Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: February 2015

Section 2 - Diagnostic ultrasound

Selected references

American College of Emergency Physicians. (2006) ACEP Policy Statement: Ultrasound imaging criteria compendium. Irving, TX: American College of Emergency Physicians. Available from http://www.acep.org/_Ultrasound-Section-Microsite/Policy-Statements/ (accessed November 16, 2012).
American College of Emergency Physicians. (2008) Policy Statement: Emergency ultrasound guidelines. Irving, TX: American College of Emergency Physicians. Available from http://www.acep.org/_Ultrasound-Section-Microsite/Policy-Statements/ (accessed November 16, 2012).
Chen, L., Santucci, K. (2006) Probing the availability of emergency ultrasound in pediatrics [abstract]. Pediatr Emerg Care 22: 688.
Cohen, J. S., Teach, S. J., Chapman, J. L. (2012) Bedside ultrasound education in pediatric emergency fellowship programs in the United States. Pediatr Emerg Care 28(9): 845–50.
Evans, N., Gournay, V., Cabanas, F., et al. (2011) Point-of-care ultrasound in the neonatal intensive care unit: international perspectives. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 16: 61–8.
Lambert, R. L., Boker, J. R., Maffei, F. A., et al. (2011) National survey of bedside ultrasound use in pediatric critical care. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12(6): 655–9.
Levy, J. A., Noble, V. E. (2008) Bedside ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine. Pediatrics 121: e 1404–12.
Marin, J. R., Zuckerbraun, N. S., Kahn, J. M. (2012) Use of emergency ultrasound in United States pediatric emergency medicine fellowship programs in 2011. J Ultrasound Med 31(9): 1357–63.
Moore, C. L., Copel, J. A. (2011) Point-of-care ultrasonography. N Engl J Med 364: 749–57.
Ramirez-Schrempp, D., Dorfman, D., Tien, I., et al. (2008) Bedside ultrasound in pediatric emergency medicine fellowship programs in the United States: little formal training. Pediatr Emerg Care 24: 664–7.

Selected references

Coley, B. D., Mutabagani, K. H., Martin, L. C., et al. (2000) Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in children with blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma 48(5): 902–6.
Corbett, S. W., Andrews, H. G., Baker, E. M., et al. (2000) ED evaluation of the pediatric trauma patient by ultrasonography. Am J Emerg Med 18: 244–9.
Damewood, S., Jeanmonod, D., Cadigan, B. (2011) Comparison of a multimedia simulator to a human model for teaching FAST exam image interpretation and image acquisition. Acad Emerg Med 18: 413–19.
Fox, J. C., Boysen, M., Gharahbaghian, L., et al. (2011) Test characteristics of focused assessment of sonography for trauma for clinically significant abdominal free fluid in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma. Acad Emerg Med 18(5): 477–82.
Holmes, J. F., Gladman, A., Chang, C. H. (2007) Performance of abdominal ultrasonography in pediatric blunt trauma patients: a meta-analysis. J Ped Surg 42: 1588–94.
Melniker, L. A., Leibner, E., McKenney, M. G., et al. (2006) Randomized controlled clinical trial of point-of-care, limited untrasonography for trauma in the emergency department: the first sonography outcomes assessment program trial. Am Emerg Med 48(3): 227–35.
Scalea, T. M., Rodriguez, A., Chiu, W. C., et al. (1999) Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST): results from an international consensus conference. J Trauma 46(3): 466–72.
Soudack, M., Epelman, M., Maor, R., et al. (2004) Experience with focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in 313 pediatric patients. J Clin Ultrasound 32(2): 53–61.
Suthers, S. E., Albrecht, R., Foley, D., et al. (2004) Surgeon-directed ultrasound for trauma is a predictor of intra-abdominal injury in children. Am Surg 70: 164–8.
Wilkerson, R. G., Stone, M. B. (2010) Sensitivity of bedside ultrasound and supine anteroposterior chest radiograph for the identification of pneumothorax after blunt trauma. Acad Emerg Med 17(1): 11–17.

Selected references

Blaivas, M., Fox, J. (2001) Outcome in cardiac arrest patients found to have cardiac standstill on the bedside emergency department echocardiogram. Acad Emerg Med 8: 616–21.
Doniger, S. J. (2010) Bedside emergency cardiac ultrasound in children. J Emerg Trauma Shock 3(3): 282–91.
JonesA., CraddockP., TayalV., et al. ( 2003) Focused training of emergency medicine residents in goal-directed echocardiography: a prospective study. Acad Emerg Med 10: 1054–8.
Labovitz, A. J., Noble, V. E., Bierig, M., et al. (2010) Focused cardiac ultrasound in the emergent setting: a consensus statement of the Society of Echocardiography and American College of Emergency Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 23(12): 1225–30.
Longjohn, M., Wan, J., Joshi, V., et al. (2011) Point-of-care echocardiography by pediatric emergency physicians. Ped Emerg Care 27(8): 693–6.
Mandavia, D., Hoffner, R., Mahaney, K., et al. (2001) Bedside echocardiography by emergency physicians. Ann Emerg Med 38: 377–82.
Moore, C. (2008) Current issues with emergency cardiac ultrasound probe and image conventions. Acad Emerg Med 15: 278–84.
Pershad, J., Myers, S., Plouman, C., et al. (2004) Bedside limited echocardiography by the emergency physician is accurate during evaluation of the critically ill patient. Pediatrics 114: e667–71.
Tayal, V., Kline, J. (2003) Emergency echocardiography to detect pericardial effusion in patients in PEA and near-PEA states. Resuscitation 59: 315–18.
Tsung, J., Blaivas, M. (2008) Feasibility of correlating the pulse check with focused point-of-care echocardiography during pediatric cardiac arrest: a case series. Resuscitation 77: 264–9.

Selected references

Blaivas, M., Lyon, M., Duggal, S. (2005) A prospective comparison of supine chest radiography and bedside ultrasound for the diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax. Ann Emerg Med 12(9): 844–9.
Caiulo, V. A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., et al. (2011) Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: comparison with chest X-ray. Eur J Pediatr 170: 1427–33.
Coley, B. D. (2005) Pediatric chest ultrasound. Radiol Clin North Am 43: 405–18.
Copetti, R., Cattarossi, L. (2007) The ‘double lung point’: an ultrasound sign diagnostic of transient tachypnea of the newborn. Neonatology 91: 203–9.
Khaled, A., Woo, M. Y., Vaillancourt, C. (2012) Test characteristics of ultrasonograpy for the detection of pneumothorax: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest 141: 703–8.
Kurian, J., Levin, T. L., Han, B. K., et al. (2009) Comparison of ultrasound and CT in the evaluation of pneumonia complicated by parapneumonic effusion in children. Am J Roentgenol 193: 1648–54.
Lichtenstein, D. A. (2009) Ultrasound examination of the lungs in the intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10: 693–8.
Lichtenstein, D. A., Mezière, G. A. (2008) Relevance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure: the BLUE protocol. Chest 134: 117–25.
Shah, V. P., Tunik, M. G., Tsung, J. W. (2012) Prospective evaluation of point-of-care ultrasonography for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children and young adults. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med December 10: 1–7. doi:10.1001/2013.jamapediatrics.107
Volpicelli, G., Elbarbary, M., Blaivas, M., et al. (2012) International evidence-based recommendations for point-of-care lung ultrasound. Intensive Care Med 38: 577–91.

Selected references

Chen, L., Hsiao, A., Langham, M., et al. (2010) Use of bedside ultrasound to assess degree of dehydration in children with gastroenteritis. Acad Emerg Med 17: 1042–7.
Chen, L., Kim, Y., Santucci, K. A. (2007) Use of ultrasound measurement of the inferior vena cava diameter as an objective tool in the assessment of children with clinical dehydration. Acad Emerg Med 14(10): 841–5.
Dipti, A., Soucy, Z., Surana, A., Chandra, S. (2012) Role of inferior vena cava diameter in assessment of volume status: a meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med 30(8): 1414–19.e1.
Haines, E. J., Chiricolo, G. C., Aralica, K., et al. (2012) Derivation of a pediatric growth curve for inferior vena caval diameter in healthy pediatric patients: brief report of initial curve development. Crit Ultrasound J 4(1): 12.
Kosiak., W., Swieton, D., Piskinowicz, M. (2008) Sonographic inferior vena cava/aorta diameter index, a new approach to the body fluid status assessment in children and young adults in emergency ultrasound – preliminary study. Am J Emerg Med 26: 320–5.
Lyon, M., Blaivas, M., Brannam, L. (2005) Sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava as a marker of blood loss. Am J Emerg Med 23(1): 45–50.
Nagdev, A. D., Merchant, R. C., Tirado-Gonzalez, A., et al. (2010) Emergency department bedside ultrasonographic measurement of the caval index for noninvasive determination of low central venous pressure. Ann Emerg Med 55(3): 290–5.
Ng, L., Khine, M., Taragm, B. H., et al. (2013) Does bedside sonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava diameter correlate with central renous pressure in the assessment of intravascular volume in children?Pediatr Emerg Care 29(3): 337–41.
Schefold, J. C., Storm, C., Bercker, S., et al. (2010) Inferior vena cava diameter correlates with invasive hemodynamic measures in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients with sepsis. Emerg Med 38(5): 632–7.
Stawicki, S. P., Braslow, B. M., Panebianco, N. L., et al. (2009) Intensivist use of hand-carried ultrasonography to measure IVC collapsibility in estimating intravascular volume status: correlations with CVP. J Am Coll Surg 209(1): 55–61.

Selected references

Berg, C. K., Zaia, B., Doniger, S. J., Williams, S. (2011) Determining the change in intraocular pressure during bedside orbital ultrasonography [abstract]. Annals Emerg Med 58(4 Suppl): S205.
Blaivas, M., Theodoro, D., Duggal, S. (2003) Ultrasound-guided drainage of peritonsillar abscess by the emergency physician. Am J Emerg Med 21(2): 155–8.
Blaivas, M., Theodoro, D., Sierzenski, P. R. (2002) A study of bedside ocular ultrasonography in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 9: 791–9.
Fufezan, O., Asavoaie, C., Cherecheş Panta, P., et al. (2010) The role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of maxillary sinusitis in pediatrics. Med Ultrason 12(1): 4–11.
Gritzmann, N., Hollerweger, A., Macheiner, P., et al. (2002) Sonography of soft tissue masses of the neck. J Clin Ultrasound 30(6): 356–73.
Hilbert, G., Vargas, F., Valentino, R., et al. (2001) Comparison of B-mode ultrasound and computed tomography in the diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med 29(7): 1337–42.
Le, A., Hoehn, M. E., Smith, M. E., et al. (2009) Bedside sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter as a predictor of increased intracranial pressure in children. Ann Emerg Med 53: 785–91.
Lyon, M., Blaivas, M. (2005) Intraoral ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected peritonsillar abscess in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 12(1): 85–8.
Malayeri, A. A., Bavarian, S., Mehdizadeh, M. (2005) Sonographic evaluation of optic nerve diameter in children with raised intracranial pressure. J Ultrasound Med 24: 143–7.
Varonen, H., Mäkelä, M., Savolainen, S., et al. (2000) Comparison of ultrasound, radiography, and clinical examination in the diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis: a systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol 53(9): 940–8.

Selected references

Dalziel, P. J., Noble, V. E. (2013) Bedside ultrasound and the assessment of renal colic: a review. Emerg Med J 30(1): 3–8.
de Bessa, J. Jr, Dénes, F. T., Chammas, M. C., et al. (2008) Diagnostic accuracy of color Doppler sonographic study of the ureteric jets in evaluation of hydronephrosis. Pediatr Urol 4(2): 113–17.
Gaspari, R. J., Horst, K. (2003) Emergency ultrasound and urinalysis in the evaluation of flank pain. Acad Emerg Med 12(12): 1180–4.
Hoppe, B., Kemper, M. J. (2010) Diagnostic evaluation of the child with urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. Pediatr Nephrol 25(3): 403–13.
Noble, V. E., Brown, D. F. (2004) Renal ultrasound. Emerg Med Clin North Am 22(3): 641–59.
Palmer, J. S., Donaher, E. R., O’Riordan, M. A., et al. (2005) Diagnosis of pediatric urolithiasis: role of ultrasound and computerized tomography. J Urol 174(4 Pt 1): 1413–16.
Ricabonna, M. (2003) Imaging of renal tumours in infancy and childhood. Eur Radiol 13: L116–29.
Rosen, C. L., Brown, D. F., Sagarin, M. J., et al. (1998) Ultrasonography by emergency physicians in patients with suspected ureteral colic. J Emerg Med 16(6): 865–70.
Schissel, B. L., Johnson, B. K. (2011) Renal stones: evolving epidemiology and management. Pediatr Emerg Care 27(7): 676–81.
Vester, U., Kranz, B., Hoyer, P. F. (2010) The diagnostic value of ultrasound in cystic kidney diseases. Pediatr Nephrol 25: 231–40.

Selected references

Eshed, I., Gorenstein, A., Serour, F., et al. (2004) Intussusception in children: can we rely on screening sonography performed by junior residents?Pediatr Radiol 34: 134–7.
Fox, J. C., Hunt., M. J., Zlidenny, A. M., et al. (2007) Retrospective analysis of emergency department ultrasound for acute appendicitis. W J Emerg Med 8(2): 41–5.
Fox, J. C., Solley, M., Anderson, C. L., et al. (2008) Prospective evaluation of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound to detect acute appendicitis. Eur J Emerg Med 15(2): 80–5.
Justice, F. A., de Campo, M., Liem, N. T., et al. (2007) Accuracy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of intussusception in infants in Vietnam. Pediatr Radiol 37(2): 195–9.
Krishnamoorthi, R., Ramarajan, N., Wang, N. E., et al. (2011) Effectiveness of a staged US and CT protocol for the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis: reducing radiation exposure in the age of ALARA. Radiology 259(1): 231–9.
Malcom, G. E., Raio, C., Del Rios, M., et al. (2009) Feasibility of emergency physician diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis using point-of-care ultrasound: a multi-center case series. J Emerg Med 37: 283–6.
Mittal, M. K., Dayan, P. S., Macias, C. G., et al. (2013) Performance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of appendicitis in children in a multicenter cohort. Acad Emerg Med 20(7): 697–702.
Riera, A., Hsiao, A. L., Langhan, M. L., el al. (2012) Diagnosis of intussusception by physician novice sonographers in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 60(3): 264–8.
Shuh, S., Man, C., Cheng, A., et al. (2011) Predictors of non-diagnostic ultrasound scanning in children with suspected appendicitis. J Pediatr 158: 112–18.
Sivitz, A. B., Tejani, C., Cohen, S. G. (2013) Evaluation of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis by pediatric emergency physician sonography. Acad Emerg Med 20(7): 646–51.

Selected references

Blaivas, M., Harwood, R. A., Lambert, M. J. (1999) Decreasing length of stay with emergency ultrasound examination of the gallbladder. Acad Emerg Med 6: 1020–3.
Breyer, M. J., Giordano, M., Tinjum, B., et al. (2010) Emergency medicine resident performed bedside ultrasonography of the gallbladder in non-fasted healthy volunteers. J Emerg Med 39(1): 65–9.
Durston, W., Carl, M. L., Guerra, W., et al. (2001) Comparison of quality and cost-effectiveness in the evaluation of symptomatic cholelithiasis with different approaches to ultrasound availability in the ED. Am J Emerg Med 19: 260–9.
Jang, T. B., Ruggeri, W., Dyne, P., et al. (2010) The learning curve of resident physicians using emergency ultrasonography for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. Acad Emerg Med 17: 1247–52.
Kendall, J. L., Shrimp, R. J. (2001) Performance and interpretation of focused right upper quadrant ultrasound by emergency physicians. J Emerg Med 21: 7–13.
McGahan, J. P., Phillips, H. E., Cox, K. L. (1982) Sonography of the normal pediatric gallbladder and biliary tree. Radiology 144: 873–5.
Poffenberger, C. M., Gausche-Hill, M., Ngai, S., et al. (2012) Cholelithiasis and its complications in children and adolescents. Pediatr Emerg Care 28(1): 68–76.
Rosen, C. L., Brown, D. F, Chang, Y., et al. (2001) Ultrasonography by emergency physicians in patients with suspected cholecystitis. Am J Emerg Med 19: 32–6.
Summers, S. M., Scruggs, W., Menchine, M. D., et al. (2010) A prospective evaluation of emergency department bedside ultrasonography for detection of acute cholecystitis. Ann Emerg Med 56(2): 114–22.
Tsung, J. W., Raio, C. C., Ramirez-Schrempp, D., et al. (2010) Point-of-care ultrasound diagnosis of pediatric cholecystitis in the ED. Am J Emerg Med 28(3): 338–42.

Selected references

Blaivas, M., Sierzenski, P. (2001) Emergency ultrasonography in the evaluation of the acute scrotum. Acad Emerg Med 8(1): 85–93.
Edelsberg, J. S., Surh, Y. S. (1988) The acute scrotum. Emerg Med Clin North Am 6(3): 521–46.
Fisher, R., Walker, J. (1994) The acute paediatric scrotum. British J Hosp Med 51(6): 290–2.
Gislason, T., Noronha, R. F., Gregory, J. G. (1980) Acute epididymitis in boys: a 5-year retrospective study. Journal Urol 124(4): 533–4.
Kadish, H. A., Bolte, R. G. (1998) A retrospective review of pediatric patients with epididymitis, testicular torsion, and torsion of testicular appendages. Pediatrics 102(1 Pt 1): 73–6.
Lewis, A. G., Bukowski, T. P., Jarvis, P. D., et al. (1995) Evaluation of acute scrotum in the emergency department. J Pediatr Surgery 30(2): 277–82.
Likitnukul, S., McCracken, G. H. Jr, Nelson, J. D., et al. (1987) Epididymitis in children and adolescents. A 20-year retrospective study. Am J Dis Child 141(1): 41–4.
Nussbaum Blask, A. R., Bulas, D., Shalaby-Rana, E., et al. (2002) Color Doppler sonography and scintigraphy of the testis: a prospective, comparative analysis in children with acute scrotal pain. Pediatr Emerg Care 18(2): 67–71.
Petrack, E. M., Hafeez, W. (1992) Testicular torsion versus epididymitis: a diagnostic challenge. Pediatr Emerg Care 8(6): 347–50.
Yagil, Y., Naroditsky, I., Milhem, J., et al. (2010) Role of Doppler ultrasonography in the triage of acute scrotum in the emergency department. J Ultrasound Med 29(1): 11–21.

Selected references

Choi, H., Blaivas, M., Lambert, M. (2000) Gestational outcome in patients with first-trimester pregnancy complications and ultrasound-confirmed live intrauterine pregnancy. Acad Emerg Med 7(2): 200–3.
Dart, R., Dart, L., Mitchell, P. (1999) Normal intrauterine pregnancy is unlikely in patients who have echogenic material identified within the endometrial cavity at transvaginal ultrasonography. Acad Emerg Med 6: 116–20.
Durham, B., Lane, B., Burbridge, L., et al. (1997) Pelvic ultrasound performed by emergency physicians for the detection of ectopic pregnancy in complicated first-trimester pregnancies. Ann Emerg Med 29: 338–47.
Hahn, S. A., Lavonas, E. J., Mace, S. E., et al. (2012) Clinical policy: critical issues in the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department in early pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med 60(3): 381–90.
Mallin, M., Dawson, M., Schroeder, E., et al. (2012) Prospective outcomes of pregnant ED patients with documented fetal cardiac activity on ultrasound. Am J Emerg Med 30: 472–5.
Saul, T., Lewiss, R. E., Rivera, M. D. (2012) Accuracy of emergency department bedside ultrasound in determining gestational age in first trimester pregnancy. Crit Ultrasound J 4(1): 22. doi: 10.1186/2036-7902-4-22
Stein, J. C., Wang, R., Adler, N., et al. (2010) Emergency physician ultrasonography for evaluating patients at risk for ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 56: 674–83.
Tayal, V. S., Cohen, H., Norton, H. J. (2004) Outcome of patients with an indeterminate emergency department first-trimester pelvic ultrasound to rule out ectopic pregnancy. Acad Emerg Med 11(9): 912–17.
Thamburaj, R., Sivitz, A. (2013) Does the use of bedside ultrasound decrease length of stay in the Emergency Department?Pediatr Emerg Care 29(1): 67–70.
Wang, R., Reynolds, T. A., West, H. H. (2011) Use of a β-HCG discriminatory zone with bedside pelvic ultrasonography. Ann Emerg Med 58: 12–20.

Selected references

Adhikari, S., Blaivas, M., Lyon, M. (2008) Role of bedside transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess in the emergency department. J Emerg Med 34(4): 429–33.
Bellah, R. D., Rosenberg, H. K. (1991) Transvaginal ultrasound in a children’s hospital: is it worthwhile?Pediatr Radiol 21: 570–4.
Girzadas, D. V. Jr, Antonis, M. S., Zerth, H., et al. (2009) Hybrid simulation combining high fidelity scenario with a pelvis ultrasound task trainer enhances the training and evaluation of endovaginal ultrasound. Acad Emerg Med 16(5): 429–35.
Haider, Z., Condous, G., Khalid, A., et al. (2006) Impact of the availability of sonography in the acute gynecology unit. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28: 207–13.
Jeong, Y. Y., Outwater, E. K., Kang, H. K. (2000) Imaging evaluation of ovarian masses. Radiographics 20: 1445–70.
Lambert, M. J., Villa, M. (2004) Gynecologic ultrasound in emergency medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am 22: 683–96.
Lee, D. C., Swaminathan, A. K. (2011) Sensitivity of ultrasound for the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess: a case report and literature review. J Emerg Med 40(2): 170–5.
Servaes, S., Zurakowski, D., Laufer, M. R., et al. (2007) Sonographic findings of ovarian torsion in children. Pediatr Radiol 37: 446–51.
Tayal, V. S., Bullard, M., Swanson, D. R., et al. (2008) ED endovaginal pelvic ultrasound in nonpregnant women with right lower quadrant pain. Am J Emerg Med 26(1): 81–5.
Tayal, V. S., Crean, C. A., Norton, J., et al. (2008) Prospective comparative trial of endovaginal sonographic bimanual examination in nonpregnant women with abdominal pain with regard to body mass index classification. J Ultrasound Med 27(8): 1171–7.