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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: February 2015

Section 3 - Procedural ultrasound

Selected references

Blaivas, M., Brannam, L., Fernandez, E. (2003) Short-axis versus long-axis approaches for teaching ultrasound-guided vascular access on a new inanimate model. Acad Emerg Med 10: 1307–11.
Blaivas, M., Lyon, M., Brannam, L., et al. (2004) Waterbath evaluation technique for emergency ultrasound of painful superficial structures. Ann Emerg Med 22(7):589–93.
Joshi, M., Subhan, I. (2008) A new technique for maintaining sterility in ultrasound-guided procedures. Ann Emerg Med 51(4): 496.
Lamperti, M., Bodenham, A. R., Pittiruti, M., et al. (2012) International evidence-based recommendations on ultrasound-guided vascular access. Intensive Care Med 38(7): 1105–17.
Milling, T., Holden, C., Melniker, L., et al. (2006) Randomized controlled trial of single-operator vs. two-operator ultrasound guidance for internal jugular venous cannulation. Acad Emerg Med 13(3): 245–7.
Phelan, M., Hagerty, D. (2009) The oblique view: an alternative approach for ultrasound-guided central line placement. J Emerg Med 37(4): 403–8.
Rose, J. S., Morbutas, C. M. (2008) A randomized controlled trial comparing one-operator versus two-operator technique in ultrasound-guided basilic vein cannulation. J Emerg Med 35(4):431–50.
Stone, M., Moon, C., Sutijono, D., et al. (2010) Needle tip visualization during ultrasound-guided vascular access: short-axis vs long-axis approach. Am J Emerg Med 28: 343–7.
Tirado, A., Nagdev, A., Henningsen, C., et al. (2013) Ultrasound-guided procedures in the emergency department – needle guidance and localization. Emerg Med Clin North Am 31(1):87–115.
Tirado, A., Wu, T., Noble, V. E., et al. (2013) Ultrasound-guided procedures in the emergency department – diagnostic and therapeutic asset. Emerg Med Clin North Am 31(1):117–49.

Selected references

Doniger, S., Ishimine, P., Fox, J. C., Kanegaye, J. T. (2009) Randomized controlled trial of ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous catheter placement versus traditional techniques in difficult-access pediatric patients. Pediatr Emerg Care 25(3): 154–9.
Fragou, M., Gravvanis, A., Dimitriou, V., et al. (2011) Real-time ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation versus the landmark method in critical care patients: a prospective randomized study. Crit Care Med 39(7): 1607–12.
Heinrichs, J., Fritze, Z., Vendermeerm, B., et al. (2013) Ultrasonographically guided peripheral intravenous cannulation of children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med61(4):444–54
Hind, D., Calvert, N., McWilliams, R., et al. (2003) Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ 327: 361–7.
Lamperti, M., Bodenham, A. R., Pittirutti, M., et al. (2012) International evidence-based recommendations on ultrasound-guided vascular access. Intensive Care Med 38(7): 1105–17.
Panebianco, N. L., Fredette, J. M., Szyid, D., et al. (2009) What you see (sonographically) is what you get: vein and patient characteristics associated with successful ultrasound-guided peripheral intravenous placement in patients with difficult access. Acad Emerg Med 16(12): 1298–303.
Phelan, M., Hagerty, D. (2009) The oblique view: an alternative approach for ultrasound-guided central line placement. J Emerg Med 37(4): 403–8.
Riera, A., Langhan, M., Northrup, V., et al. (2011) Remember the saphenous: ultrasound evaluation and intravenous site selection of peripheral veins in young children. Pediatr Emerg Care 27(12): 1–5.
Shiver, S., Blaivas, M., Lyon, M. (2006) A prospective comparison of ultrasound-guided and blindly placed radial arterial catheters. Acad Emerg Med 13(12): 1275–9.
Tsung, J. W., Blaivas, M., Stone, M. B. (2009) Feasibility of point-of-care colour Doppler ultrasound confirmation of intraosseous needle placement during resuscitation. Resuscitation 80: 665–8.

Selected references

Baumann, B. M., McCans, K., Stahmer, S. A., et al. (2008) Volumetric bladder ultrasound performed by trained nurses increases catheterization success in pediatric patients. Am J Emerg Med 26(1): 18–23.
Bevan, C., Buntsma, D., Stock, A., et al. (2011) Assessing bladder volumes in young children prior to instrumentation: accuracy of an automated ultrasound device compared to real-time ultrasound. Acad Emerg Med 18: 816–21.
Bih, L. I., Ho, C. C., Tsai, S. J., et al. (1998) Bladder shape impact on the accuracy of ultrasonic estimation of bladder volume. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79: 1553–6.
Chan, H. (1993) Noninvasive bladder volume measurement. J Neurosci Nurs 25: 309.
Chen, L., Hsiao, A. L., Moore, C. L., et al. (2005) Utility of bedside ultrasound before urethral catheterization in young children. Pediatrics 115: 108–11.
García-Nieto, V., Navarro, J. F., Sánchez-Almeida, E., García-García, M. (1997) Standards for ultrasound guidance of suprapubic bladder aspiration. Pediatr Nephrol 11(5): 607–9.
Gochman, R. F., Karasic, R. B., Heller, M. B. (1991) Use of portable ultrasound to assist urine collection by suprapubic aspiration. Ann Emerg Med 20: 631–5.
Goldberg, B. B., Meyer, H. (1973) Ultrasonically guided suprapubic urinary bladder aspiration. Pediatrics 51: 70–4.
Kiernan, S. C., Pinckert, T. L., Kezler, M. (1993) Ultrasound guidance of suprapubic bladder aspiration in neonates. J Pediatr 123: 789–91.
Witt, M., Baumann, B. M., McCans, K. (2005) Bladder ultrasound increases catheterization success in pediatric patients. Acad Emerg Med 12(4): 371–4.

Selected references

Abo, A., Chen, L., Johnston, P., et al. (2010) Positioning for lumbar puncture in children evaluated by bedside ultrasound. Pediatrics 125: e1149–53.
Bruccoleri, R. E., Chen, L. (2011) Needle-entry angle for lumbar puncture in children as determined by using ultrasonography. Pediatrics 127: e921.
Cadigan, B. A., Cydulka, R. K., Werner, S. L., et al. (2011) Evaluating infant positioning for lumbar puncture using sonographic measurements. Acad Emerg Med 18: 215–18.
Coley, B. D., Shiels, W. E., Hogan, M. J. (2001) Diagnostic and interventional ultrasonography in neonatal and infant lumbar puncture. Pediatr Radiol 31: 399–402.
Dick, E. A., Patel, K., Owens, C. M., et al. (2002) Spinal ultrasound in infants. Br J Radiol 75: 384–92.
Ferre, R. M., Sweeney, T. W., Strout, T. D. (2009) Ultrasound identification of landmarks preceding lumbar puncture: a pilot study. Emerg Med J 26: 276–7.
Marhofer, P., Bosenberg, A., Sitzwohl, C., et al. (2005) Pilot study of neuraxial imaging by ultrasound in infants and children. Paediatr Anaesth 15: 671–6.
Nomura, J. T., Leech, S. J., Shenbagamurthi, S., et al. (2007) A randomized controlled trial of ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture. J Ultrasound Med 26: 1341–8.
Tsui, B. C., Suresh, S. (2010) Ultrasound imaging for regional anesthesia in infants, children, and adolescents: a review of current literature and its application in the practice of neuraxial blocks. Anesthesiology 112: 719–28.
Whitty, R., Moore, M., Macarthur, A. (2008) Identification of the lumbar interspinous spaces: palpation versus ultrasound. Anesth Analg 106: 538–40.

Selected references

Berger, T., Garrido, F., Green, J., et al. (2012) Bedside ultrasound performed by novices for the detection of abscess in ED patients with soft tissue infections. Am J Emerg Med 30(8): 1569–73.
Blaivas, M., Adhikari, S. (2011) Unexpected findings on point-of-care superficial ultrasound imaging before incisionand drainage. J Ultrasound Med 30: 1425–30.
Friedman, D. I., Forti, R. J., Wall, S. P., et al. (2005) The utility of bedside ultrasound and patient perception in detecting soft tissue foreign bodies in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 21(8): 487–92.
Marin, J., Alpern, E., Panebianco, N. L., et al. (2011) Assessment of a training curriculum for emergency ultrasound for pediatric soft tissue infections. Acad Emerg Med 18(2): 174–82.
Orlinsky, M., Knittel, P., Feit, T., et al. (2000) The comparative accuracy of radiolucent foreign body detection using ultrasonography. Am J Emerg Med 18(4): 401–3.
Ramirez-Schrempp, D., Dorfman, D. H., Baker, W. E., et al. (2009) Ultrasound soft-tissue applications in the pediatric emergency department: to drain or not to drain?Pediatr Emerg Care 25(1): 44–8.
Sivitz, A. B., Lam, S. H., Ramirez-Schrempp, D., et al. (2009) Effect of bedside ultrasound on management of pediatric soft-tissue infection. J Emerg Med 39(5): 637–43.
Squire, B. T., Fox, J. C., Anderson, C. (2005) ABSCESS: applied bedside sonography for convenient evaluation of superficial soft tissue infections. Acad Emerg Med 12(7): 601–6.
Tayal, V. S., Hasan, N., Norton, H. J., et al. (2006) The effect of soft-tissue ultrasound on the management of cellulitis in the emergency department. Acad Emerg 13(4): 384–8.
Teng, M., Doniger, S. J. (2012) Subungual wooden splinter visualized with bedside sonography. Pediatr Emerg Care 28(4): 392–4.

Selected references

Barata, I., Spencer, R., Suppiah, A., et al. (2012) Emergency ultrasound in the diagnosis of pediatric long-bone fractures. Pediatr Emerg Care 28: 1154–7.
Chaar-Alvarez, F. M., Warkentine, F., Cross, K., et al. (2011) Bedside ultrasound diagnosis of nonangulated distal forearm fractures in the Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatr Emerg Care 27(11): 1027–32.
Chen, L., Kim, Y., Moore, C. L. (2007) Diagnosis and guided reduction of forearm fractures in children using bedside ultrasound. Pediatr Emerg Care 23: 528–31.
Chinnock, B., Khaletskiy, A., Kuo, K., et al. (2011) Ultrasound-guided reduction of distal radius fractures. J Emerg Med 40(3): 308–12.
Patel, D. D., Blumberg, S. M., Crain, E. F. (2009) The utility of bedside ultrasonography in identifying fractures and guiding fracture reduction in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 25: 221–5.
Rabiner, J. E., Khine, H., Avner, J. R., et al. (2013) Accuracy of point-of-care ultrasonography for diagnosis of elbow fractures in children. Ann Emerg Med 61(1): 9–17.
Sinha, T. P., Bhoi, S., Kumar, S., et al. (2011) Diagnostic accuracy of bedside emergency ultrasound screening for fractures in pediatric trauma patients. J Emerg Trauma Shock 4(4): 443–5.
Tsung, J. W., Blaivas, M. (2008) Emergency department diagnosis of pediatric hip effusion and guided arthrocentesis using point-of-care ultrasound. J Emerg Med 35: 393–9.
Vieira, R. L., Levy, J. A. (2010) Bedside ultrasonography to identify hip effusions in pediatric patients. Ann Emerg Med 55: 284–9.
Wiler, J. L., Constantino, T. G., Filippone, L., et al. (2010) Comparison of ultrasound-guided and standard landmark techniques for knee arthrocentesis. J Emerg Med 39(1): 76–82.

Selected references

Bhoi, S., Sinha, T. P., Rodha, M., et al. (2012) Feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided nerve block for management of limb injuries by emergency care physicians. J Emerg Trauma Shock 5(1): 28–32.
Christos, S. C., Chiampas, G., Offman, R., Rifenburg, R. (2010) Ultrasound-guided three-in-one nerve block for femur fractures. West J Emerg Med 11(4): 310–13.
Ganesh, A., Gurnaney, H. (2009) Ultrasound guidance for pediatric peripheral nerve blockade. Anesthesiol Clin 27: 197–212.
Ivani, G., Mossetti, V. (2009) Pediatric regional anesthesia. Minerva Anesthesiol 75(10): 577–83.
Liebmann, O., Price, D., Mills, C., et al. (2006) Feasibility of forearm ultrasonography-guided nerve blocks of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves for hand procedures in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 48: 558–62.
Mariano, E., Ilfeld, B., Cheng, G., et al. (2008) Feasibility of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block catheters for pain control on pediatric medical missions in developing countries. Paediatr Anaesth 18: 598.
Neal, J. M., Brull, R., Chan, V. W. S., et al. (2010) The ASRA evidence-based medicine assessment of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and pain medicine. Reg Anesth Pain Med 35(2 Suppl): S1–9.
Neal, J. M., Gerancher, J. C., Hebl, J. R., et al. (2009) Upper extremity regional anesthesia: essentials of our current understanding, 2008. Reg Anesth Pain Med 34: 134–70.
Sites, B., Brull, R. (2006) Ultrasound guidance in peripheral regional anesthesia: philosophy, evidence-based medicine, and techniques. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 19: 630.
Tsui, B., Suresh, S. (2010) Ultrasound imaging for regional anesthesia in infants, children, and adolescents: a review of current literature and its application in the practice of extremity and trunk blocks. Anesthesiology 112: 473–92.

Selected references

Bard, C., Lafortune, M., Breton, G. (1986) Ascites: ultrasound guidance or blind paracentesis?Can Med Assoc J 135(3): 209–10.
Duncan, D. R., Morgenthaler, T. I., Rhy, J. H., et al. (2009) Reducing iatrogenic risk in thoracentesis: establishing best practice via experiential training in a zero-risk environment. Chest 135(5): 1315–20.
Jones, P. W., Moyers, J. P., Rogers, J. T., et al. (2003) Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis: is it a safer method?Chest 123(2): 418–23.
Labovitz, A. J., Noble, V. E., Bierig, M., et al. (2010) Focused cardiac ultrasound in the emergent setting: a consensus statement of the Society of Echocardiography and American College of Emergency Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 23(12): 1225–30.
Lichtenstein, D., Hulot, J. S., Rabiller, A., et al. (1999) Feasibility and safety of ultrasound-aided thoracentesis in mechanically ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med 25(9): 955–8.
Nazeer, S. R., Dewbre, H., Miller, A. H. (2005) Ultrasound-assisted paracentesis performed by emergency physicians vs. the traditional technique: a prospective, randomized study. Am J Emerg Med 3(3): 363–7.
Patel, P. A., Ernst, F. R., Gunnarsson, C. L. (2012) Ultrasonography guidance reduces complications and costs associated with thoracentesis procedures. J Clin Ultrasound 40(3): 135–41.
Tsang, T. S., El-Najdawi, E. K., Seward, J. B., et al. (1998) Percutaneous echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis in pediatric patients: evaluation of safety and efficacy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 11(11): 1072–7.
Tsang, T. S., Enriquez-Sarano, M., Freeman, W. K., et al. (2002) Consecutive 1127 therapeutic echocardiographically guided pericardiocentesis: clinical profile, practice patterns, and outcomes spanning 21 years. Mayo Clin Proc 77(5): 429–36.
Zerth, H., Harwood, R., Tommasso, L., Girzadas, D. V. Jr. (2011) An inexpensive, easily constructed, reusable task trainer simulating ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis. J Emerg Med 43(6): 1066–9.

Selected references

Chou, H., Tseng, W., Wang, C., et al. (2011) Tracheal rapid ultrasound exam (T.R.U.E.) for confirming endotracheal tube placement during emergency intubation. Resuscitation 82(10): 1279–84.
Hoffmann, B., Gullett, J. P. (2010) Emergency ultrasound for the detection of esophageal intubation. Acad Emerg Med 17(4): 464–5.
Jenkins, J. A., Gharahbaghian, L., Doniger, S. J., et al. (2012) Sonographic Identification of Tube Thoracostomy Study (SITTS): confirmation of intrathoracic placement. West J Emerg Med 13(4): 305–11.
Kool, D. R., Blickman, J. G. (2007) Advanced Trauma Life Support. ABCDE from a radiological point of view. Emerg Radiol 14(3): 135–41.
Marciniak, B., Fayoux, P., Hebrard, A., et al. (2009) Airway management in children: ultrasonography assessment of tracheal intubation in real time?Anesth Analg 108(2): 461–5.
Muslu, B., Sert, H., Kaya, A., et al. (2011) Use of sonography for rapid identification of esophageal and tracheal intubations in adult patients. J Ultrasound Med 30(5): 671–6.
Raphael, D. T., Conard, F. U. (1987) Ultrasound confirmation of endotracheal tube placement. J Clin Ultrasound 15(7): 459–62.
Rowan, K. R., Kirkpatrick, A. W., Lui, D., et al. (2002) Traumatic pneumothorax detection with thoracic US: correlation with chest radiography and CT – initial experience. Radiology 225: 210–14.
Tsung, J. W., Fenster, D., Kessler, D. O., Novik, J. (2012) Dynamic anatomic relationship of the esophagus and trachea on sonography: implications for endotracheal tube confirmation in children. J Ultrasound Med 31(9): 1365–70.
Werner, S. L., Smith, C. E., Goldstein, J. R., et al. (2007) Pilot study to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in confirming endotracheal tube placement. Ann Emerg Med 49(1): 75–80.