The development of patent markets should allow for better circulation of knowledge and more efficient allocation of technologies at a global level. However, the beneficial role of patents has recently come under scrutiny by those favouring 'open' innovation, and important questions have been asked, namely: How can we estimate the value of patents? How do we ensure matching between supply and demand for such specific goods? Can these markets be competitive? Can we create a financial market for intellectual property rights? In this edited book, a team of authors addresses these key questions to bring readers up to date with current debates about the role of patents in a global economy. They draw on recent developments in economic analysis but also ground the discussion with the basics of patent and knowledge economics. Striking a balance between institutional analysis, theory and empirical evidence, the book will appeal to a broad readership of academics, students and practitioners.