Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: November 2015

5 - The look of age: aversion

from Part II - Disputing the past


How does the look of age come? … Does it come of itself, unobserved, unrecorded, unmeasured? or do you woo it and set baits and traps for it, and watch it like the dawning brownness of a meerschaum pipe, and make it fast, when it appears, … and give thanks to it daily? Or do you forbid it and fight it and resist it, and yet feel it settling and deepening about you, as irresistible as fate?

Henry James, 1871

O envious age! Thou dost destroy all things with the relentless teeth of old age, little by little in a slow death. Helen, when she looked in her mirror and saw the withered wrinkles made in her face by old age, wept and wondered why she had been twice ravished.

Leonardo da Vinci, 1508

I hope I die before I get old

Pete Townshend, 1965

That doesn’t mean they’re old, dear. Prunes are supposed to be wrinkled.

‘Dennis the Menace’, 1984

Awareness of things past derives from two distinct but often conjoined traits: antiquity and decay. Antiquity involves cognizance of historical change, decay of biological or material change. The benefits and burdens of the past discussed in Chapters 3 and 4 mainly concerned age in its historical sense, though often couched in metaphors of youth and old age. This and the next chapter explore views about age in its biological sense.

Marks of age are quite distinct from manifestations of antiquity, such as historical residues and revivals or retro styles. Things seem biologically aged owing to erosion or accretion, altered colours or forms. Ageing is a worn chair, a wrinkled face, a corroded tin, an ivy-covered or mildewed wall; it is a house with sagging eaves, flaking paint, furnishings faded by time and use. Whatever their historical pedigree, objects that are weathered, decayed, or bear the marks of long use look aged and thus seem to stem from the past.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Past Is a Foreign Country – Revisited
  • Online ISBN: 9781139024884
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
James, Henry, ‘A passionate pilgrim’ (1871), in Novels and Tales (Scribners, 1908–9), 13: 333–434 at 392
da Vinci, Leonardo, ‘Thoughts on life’, no. 101, in Thoughts on Art and Life (Boston, 1906), 37
The Who, My Generation, album, 1965
Hank Ketcham cartoon, IHT, 10 Oct. 1984
Browne, Thomas, Religio Medici (1635), in Works (1852; London, 1928), 1: 9–93 at 35.
Webster, John, The Duchess of Malfi, V.iii (1614; Chatto & Windus, 1958), 124
Sophocles, , Oedipus at Colonus (Harcourt Brace, 1941), ll. 609–10, 107
Gautier, Théophile, ‘L’Art’ (1857), in Émaux et Camées, Poésies complètes (Paris, 1870), 3: 128–30 at 129
Gilson, Étienne, Painting and Reality (Routledge, 1957), 99
Ausonius, , Epitaphs (c. 385), bk. vi, no. 32, in Works (Harvard, 1919), 1: 159
Freud, Sigmund, ‘On transience’ (1915), in CPW, 14: 303–7.
de Botton, Alain, The Architecture of Happiness (Penguin, 2007), 15–16
Jones, Owen R. et al., ‘Diversity of ageing across the tree of life’, Nature 505 (9 Jan. 2014): 169–73
Osiewacz, Heinz D., ‘Genes, mitochondria and aging in filamentous fungi’, Ageing Research Reviews 1 (2002): 425-42
Popov, I. Yu., ‘Distribution of various aging patterns in the system of the animal world’, Advances in Gerontology 2:1 (2012): 1–9
Kubota, Shin, ‘Repeating rejuvenation in Turritopsis, an immortal hydrozoan’, Biogeography 13 (20 Sept. 2011): 101–3
Kendig, Frank and Hutton, Richard, Life-Spans or How Long Things Last (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1979)
Silverstein, Merril et al., eds., Handbook of Theories of Aging, 2nd edn (Springer, 2009), 63–86, 145–244
Coupland, Douglas, Generation X (St Martins Press, 1991), 162
Weisman, Alan, The World without Us (Virgin, 2007), 126–8, 247
Chamberlin, E. R., Preserving the Past (Dent, 1979), 79
Richtel, Matt, ‘Use it up, wear it out’, NYT, 16 Feb. 2011: B1, 4
Middleton, Jonnet, ‘Long live the thing! Temporal ubiquity in a smart vintage wardrobe’, Ubiquity: The Journal of Pervasive Media 1:1 (2012): 7–22
Jones, Nicola, ‘Monster ink’, New Scientist, 14 Sept. 2002: 42–5
Smith, Richard Daniel, ‘Paper stability and collection risk’, Restaurator 25 (2004): 199–219
Everts, Sarah, ‘Conservation at arm’s length’, Chemical & Engineering News 85:36 (3 Sept. 2007): 43–5
Alberge, Dalya, ‘Artwork worth millions will just disappear into thin air’, Times, 28 June 2003
Stephenson, Neal, Cryptonomicon (Heinemann, 1999), 458
Kahle, Brewster, in MacLean, Margaret and Davis, Ben H., eds., Time & Bits (J. Paul Getty Trust, 1998), 39
Vogt-O’Connor, Diane, ‘Is the record of the 20th century at risk?Cultural Resource Management 22:2 (1999): 21–4
Rosenzweig, Roy, ‘Scarcity or abundance? Preserving the past in a digital era’, AHR 108 (2003): 735–62
Cohen, Daniel J., ‘The future of preserving the past’, CRM: Journal of Heritage Stewardship 2:2 (Summer 2005): 6–19 at 14–16
Bergeron, Bryan, Dark Ages II: When the Digital Data Die (Pearson, 2001), 81–3, 139
Wren, Jonathan D., ‘URL decay in MEDLINE’, Bioinformatics 24:11 (1 June 2008): 1381–5
Lepore, Jill, ‘The cobweb: can the Internet be archived?’ New Yorker, 26 Jan. 2015: 34–41
Connerton, Paul, How Modernity Forgets (Cambridge, 2009), 122, 143
Gartman, David, Auto Opium (Routledge, 1994), 97
Slade, Giles, Made to Break (Harvard, 2006), 32, 46, 53
London, Bernard, Ending the Depression through Planned Obsolescence (pamphlet, New York, 1932)
Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World (Doubleday, 1932), 58, 142
Packard, Vance, The Waste Makers (New York, 1960)
Lipovetsky, Gilles, The Empire of Fashion (Princeton, 1994), 137
Strasser, Susan, Waste and Want (Holt, 1999), 267–78
Bauman, Zygmunt, Mortality, Immortality and Other Life Strategies (Stanford, 1992), 188
Pogue, David, ‘The lessons of 10 years of talking tech’, NYT, 24 Nov. 2010
Brown, William Wells, The American Fugitive in Europe (Boston, 1855), 41
Kemble, Frances Anne [Butler], Journal of a Residence in America (Paris, 1835), 97
Kington, Miles, ‘Moreover …’, Times, 2 Nov. 1982: 12
Strong, Roy, ‘Making things as good as new’, Times, 16 Feb. 1985: 8
Lowenthal, David and Riel, Marquita, ‘The nature of perceived and imagined environments’, Environment & Behavior 4 (1972): 189–207 at 196–7, 204–5
Perdue, Charles W. and Gurtman, Michael B., ‘Evidence for the automaticity of ageism’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 26 (1990): 199–216 at 203
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, Tristes tropiques (1955; Hutchinson, 1961), 279
Riegl, Alois, Der moderne Denkmalkultus (Vienna, 1903), 47–9
Gubser, Michael, Time’s Visible Surface: Alois Riegl and the Discourse on History and Temporality in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna (Wayne State, 2006), 147–8
Raleigh, Walter, The History of the World, bk. I, ch. 2, sect. 5 (London, 1614), 30
Marshall, Yvonne and Gosden, Chris, ‘The cultural biography of objects’, World Archaeology 31 (1999): 163–78
Perrault, Charles, Paralèlle [sic] des anciens et des moderns, en ce qui regarde les arts et les sciences (Paris, 1693), 34
Holtorf, Cornelius J., ‘The life-history of megaliths in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany)’, World Archaeology 30 (1998): 23–38
Orlando, Francesco, Obsolete Objects in the Literary Imagination: Ruins, Relics, Rarities, Rubbish, Uninhabited Places, and Hidden Treasures (1994; Yale, 2006), 67–8
Mead, Rebecca, ‘The art doctor’, New Yorker, 11 May 2009: 58–65 at 59
Schaefer, Scott, ‘Comment’, 107, and Jørgen Wadum, ‘Ravished images restored’, 59–72 at 59, in Leonard, Mark, ed., Personal Viewpoints: Thoughts about Paintings Conservation (Getty Conservation Institute, 2003)
Trompf, Garry W., The Idea of Historical Recurrence in Western Thought (California, 1979), 214, 282
Panofsky, Erwin, ‘The first page of Giorgio Vasari’s “Libro”’ (1930), in Meaning in the Visual Arts (1955; Penguin, 1993), 169–224 at 216–20
de Montaigne, Michel, ‘Of vanitie’ (1585–8), in The Complete Essays (Stanford, 1958), 721–65 at 733–4
Coker, Francis W., Organismic Theories of the State (Columbia, 1910)
Hale, David George, The Body Politic: A Political Metaphor in Renaissance English Literature (Mouton, 1971), 135–7
Schön, Donald A., ‘Generative metaphor’, in Ortony, Andrew, ed., Metaphor and Thought, 2nd edn (Cambridge, 1993), 137–64
Ayres, Robert U., ‘Life cycle analysis’, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 14 (1995): 190–233
Ayres, Robert U., ‘On the life cycle metaphor’, Ecological Economics 48:4 (2004): 425–38
Koselleck, Reinhart, ‘“Progress” and “Decline”’, in The Practice of Conceptual History (Stanford, 2002), 218–35
Alfred, , Tennyson, Lord, ‘Tithonus’ (1833–59), ll. 1–6, in The Poems (London, 1969), 1114–17 at 1114
de Rojas, Fernando, The Celestina: A Novel in Dialogue (California, 1955), 49
Ephron, Nora, ‘The older woman’, NYT Magazine, 6 May 2007: 24
Symkus, Ed, ‘Woody Allen as himself’, MetroWest Daily News, 3 Oct. 2010.
Soulsby, Marlene P., ‘The sadness and beauty of aging in Murasaki and Kawabata’, in Soulsby, M. P. and Fraser, J. T., eds., Time (Greenwood, 2001), 19–30
Cuddy, Amy J. C. et al., ‘This old stereotype’, Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 267–85 at 273–4
Sarton, May, As We Are Now (Norton, 1973), 23.
de Beauvoir, Simone, Old Age (1970; Penguin, 1977), 10–13
Henneberg, Sylvia, The Creative Crone (Missouri, 2010), 2-4
Chen, Yiwei et al., ‘Counteracting age stereotypes’, Educational Gerontology 36 (2010): 702–17.
Henneberg, Sylvia, ‘Moms do badly, but grandmas do worse’, Journal of Aging Studies 24 (2010): 125–39 at 128
Sexton, Anne, ‘Cinderella’, in Transformations (Houghton Mifflin, 1971), 56–7.
Milton, John, Paradise Lost (1667; London, 1821), bk. 11, ll. 538–41
[Tyler, Robert], Ahasuerus (New York, 1842), 37
Ruys, Juanita, ‘Medieval Latin meditations on old age’, in Classen, Albrecht, ed., Old Age in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (De Gruyter, 2007), 171–200
Swift, Jonathan, Gulliver’s Travels, pt. III, ch. 10 (1726; Penguin, 1967), 257–60
‘Thoughts on various subjects’ (1727), in The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift (Blackwell, 1957–9), 4: 243–54
Shaw, George Bernard, Back to Methuselah (Constable, 1921)
Capek, Karel, The Makropoulos Secret (Boston, 1923)
Huxley, Aldous, After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (Harper & Row, 1939).
Schafer, Roy, Tragic Knots in Psychoanalysis (London: Karnac, 2009), 26–7.
Amis, Martin, The Pregnant Widow (Knopf, 2010), 183
Nolan, William F. and Clayton, George, Logan’s Run (New York, 1967)
Jacob, and Grimm, Wilhelm, ‘Die Lebenzeit’ (1840), in Kinder- und Hausmärchen, no. 176 (Berlin, 1867).
Burrow, J. A., The Ages of Man (Clarendon Press, 1986)
Woodward, Kathleen M., Aging and Its Discontents (Indiana, 1991), 21
Thane, Pat, ed., The Long History of Old Age (Thames & Hudson, 2005), 198
Erasmus, Desiderius, The Praise of Folly (1509; Michigan, 1958), 18–19.
Young, Edward, The Complaint: or, Night-Thoughts (1742; London, 1813), 54.
Gruman, Gerald J., A History of Ideas about the Prolongation of Life (1966; Springer, 2003
Haber, Carole, ‘From senescence to senility’, International Journal of Aging and Human Development 19 (1984): 41–5
Boia, Lucian, Forever Young (Reaktion, 2004)
Haycock, David Boyd, Mortal Coil: A Short History of Living Longer (Yale, 2008).
Emmons, Nathanael, ‘Piety, a peculiar ornament to the aged’ (c. 1800), in The Works of Nathanael Emmons, D.D. (Boston, 1842), 2: 492–505 at 497–8
Bradstreet, Anne, ‘Of the four ages of man’ (1678), ll. 49–50, in The Works of Anne Bradstreet (Harvard, 1967), 52
Demos, John, ‘Old age in early New England’, in Van Tassell, David D., ed., Aging, Death and Completion of Being (PennPress, 1979), 115–64.
Haber, Carole and Gratton, Brian, Old Age and the Search for Security (Indiana, 1994), 147–58.
Fischer, David Hackett, Growing Old in America (Oxford, 1978), 59–60
Gillis, John R., A World of Their Own Making: Myth, Ritual, and the Quest for Family Values (Basic Books, 1996), 54–7.
Mill, John Stuart, ‘The spirit of the age, IV’ (1831), in CW, 22: 289–95 at 293
Kastenbaum, Robert and Ross, Barbara, ‘Historical perspectives on care’, in Howells, John G., ed., Modern Perspectives in the Psychiatry of Old Age (New York: Brunner Mazel, 1975), 421–49.
Goubert, Pierre, Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen (Penguin, 1970), 21
Rousseau, George, ‘Towards a geriatric enlightenment’, in Cope, Kevin L., ed., 1650–1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era (New York: AMS Press, 2001), 6: 3–44
Botelho, Lynn A., Old Age and the English Poor Law, 1500–1700 (Boydell, 2004), 153)
Blythe, Ronald, The View in Winter: Reflections on Old Age (Allen Lane, 1979), 52
Booth, Charles, The Aged Poor in England and Wales (London, 1894).
Macnicol, John, Age Discrimination (Cambridge, 2006), 11.
Gullette, Margaret M., Agewise: Fighting the New Ageism in America (Chicago, 2011), 14, 21–30, 221–2.
Rosenthal, Joel T., Old Age in Late Medieval England (PennPress, 1996)
Gawande, Atul, ‘The way we age now’, New Yorker, 30 Apr. 2007: 50–9 at 53
Gawande, Atul, Being Mortal (Henry Holt, 2014), 36, 41, 52
Nelson, Todd D., ‘Ageism: prejudice against our feared future self’, Journal of Social Issues 61:2 (2005): 207–21 at 211–13.
Linville, Sue Ellen, ‘The sound of senescence’, Journal of Voice 10:2 (1996): 190–200
Mueller, Peter B., ‘Voice ageism’, Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders 25 (Spring 1998): 62–4.
Vernant, Jean-Pierre, ‘A “beautiful death” and the disfigured corpse in Homeric epic’ (1982), in Mortals and Immortals (Princeton, 1991), 50–74;
Lefkowitz, Mary, Greek Gods, Human Lives (Yale, 2003), 26, 38–9;
Mimnermus, ‘Censure of age’ (c. 630–600 bc), in Greek Lyric Poetry (Schocken, 1972), 102–3
Juvenal, , The Satires (early second century ad), no. 10, ll. 191–5 (Indiana, 1958), 128
Ovid, , Tristia (after ad 8) bk. III, ch. 7, ll. 33–7 (Heinemann, 1924), 129
Parkin, Tim, Old Age in the Roman World (Johns Hopkins, 2003).
Shahar, Shulamith, Growing Old in the Middle Ages (Routledge, 1997), 47–51
Bettella, Patrizia, The Ugly Woman (Toronto, 2005), 17–18
Campbell, Erin J., ed., Growing Old in Early Modern Europe (Ashgate, 2006)
Eco, Umberto, comp., On Ugliness (London: Harvill Secker, 2007), 160–7
Augustine of Hippo, The City of God (413–26), bk. 22, ch. 20 (New York, 1886), 449
Irenaeus, , Adversus Haereses (c.180), II, xxii, in The Early Christian Fathers (Oxford, 1956), 29–50
Aquinas, Thomas, Summa theologica (1265–74), vol. 4, pt III, sect. 1 (New York: Cosimo, 2007), 2269.
Browne, , Religio Medici, in Works (1852), 1: 57
Vasari, Giorgio, Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1550/1568; London, 1850), 4: 115
Ariès, Philippe, Hour of Our Death (Penguin, 1983, 299
Bynum, Caroline Walker, The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity, 200–1336 (Columbia, 2005), 84, 104–8, 292
Knight, Damon, ‘Dio’ (1957), in Pohl, Frederik, ed., The SFWA Grand Masters (New York: Tor, 2000–1), 3: 209–43 at 230
Panofsky, Erwin, ‘Father Time’ (1939), in Studies in Iconology (Harper & Row, 1972), 69–93.
Basile, Giambattista, ‘The old woman who was skinned’, in The Tale of Tales (1634; Wayne State, 2007), 115–25 at 115–16
Dean, John, The Dutch-Miller (London, 1680).
Hardy, Thomas, ‘At Casterbridge Fair’ (1902), in Collected Poems (Macmillan, 1948), 225
‘Provide, provide’ (1934), in The Poetry of Robert Frost (Random House, 2001), 307.
Dryden, John, Secret Love, or, the Maiden Queen (1668), III.i, in Works, 9: 123–203 at 160
Gautier, Théophile, Mademoiselle de Maupin (1835; Folio Society, 1948), 208–9;
Russo, Mary, ‘Aging and the scandal of anachronism’, in Woodward, Kathleen M., ed., Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations (Indiana, 1999), 20–33.
Larkin, Philip, A Girl in Winter (Faber & Faber, 1975), 192–3
Blume, Mary, ‘Billy Wilder tackles the only taboo left’, IHT, 3–4 Sept. 1977
Gilliatt, Penelope, ‘Study of a man under the axe’, New Yorker, 13 Sept. 1976: 127–30 at 127.
Sand, Michael L. and Burton, Nancy, Seeing and Believing (Santa Fe: Twin Palms, 2002)
Gibson, S. J. et al., ‘Computer assisted age progression’, Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology 5:3 (Sept. 2009): 174–81.
Miller, William Ian, Losing It: In Which an Aging Professor Laments His Shrinking Brain (Yale, 2011), 17.
Gullette, Margaret Morganroth, Aged by Culture (Chicago, 2004), 3–8
Gill, Liz, ‘Older and wiser’, Times, 10 Aug. 2004: 2:11.
Gide, André, So Be It, or, the Chips Are Down (1952; Knopf, 1959), 67.
Lassels, Richard, The Voyage of Italy (London, 1670), 120
Burton, Robert’s Anatomy of Melancholy (Oxford, 1621)
‘Old mistresses apologue’ (25 June 1745), in The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, (Yale, 1961), 3: 30–1.
Haggard, H. Rider, She (1887; London: Macdonald, 1948), 299
Orwell, George, Coming Up for Air (1939; Penguin, 1962), 205.
Fuentes, Carlos, Terra Nostra (1975; Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1976), 536–7.
Baker, Naomi, ‘“To make love to a deformity”: praising ugliness in early modern England’, Renaissance Studies 22 (2008): 86–109 at 87)
Wilde, Oscar, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891; London: Dent, 1930), 91, 171
Grossman, Anna Jane, Obsolete: An Encyclopedia of Once-Famous Things Passing Us By (Abrams, 2011), 21
Vincent, John A., ‘The cultural construction of old age as a biological phenomenon’, Journal of Aging Studies 22 (2008): 331–9 at 336.
Baker, Russell, ‘Christmas orange’, IHT, 21 Dec. 1979: 18.
Bataille, Georges, ‘The language of flowers’ (1929), in Visions of Excess (Minnesota, 1985), 10–14 at 12.
Bosanquet, Bernard, A History of Aesthetic (1932; rev. edn New York, 1957), 436
Schlanger, Judith E., Les Métaphores de l’organisme (1971; Paris: L'Harmattan, 1995), 199–204
Morris, George Pope, ‘Oak’, in The Deserted Bride and Other Poems (New York, 1838), 19
Wordsworth, William, ‘Degenerate Douglas’, in Poetical Works (Clarendon Press, 1940–66), 3: 83
Hemans, Felicia, ‘The homes of England’ (1827), in Selected Poems, Prose and Letters (Broadview, 2002), 334–6 at 334–5.
Ruskin, John, ‘The poetry of architecture’ (1838), in CW, 1: 1–172 at 76
Powell, Mary, ‘Variations on a theme of dying trees’, Landscape Research, 6:1 (1981): 26–7.
Nasmyth, James, Engineer: An Autobiography (London, 1883), 163.
Dean, Cornelia, ‘Next for Newport preservation: gilded-age beeches’, NYT, 24 Oct. 2011.
Gates, P., ‘The sinister beauty of smut’, Independent on Sunday, 2 June 1991: 70.
Barkan, Leonard, Nature’s Work of Art: The Human Body as Image of the World (Yale, 1975).
Holmes, Richard, The Age of Wonder (Harper, 2008), 193–7
Darwin, Erasmus, The Botanic Garden, a Poem, pt. I, canto IX, ll. 371, 374–5 (1791; 4th edn London, 1799), 213.
Otto of Freising, The Two Cities: A Chronicle of Universal History in the Year 1146 ad (Columbia, 1928), 323
Harris, Victor, All Coherence Gone (Chicagt, 1949), 87, 197
Vaughan, Henry, ‘Daphnis’ (1666), ll. 143–50, and ‘Corruption’ (1655), ll. 15–16, in Works (Clarendon Press, 1957), 676–80 at 679 and 387–545 at 440
Donne, John, ‘Devotions upon emergent occasions’ (1624), in Complete Poetry and Selected Prose (London, 1929), 505–52 at 523.
Bruno, Giordano, De l’infinito, universo et mondi (1584)
McIntyre, James Lewis, Giordano Bruno (Macmillan, 1903), 221
Dekker, Thomas, Old Fortunatus (1600; London, 1904), 33.
Ray, John, Miscellaneous Discourses concerning the Dissolution and Changes of the World (London, 1692), 41.
Daneau, Lambert, The Wonderfull Workmanship of the World (London, 1578)
Rowlands, Samuel, Heavens Glory Seeke It &c (1628; London, 1876), 18
Almond, Philip C., Adam and Eve in Seventeenth-Century Thought (Cambridge, 1999), 206–8.
Spenser, Edmund, Faerie Queene, bk. V, Prologue, stanza 1 (1590; Clarendon Press, 1909), 2: 159
Cotton, Charles, The Wonders of the Peake, 2nd edn (London, 1683), 1–2.
Gay, John, Pope, Alexander, and Abuthnot, John, Three Hours after Marriage (1717; Clark Library, UCLA, 1962), 142
Nicolson, Marjorie Hope, The Breaking of the Circle: Studies in the Effect of the ‘New Science’ upon Seventeenth-Century Poetry (1950; rev. edn Columbia, 1960), 114.
Cooper, Anthony Ashley, Third Earl Shaftesbury, The Moralists, pt. 3, sect. 1 (London, 1709), 201.
Chandler, Mary, The Description of Bath, ll. 85, 98–9 (1733; 6th edn London, 1744), 6–7
Scott, Walter, The Lady of the Lake (1810), Canto I, sect. xiv, in The Poetical Works (Oxford, 1904), 207–312 at 211.
de Secondat de Montesquieu, Charles, Persian Letters (1718), no. 113 (Routledge, 1923), 250
Smith, Eliza, The Compleat Housewife: or, Accomplish’d Gentlewoman’s Companion, 9th edn (London, 1739)
Chorley, Richard J. et al., The History of the Study of Landforms (Methuen, 1964–73), 1: 88
Buckley, Jerome Hamilton, The Triumph of Time: A Study of Victorian Concepts of Time, History, Progress, and Decadence (Harvard, 1967), 66–9
Greenwood, George, Rain and Rivers (London, 1857), 185
Chamberlain, T. C. and Salisbury, R. D., The Driftless Area of the Upper Mississippi, 6th Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey (Washington, DC: GPO, 1884–5)
Overbye, Dennis, ‘Amid cosmic fatigue, scarcely a star is born’, NYT, 19 Nov. 2012.
Nicolson, Marjorie Hope, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory (Cornell, 1959), 100–4, 269–323
Polybius, , The Histories (after 146 bc; London, 1889), 1: 501, 507
Roberts, Michael, ‘Rome personified, Rome epitomized’, American Journal of Philology 122 (2001): 533–65 at 535
Momigliano, Arnaldo, ‘Time in ancient historiography’ (1966), in Essays in Ancient and Modern Historiography (Blackwell, 1977), 179–204.
The Works of St. Augustine (Hyde Park, NY: New City, 2002), 13: 62–5.
Bodin, Jean, The Six Bookes of a Commonweale (1576; London, 1601), 406
Drummond, William, ‘A Cypresse Grove’ (1623), in The Poems of William Drummond of Hawthornden (Edinburgh, 1832), 209–51 at 217.
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim, Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks (1755; Routledge, 1999)
Winckelmann, J. J., The History of Ancient Art among the Greeks (1764; London: Scolar, 1972)
Peacock, Thomas Love, ‘The four ages of poetry’ (1820), in Peacock’s Four Ages of Poetry … (Blackwell, 1921), 18
Dyce, William, The National Gallery (London 1853), 12
von Herder, Johann Gottfried, Reflections on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind (1784–91; Chicago, 1968)
von Herder, J. G., On World History: An Anthology, ed. Adler, Hans (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997), 110–15
Berlin, Isaiah, Vico and Herder (Hogarth, 1976), 63–4
John Bolingbroke, Henry, The Idea of a Patriot King (London, c. 1740), 65
Kramnick, Isaac, Bolingbroke and His Circle: The Politics of Nostalgia in the Age of Walpole (Harvard, 1968), 35, 166–8.
Fielding, Henry, Amelia (1751; Clarendon Press, 1983), 461.
de Chateaubriand, François-René, The Genius of Christianity (1802; Baltimore, 1871), 420
Webster, Noah, ‘Remarks on the manners, government, and debt of the United States’ (1787), in Collection of Essays and Fugitive Writings (Boston, 1970), 81–110 at 84
Bynack, V. P., ‘Noah Webster’s linguistic thought and the idea of an American national culture’, JHI 45 (1984): 99–114 at 103.
Persons, Stow, American Minds (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1958), 122–5.
‘A Westchester Farmer’ [Seabury, Samuel], A View of the Controversy between Great-Britain and Her Colonies (New York, 1774)
Spengler, Oswald, The Decline of the West (1918; Allen & Unwin, 1932), 106–7
Manuel, Frank E., Shapes of Philosophical History (Stanford, 1965), 59, 122–7
Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso, ‘Founding and manifesto of Futurism’ (1909), in Apollonio, Umbro, comp., Futurist Manifestos (Viking, 1973), 19–23
Wiener, Martin J., English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit, 1850–1980 (Johns Hopkins, 1981)
Edgerton, David, ‘The decline of declinism’, Business History Review 71 (1997): 201–6
Sauvy, Alfred, Zero Growth (1973; Blackwell, 1975), 49
Péquignot, Henri, Vieillesses de demain: viellir et être vieux (Paris: Vrin, 1986)
Willetts, David, Old Europe? Demographic Change and Pension Reform (London: Centre for European Reform, 2003), 1.
Pye, Elizabeth, Caring for the Past: Issues in Conservation for Archaeology and Museums (London: James & James, 2001), 97
Wharton, Glenn, The Painted King (Hawai’i, 2011), 6.
Jordan, Anne, ‘Lamb dressed as mutton’, Interior Design 17 (1977): 464–5.
Birdwood, George quoted in ‘Madonna or baby?’ The Press (Christchurch, N.Z.), 16 Nov. 1912
Ford, Edward, ‘The theory and practice of impermanence: the illusion of durability’, Harvard Design Magazine 3 (1997): 12–18;
Shanks, Michael, ‘The life of an artifact in an interpretive archaeology’, Fennoscandia Archaeologia 15 (1998): 15–30 at 16–19
Harris, Ned, Building Lives: Constructing Rites and Passages (Yale, 1999), 53, 135, 173
James, Henry, The Tragic Muse (1890; London, 1921), 660
Corbusier, LeThe City of Tomorrow and Its Planning (1925; London: Rodker, 1929), 51
Abercrombie, Patrick, Town and Country Planning (1933; Taylor & Francis, 2004), 289
Heynen, Hilde, ‘Engaging modernism’, in Henket, Hans-Hubert and Heynen, Hilde, eds., Back from Utopia (Rotterdam, 2002), 378–400
Mostafavi, Mohsen and Leatherbarrow, David, On Weathering: The Life of Buildings in Time (MIT Press, 1993)
Fixler, David N., ‘Repair of modern buildings’, Change over Time 1 (Spring 2011): 80–108 at 82
Waugh, Auberon, ‘The way of the world’, Telegraph, 27 Nov. 1995: 23
Stamp, Gavin, ‘The art of keeping one jump ahead’, in Hunter, Michael, ed., Preserving the Past (Stroud: Sutton, 1996), 98
The Correspondence of Edmund Burke (Cambridge, 1958–78), 2: 377
Shakespeare, William, The Rape of Lucrece (1594), ll. 944–7, 951–2
Freeman, Charles, Holy Bones, Holy Dust: How Relics Shaped the History of Medieval Europe (Yale, 2011), 241
Jones, Richard Foster, Ancients and Moderns (California, 1965), 214
de Lairesse, Gerard, A Treatise on the Art of Painting (1701; London, 1817), 286
Greene, Thomas M., The Light in Troy (Yale, 1982), 147–70, 235
Plautus, , The Pot of Gold (Aulularia) (c. 317–307 bc; Penguin, 1965), 15
Addison, Joseph, Dialogues upon the Usefulness of Ancient Medals (1726), in Works (London, 1885), 1: 253–355 at 256
Burnet, Thomas, Answer to the Exceptions Made by Mr. Erasmus Warren … (1690), in Sacred Theory of the Earth, 2: 295–370 at 314
Hardy, Thomas, Jude the Obscure (1895; Oxford, 1998), 84
Tschudi-Madsen, Stephan, Restoration and Anti-Restoration, 2nd edn (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1976), 62
Le Corbusier, , When the Cathedrals Were White (1937; McGraw-Hill, 1964), 46
Huyghe, René, ‘The Louvre Museum and the problem of cleaning old pictures’, Museum International 3 (1950): 191–206 at 191
Piper, John, ‘Pleasing decay’ (1947), in Buildings and Prospects (London: Architectural Press, 1948), 89–116 at 90
Schofield, John, ‘Repair not restoration’, in Binney, Marcus and Burman, Peter, eds., Change and Decay: The Future of Our Churches (London: Studio Vista, 1977), 153–6 at 154
Edge, David, ‘The armourer’s craft: restoration or conservation?’, in Oddy, Andrew, ed., Restoration: Is It Acceptable? (British Museum Occasional Paper 99, 1994), 153–8
Boorstin, Daniel, America and the Image of Europe (New York: Meridian, 1960), 93–4
Finney, Jack, Time and Again (Simon & Schuster, 1970), 77–9
Post, Robert C., ed., 1876: A Centennial Exhibition (Smithsonian, 1976), 25
Schlereth, Thomas J., Artifacts and the American Past (AASLH, 1980), 130–42
Edwards, Sian, ‘Role reversal’, National Trust Magazine, no. 121 (Autumn 2010): 51–2
Dillon, Brian and Najafi, Sina, ‘Elementary particles: an interview with Peter Brimblecombe’, Cabinet Magazine, issue 20, Ruins (Winter 2005/6)
Ruskin, John, ‘The storm-cloud of the nineteenth century’ (1884), in CW, 24: 7–80
Wheeler, Michael, ed., Ruskin and the Environment (Manchester, 1995)
Dillon, Brian, ‘A dry black veil’, Cabinet Magazine, issue 35, Dust (Fall 2009)
Rosenberg, John D., Elegy for an Age (London: Anthem, 2005), 223, 235–7
Hardwick, Elizabeth, ‘In Maine’, NYRB, 7 Oct. 1971: 4, 6
Scanlan, John, On Garbage (Reaktion, 2005), 133–8
Taylor, Laurie, ‘Living with things’, New Society, 5 Aug. 1976: 297–8
Campbell, Colin, ‘The desire for the new’, in Silverstone, Roger and Hirsch, Eric, eds., Consuming Technologies (Routledge, 1992), 44–58 at 50–2
Moore, Brian, The Great Victorian Collection (Jonathan Cape, 1975), 149, 203
Welzer, Harald, ‘Albert Speer’s memories of the future’, in Straub, Jürgen, ed., Narration, Identity and Historical Consciousness (Berghahn, 2005), 244–55
Hedrick, Jr. Charles W., History and Silence (Texas, 2000), xiii
Keene, Donald, The Pleasures of Japanese Literature (Columbia, 1988), 21
Lively, Penelope, Treasures of Time (Heinemann, 1979), 160