Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: January 2010

13 - Surgical management of airway obstruction

from Part III - Thorax

Summary

Surgical management of obstructive diseases of the pediatric airway is challenging and rewarding. These diseases may present with acute, life-threatening airway obstruction and warrant quick relief of obstruction often accomplished by endotracheal intubation or tracheotomy. The etiology of obstructive airway disease is often multifactorial, and includes anatomic, congenital, and inflammatory problems. Regardless of the cause and mode of presentation, diagnosis and successful surgical management requires a high index of suspicion and clinical experience to establish the correct diagnosis and formulate a surgical solution. To achieve good surgical outcomes, meticulous attention to detail, recognition and treatment of other medical comorbidities that affect healing, and complete dedication of the surgeon's time and resources are required. These resources include many other pediatric specialists and other allied health care individuals. The priority of intervention is to establish and maintain a safe and stable airway. One must also recognize that diseases causing airway obstruction and the surgical interventions to correct these problems may compromise voice, speech, and swallowing. The impact of these diseases and their surgical interventions may have tremendous socialization implications for children at a critical phase of growth and development. Because of the potential impact and devastating outcomes these diseases and interventions may have on medical and psychosocial development of children, we are obliged to examine our interventions to assume the best possible outcomes for airway, voice, swallowing, and socialization. The number of children who require surgical intervention for airway obstruction has increased.

REFERENCES
Gustafson, L. M., Hartley, B. E., Liu, J. H.et al.Single-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction in children: a review of 200 cases. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2000; 123(4):430–434.
Abbeele, T., Triglia, J. M., Lescanne, E.et al.Surgical removal of subglottic hemangiomas in children. Laryngoscope 1999; 109(8):1281–1286.
Froehlich, P., Seid, A. B & Morgon, A.Contrasting strategic approaches to the management of subglottic hemangiomas. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1996; 36(2):137–146.
Wiatrak, B. J., Reilly, J. S., Seid, A. B.et al.Open surgical excision of subglottic hemangioma in children. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1996; 34(1–2):191–206.
Postic, W. P., Cotton, R. T., & Handler, S.Surg. Pediatr. Otolaryngol. 1997.
Gustafson, L. M., Lin, J. H., Link, D. T.et al.Spiral CT versus MRI in neonatal airway evaluation. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 2000; 52(2):197–201.
Bluestone, C. D., Delerme, A. N., & Samuelson, G. H.Airway obstruction due to vocal cord paralysis in infants with hydrocephalus and meningomyelocele. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1972; 81(6):778–783.
Yamada, H., Tanaka, Y., & Nakamura, S.Laryngeal stridor associated with the Chiari II malformation. Childs Nerv. Syst. 1985; 1(6):312–318.
Hartnick, C. J., Hartley, B. E., Miller, C.et al.Pediatric fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2000; 109(11):996–999.
Link, D. T., Willging, J. P., Miller, C. K.et al.Pediatric laryngopharyngeal sensory testing during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): feasible and correlative. Ann. Otol., Rhinol, Laryngol. 2000; 109(10):899–905.
Willging, J. P.Benefit of feeding assessment before pediatric airway reconstruction. Laryngoscope. 2000; 110(5 Pt 1):825–834.
Holinger, L. D., Lusk, R. P., & Green, C. G. eds. Pediatric Laryngology and Bronchoesophagology. 1st edn. 1997, Philadelphia, New York: Lippincott-Raven: 402.
Myer C., Cotton R. T., & Shott S. R. The Pediatric Airway: An Interdisciplinary Approach. 1st edn, ed. Myer, C., Cotton, R. T., and Shott, S. R.. 1995, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company: 372.
Yellon, R. F. & Goldberg, H.Update on gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric airway disorders. Am. J. Med. 2001; 111(Suppl 8A):78S–84S.
Halstead, L. A.Gastroesophageal reflux: a critical factor in pediatric subglottic stenosis. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1999; 120(5):683–688.
Halstead, L. A.Role of gastroesophageal reflux in pediatric upper airway disorders. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1999; 120(2):208–214.
Little, F. B., Koufman, J. A., Kohut, R. I.et al.Effect of gastric acid on the pathogenesis of subglottic stenosis. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1985; 94:516–519.
Koufman, J. A.The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury. Laryngoscope 1991; 101(4 Pt 2 Suppl 53):1–78.
Koufman, J. A., Aviv, J. E., Casiano, R. R.et al.Laryngopharyngeal reflux: position statement of the committee on speech, voice, and swallowing disorders of the American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery. [Review] [60 refs]. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2002; 127(1):32–35.
Koufman, J. A.Laryngopharyngeal reflux is different from classic gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ear, Nose, Throat J. 2002; 81(9 Suppl 2):7–9.
Koufman, J. A., Belafsky, P. C., Bach, K. K.et al.Prevalence of esophagitis in patients with pH-documented laryngopharyngeal reflux. Laryngoscope 2002; 112(9):1606–1609.
Hartnick, C. J., Hartley, B. E., Lacy, P. D.et al.Topical mitomycin application after laryngotracheal reconstruction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2001; 127(10):1260–1264.
Rosenfield, S.Should granulomas be excised in children with long term tracheotomy?Arch Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1992; 118:1323–1327.
Fagiolini, M., Pizzoruss, T., Berardi, N.Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: dark rearing and monocular deprivation. Vision Resuscitate 1994; 34:709–720.
Karmen, W.Effects of long-term tracheostomy on spectral characteristics of vowel production. J. Speech Hear Res. 1991; 34:1057–1065.
Simon, B. M., Fowler, S. M., & Handler, S. D.Communication development in young children with long-term tracheostomies: preliminary report. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1983; 6:37–50.
Ross, E. R., Green, R., Auslander, M. O.et al.Cricopharyngeal myotomy: management of cervical dysphagia. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1982; 90(4):434–441.
Willging, J. P.Endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in children. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1995; 32 Suppl:S107–108.
Holinger, H. & P. Brown, W.Congenital webs, cyst, laryngoceles and other anomalies of the larynx. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1967; 76:744–752.
Giannoni, C., Sulek, M., Friedman, E. M.et al.Gastroesophageal reflux association with laryngomalacia: a prospective study. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1998; 43(1):11–20.
Remacle, M., Bodart, E., & Lawson, G.Use of the CO2-laser micropoint micromanipulator for the treatment of laryngomalacia. Europ. Arch. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1996; 253(7):401–404.
Rudolph, C. D., Mazur, I. L., Librak, G. S.et al.Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children: recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition.[see comment]. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutrit. 2001; 32(2): PS1–S31.
Holinger, L. D. & Konior, R. J.Surgical management of severe laryngomalacia. Laryngoscope 1989; 99(2):136–142.
Polonovski, J. M., Contencin, P., Francois, M.et al.Aryepiglottic fold excision for the treatment of severe laryngomalacia. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1990; 99(8):625–627.
Zalzal, G. H., Anon, J. B. & Cotton, R. T.Epiglottoplasty for the treatment of laryngomalacia. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1987; 96(1 Pt 1):72–76.
Roger, G., Denoyelle, F., Trigilia, J. M.et al.Severe laryngomalacia: surgical indications and results in 115 patients. Laryngoscope 1995; 105(10):1111–1117.
Baxter, M. R.Congenital laryngomalacia. Can. J. Anaesth. 1994; 41(4):332–339.
McSwiney, P. F., Cavanagh, N. P., & Languth, P.Outcome in congenital stridor (laryngomalacia). Arch. Dis. Childh. 1977; 52(3):215–218.
Seid, A. B., Park, S. M., Kearns, M. J.et al.Laser division of the aryepiglottic folds for severe laryngomalacia. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1985; 10(2):153–158.
Lane, R. W., Weider, D. J., Ochi, J. W.et al.Laryngomalacia. A review and case report of surgical treatment with resolution of pectus excavatum. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1984; 110(8):546–551.
Jani, P., Koltai, P., Ochi, J.et al.Surgical treatment of laryngomalacia. J. Laryngol. Otol. 1991; 105(12):1040–1045.
Marcus, C. L., Crockett, D. M., & Davidson, Ward, S. L.Evaluation of epiglottoplasty as a treatment for severe laryngomalacia. J. Pediatr. 1990; 117(5):706–710.
McClurg, F. L. & Evans, D. A.Laser laryngoplasty for laryngomalacia. Laryngoscope 1994; 104(3 Pt 1):247–252.
Toynton, S. C., Saunders, M. W., & Bailey, C. M.Aryepiglottoplasty for laryngomalacia: 100 consecutive cases. J. Laryngol. Otolo. 2001; 115(1):35–38.
Reddy, D. K. & Matt, B. H.Unilateral vs. bilateral supraglottoplasty for severe laryngomalacia in children. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2001; 127(6):694–699.
Kelly, S. M. & Gray, S. D.Unilateral endoscopic supraglottoplasty for severe laryngomalacia.[see comment]. Arch. Otolaryngol – Head & Neck Surg. 1995; 121(12):1351–1354.
Denoyelle, F., Mondain, M., Gresillon, N.et al.Failures and complications of supraglottoplasty in children. Arch. Otolaryngolo. Head Neck Surg. 2003; 129(10):1077–1080; discussion 1080.
Milczuk, H. A., Smith, J. D., & Everts, E. C.Congenital laryngeal webs: surgical management and clinical embryology. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 2000; 52(1):1–9.
Unal, M.The successful management of congenital laryngeal web with endoscopic lysis and topical mitomycin-C.Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 2004; 68(2):231–235.
Benjamin, C., Jackson, B. N.Congenital laryngeal webs. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1983; 92:317–326.
Holland, B. W., Koufman, J. A., Postma, G. N.et al.Laryngopharyngeal reflux and laryngeal web formation in patients with pediatric recurrent respiratory papillomas. Laryngoscope 2002; 112(11):1926–1929.
Pollack, I. F., Kinnunen, D., & Albright, A. L.The effect of early craniocervical decompression on functional outcome in neonates and young infants with myelodysplasia and symptomatic Chiari II malformations: results from a prospective series. Neurosurgery 1996; 38(4):703–710; discussion 710.
Link, D. T. & Cotton, R. T.The laryngotracheal complex in pediatric head and neck trauma: securing the airway and management of external laryngeal injury. Facial Plast. Surg. Clin. N. Am. 1999; 7(2):133–144.
Triglia, J. M., Belus, J. F., & Nicollas, R.Arytenoidopexy for bilateral vocal fold paralysis in young children. J. Laryngol. Otolo. 1996; 110(11):1027–1030.
Bower, C. M., Choi, S. S., & Cotton, R. T.Arytenoidectomy in children. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1994; 103(4 Pt 1):271–278.
Narcy, P., Contencin, P., & Viala, P.Surgical treatment for laryngeal paralysis in infants and children. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1990; 99(2 Pt 1):124–128.
Friedman, E. M., Jong, A. L., & Sulek, M.Pediatric bilateral vocal fold immobility: the role of carbon dioxide laser posterior transverse partial cordectomy. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2001; 110(8):723–728.
Rimell, F. L. and Dohar, J. E., Endoscopic management of pediatric posterior glottic stenosis. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1998; 107(4):285–290.
Brigger, M. T. & Hartnick, C. J.Surgery for pediatric vocal cord paralysis: a meta-analysis. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2002;126(4):349–355.
Gray, S. D., Kelly, S. M., & Dove, H.Arytenoid separation for impaired pediatric vocal fold mobility. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1994; 103(7):510–515.
Younis, R. T., Lazar, R. H., & Astor, F.Posterior cartilage graft in single-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2003; 129(3):168–175.
Hartnick, C. J., Brigger, M. T., Willging, J. P.et al.Surgery for pediatric vocal cord paralysis: a retrospective review. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2003; 112(1):1–6.
Inglis, A. F. Jr., Perkins, J. A., Manning, S. C.et al.Endoscopic posterior cricoid split and rib grafting in 10 children. Laryngoscope 2003; 113(11):2004–2009.
Kashima, H., Mounts, P., Leventhal, B.et al.Sites of predilection in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1993; 102(8 Pt 1):580–583.
Shah, K., Kashima, H., Polk, B. F.et al.Rarity of cesarean delivery in cases of juvenile-onset respiratory papillomatosis. Obst. Gynecol. 1986; 68(6):795–799.
Wiatrak, B. J.Overview of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Curr. Opin. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2003; 11(6):433–441.
Parsons, D. S. & Bothwell, M. R.Powered instrument papilloma excision: an alternative to laser therapy for recurrent respiratory papilloma. Laryngoscope 2001; 111(8):1494–1496.
Derkay, C. S., Darrow, D. H., Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis of the larynx: current diagnosis and treatment. Otolaryngol. Clin. N. Am. 2000; 33:1127–1142.
Patel, N., Rowe, M., & Tunkel, D.Treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in children with the microdebrider. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2003; 112(1):7–10.
Franco, R. A. Jr., Zeitels, S M., Farinellik, W. A.et al.585-nm pulsed dye laser treatment of glottal papillomatosis. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2002; 111(6):486–492.
Cohen, J. T., Koufman, J. A., & Postma, G. N.Pulsed-dye laser in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis of the larynx. Ear, Nose, Throat J. 2003; 82(8):558.
Wetmore, S. J.Key, J., & Suen, J. Y.Complications of laser surgery for laryngeal papillomatosis. Laryngoscope 1985; 95:798–801.
Cole, R. R., Myer, C. M. 3rd, & Cotton, R. T.Tracheotomy in children with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Head Neck 1989; 11(3):226–230.
McDonald, I. H., Stock, J., Prolonged nasotracheal intubation. Br. J. Anesth. 1965; 37:161–173.
Holinger, P. H., Kutnick, S. L., Schild, J. A.et al.Subglottic stenosis in infants and children. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1976; 85:591–599.
Ratner, W.Acquired subglottic stenosis in the very-low-birth-weight infant. Am. J. Dis. Child. 1983; 137:40–43.
Myer, C. M. 3rd, O'Connor, D. M., & Cotton, R. T.Proposed grading system for subglottic stenosis based on endotracheal tube sizes. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1994; 103(4 Pt 1):319–323.
Gilger, M. A.Pediatric otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Curr. Gastroenterol. Rep. 2003; 5(3):247–252.
Maronian, N. C., Azaden, H., Waugh, P.et al.Association of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease and subglottic stenosis. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2001; 110(7 Pt 1):606–612.
Suskind, D. L., Zeringue, G. P., Kluka, E. A.et al.Gastroesophageal reflux and pediatric otolaryngologic disease: the role of antireflux surgery. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2001; 127(5):511–514.
Walner, D. L., Stern, Y., Gerber, M. E.et al.Gastroesophageal reflux in patients with subglottic stenosis. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1998; 124(5):551–555.
Kirchner, F. R. & Toledo, P. S.Microcauterization in otolaryngology. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1974; 99:198–202.
Rodgers, T.Clinical application of endotracheal cryotherapy. J. Pediatr. Surg. 1978; 13:662–668.
Cotton, R. T., Myer, C. M., Bratcher, G. O.et al.Anterior cricoid split, 1977–1987. Evolution of a technique. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1988; 114(11):1300–1302.
Rutter, M. J., Hartley, B. E., & Cotton, R. T.Cricotracheal resection in children. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2001; 127(3):289–292.
Stern, Y., Gerber, M. E., Walner, D. L.et al.Partial cricotracheal resection with primary anastomosis in the pediatric age group. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1997; 106(11):891–896.
Hartley, B. E., Rutter, M. J., & Cotton, R. T.Cricotracheal resection as a primary procedure for laryngotracheal stenosis in children. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 2000; 54(2–3):133–136.
Walner, D. L., Stern, Y., & Cotton, R. T.Margins of partial cricotracheal resection in children. Laryngoscope 1999; 109(10):1607–1610.
Monnier, P., Lang, F., & Savary, M.Partial cricotracheal resection for pediatric subglottic stenosis: a single institution's experience in 60 cases. Europ. Arch. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 2003; 260(6):295–297.
Triglia, J. M., Nicollas, R., & Roman, S.Primary cricotracheal resection in children: indications, technique and outcome. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 2001; 58(1):17–25.
Cotton, R. T.Pediatric laryngotracheal stenosis. J. Pediatr. Surg. 1984; 19(6):699–704.
Cotton, R. T. & Myer, C. M. 3rdContemporary surgical management of laryngeal stenosis in children. Am. J. Otolaryngol. 1984; 5(5):360–368.
Zalzal, G. H., Cotton, R. T., & McAdams, A. J.Cartilage grafts – present status. Head Neck Surg. 1986; 8(5):363–374.
Cotton, R. T., Gray, S. D., & Miller, R. P.Update of the Cincinnati experience in pediatric laryngotracheal reconstruction. Laryngoscope 1989; 99(11):1111–1116.
Jacobs, B. R., Salmon, B. A., Cotton, R. T.et al.Postoperative management of children after single-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction. Crit. Care Med. 2001; 29(1):164–168.
Hartley, B. E., Gustafson, L. M., Liu, J. H.et al.Duration of stenting in single-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction with anterior costal cartilage grafts. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2001; 110(5 Pt 1):413–416.
Gustafson, L. M., Hartley, B. E., & Cotton, R. T.Acquired total (grade 4) subglottic stenosis in children. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 2001; 110(1):16–19.
Cotton, R. T.The problem of pediatric laryngotracheal stenosis: a clinical and experimental study on the efficacy of autogenous cartilaginous grafts placed between the vertically divided halves of the posterior lamina of the cricoid cartilage. Laryngoscope 1991; 101(12 Pt 2 Suppl 56):1–34.
Pech, C., Triglia, J. M., Bouanga, C.et al.[Phonetic results after surgery of laryngotracheal stenoses in children]. Ann. Oto-Laryngolo. Chir. Cervico-Faciale 1995; 112(5):199–204.
MacArthur, C. J., Kearns, G. H., & Healy, G. B.Voice quality after laryngotracheal reconstruction. Arch. Otolaryngol – Head Neck Surg. 1994; 120(6):641–647.
Smith, M. E., Marsh, J. H., Cotton, R. T., & Myer, C. M.Voice problems after pediatric laryngotracheal reconstruction: videolaryngostroboscopic, acoustic and perceptual assessment. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1993; 25:173–181.
Zalzal, G. H., Loomis, S. R., & Fischer, M.Laryngeal reconstruction in children. Assessment of vocal quality. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1993; 119(5):504–507.
Smith, M. E., Clary, R. A., Dengilly, A.et al.Voice problems after pediatric laryngotracheal reconstruction: videolaryngostroboscopic, acoustic, and perceptual assessment. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1993; 25(1–3):173–181.
Albert, D. M., Bailey, C. M., Clary, R. A.et al.Voice quality following laryngotracheal reconstruction. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1995; 32(Suppl):S93–S95.
Thome, R. & Thome, D. C.Posterior cricoidotomy lumen augmentation for treatment of subglottic stenosis in children. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1998; 124(6):660–664.
Gregor, R. T., Plit, M., & Webster, T.The use of the flow-volume loop in assessing the results of laryngotracheal reconstruction. S. Afri. J. Surg. 1997; 35(4):210–214.
Zalzal, G. H.Rib cartilage grafts for the treatment of posterior glottic and subglottic stenosis in children. Ann. Otol., Rhinol. Laryngol. 1988; 97(5 Pt 1):506–511.
Choa, D. I., Smith, M. C., Evans, J. N., & Bailey, C. M.Subglottic hemangioma in children. J. Laryngol. Otol. 1986; 100:447.
Leikensohn, B., Cotton, R. T.Subglottic hemangioma. J. Otolaryngol. 1976; 5:487–492.
Cohen, S. R., Unusual lesions of the larynx, trachea, and bronchial tree. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1969; 78:476–489.
Hawkins, D. B.Corticosteroid management of airway hemangiomas: long term follow-up. Laryngoscope 1984; 94:633–637.
Shikhani, A. H., Infantile subglottic hemangiomas. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1986; 95:336–347.
Aviles, R., Boyce, T. G., & Thompson, D. M.Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a 3-month-old infant receiving high-dose corticosteroid therapy for airway hemangiomas. Mayo Clin. Proc. 2004; 79(2):243–245.
Al-Sebeih, K. & Manoukian, J.Systemic steroids for the management of obstructive subglottic hemangioma. J. Otolaryngol. 2000; 29(6):361–366.
Meeuwis, J., Bos, C., Hoeve, L.et al.Subglottic hemangiomas in infants: treatment with intralesional corticosteroid injection and intubation. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1990; 19:145–150.
Healy, G. B.Treatment of subglottic hemangioma with the carbon dioxide laser. Laryngoscope 1980; 90:809–813.
Sie, M., McGill, T., & Healy, G. B.Subglottic hemangioma: ten year's experience with the carbon dioxide laser. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1994; 103:167–172.
Kacker, A., April, M., & Ward, R. F.Use of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser in management of subglottic hemangiomas. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 2001; 59(1):15–21.
Madgy, D., Ahsan, S. F., Kest, D.et al.The application of the potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser in the management of subglottic hemangioma. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2001; 127(1):47–50.
Ohlms, L. A., Jones, D. T., McGill, J. J.Interferon Alfa-2A Therapy for airway hemangiomas. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1994; 103:1–8.
Chatrath, P., Black, M., Jani, P.et al.A review of the current management of infantile subglottic haemangioma, including a comparison of CO2 laser therapy versus tracheostomy. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 2002; 64(2):143–157.
Seid, A. B., Pransky, S. M., & Kearns, D. B.The open surgical approach to subglottic hemangioma.[comment]. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1993; 26(1):95–96.
Seid, A. B., Pransky, S. M., & Kearns, D. B.The open surgical approach to subglottic hemangioma.[see comment]. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 1991; 22(1):85–90.
Naiman, A. N., Ayari, S., & Froehlich, P.Controlled risk of stenosis after surgical excision of laryngeal hemangioma. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2003; 129(12):1291–5.
Evans, K. L., Courteney-Harris, R., Bailey, C. M.et al.Management of posterior laryngeal and laryngotracheoesophageal clefts. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1995; 121:1380–1385.
Eriksen, C. & Zwillenberg, D., Robinson, N., Diagnosis and management of cleft larynx: literature review and case repoart. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1990; 103(10):753–757.
Smith, R., Neville, M., & Bauman, N.Interarytenoid notch height relative ot the vocal folds. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1994; 103:753–757.
Bent, J. P.Endoloscope repair of tpe IA laryngeal clefts. Laryngoscope 1997; 107:282–286.
Roth, B.Laryngotracheoesophageal cleft, clinical features, diagnosis, and therapy. Eur. J. Pediatr. Surg. 1983; 140:41–46.
Robie, D. K., Pearl, R. H., Gonsales, C.et al.Operative strategy for recurrent laryngeal cleft: a case report and review of the literature. J. Pediatr. Surg. 1991; 26:973–974.
Cantrell, J. R. & Guild, H. G.Congenital stenosis of the trachea. Am. J. Surg. 1964; 108:297–305.
Blumer, J.Distal tracheal stenosis in neonates and infants. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 1992; 107:583–590.
Benjamin, B., Pitkin, J., & Cohen, D.Congenital tracheal stenosis. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1981; 90:364–371.
Rutter, M. J., Willging, J. P., & Cotton, R. T.Nonoperative management of complete tracheal rings. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 2004; 130(4):450–452.
Indriss, F.Tracheoplasty with pericardial patch for extensive tracheal stenosis in infants and children. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 1984; 88:527–536.
Dunham, M.Management of severe congenital tracheal stenosis. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1994; 103:351–356.
Weber, T.Resection of congenital tracheal stenosis involving the carina. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 1982; 84:200–203.
Tsang, V., Murday, A., Gillbe, C., & Goldstraw, P.Slide tracheoplasty for congenital funnel-shaped tracheal stenosis. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1989; 48:632–635.
Rutter, M. J., Cotton, R. T., Manning, P. B.et al.Slide tracheoplasty for the management of complete tracheal rings. J. Pediatr. Surg. 2003; 38(6):928–934.
Cunningham, M. J., Eavey, R. D., Vlahakes, G. J.et al.Slide tracheoplasty for long-segment tracheal stenosis. Arch. Otolaryngol – Head Neck Surg. 1998; 124(1):98–103.
Jacobs, J. P.Pediatric tracheal homograft reconstruction: a novel approach to complex tracheal stenoses in children. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 1996; 112:1546–1558.
Jacobs, J. P.Successful complete tracheal resection in a three-month-old infant. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1996; 61:1824–1826.
Gross, R.Surgical relief for tracheal obstruction from a vascular ring. N. Engl. J. Med. 1945; 233:586–590.
Feron, B. & Shortreed, R.Tracheobronchial compression by congenital cardiovasculare anomalies in children: syndrome of apnea. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1963; 72:949–969.
Mustard, W., Bayliss, C. E., Fearon, B.et al.Tracheal compression by the innominate artery in children. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1969; 8:312–319.
MacDonald, R. E. & Fearon, B., Innominate artery compression syndrome in children. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1971; 80:535–540.
Moes, C. A. F., Trusler, G. A., & Izukawa, T.Innominate artery compression of the trachea. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1975; 101:733–738.
Strive, J. L., Baumel, A., & Dunbar, J. S.Tracheal compression by the innominate artery in infancy and childhood. Radiology 1981; 139:73–75.
Backer, C.Vascular rings, slings, and tracheal rings. Mayo Clin. Proc. 1993; 68:1131–1133.
Lee, K. H., Yoon, C. S., Choe, K. O.et al.Use of imaging for assessing anatomical relationships of tracheobronchial anomalies associated with left pulmonary artery sling. Pediatr. Radiol. 2001; 31(4):269–278.
Adler, S. M., Isaacson, G., Balsara, R. K.Innominate artery compression of the trachea: diagnosis and treatment by anterior suspension: a 25-year experience. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1995; 107:924–927.
Backer, C.Vascular anomalies causing tracheoesophageal compression. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 1989; 97:725–731.