. Anesth Clin. 2010;28(2):267–80.
96.Horlocker, T. T., Wedel, D. J., Rowlingson, J. C., et al. Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy: American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines (Third Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35(1):64101.
97.Klein, S. M., Nielsen, K. C., Greengrass, R. A., Warner, D. S., Martin, A., Steele, S. M.. Ambulatory discharge after long-acting peripheral nerve blockade: 2382 blocks with ropivacaine. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(1):6570, table of contents.