Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: March 2016

Chapter 7 - Oral and infusion levodopa therapy in the management of Parkinson's disease

from Section I - The Pharmacological Basis for Parkinson's Disease Treatment

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
1.Fearnley, JM, Lees, AJ. Ageing and Parkinson's disease: substantia nigra regional selectivity. Brain 1991; 114 : 2283301.
2.Brooks, DJ, Frey, KA, Marek, KL, et al. Assessment of neuroimaging techniques as biomarkers of the progression of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol 2003; 184 (Suppl. 1): S6879.
3.Chaudhuri, KR, Odin, P, Antonini, A, Martinez-Martin, P. Parkinson's disease: the non-motor issues. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2011; 17: 71723.
4.Cenci, MA, Ohlin, KE, Odin, P. Current options and future possibilities for the treatment of dyskinesia and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2011; 10: 67084.
5.Salat, D, Tolosa, E. Levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: current status and new developments. J Parkinsons Dis 2013; 3: 25569.
6.Heremans, E, Nieuwboer, A, Vercruysse, S. Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: where are we now? Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2013; 13: 350.
7.Carlsson, A, Lindqvist, M, Magnusson, T. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists. Nature 1957; 180: 1200.
8.Hornykiewicz, O. Die Topische Lokalisation und das Verhalten von Noradrenalin und Dopamin in der Substantia Nigra des normalen und Parkinsonkranken Menschen. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1963; 75: 30912.
9.Birkmayer, W, Hornykiewicz, O. Der L-Dioxyphenylalanin (=DOPA – Effekt bei der Parkinson-akinase. Wien Klin Wschr 1961; 73: 7878.
10.Barbeau, A, Sourkes, TL, Murphy, GF. Les catécholamines dans la maladie de Parkinson. In: de Ajuriaguerra, J, ed. Monoamines et Systéme Nerveaux Central. Geneva: Georg & Cie SA; 1962; 24762.
11.Cotzias, G, Van Woert, M, Schiffer, L. Aromatic amino acids and modification of parkinsonism. N Engl J Med 1967; 276: 3749.
12.Calne, DB, Reid, JL, Vakil, SD et al. Idiopathic Parkinsonism treated with an extracerebral decarboxylase inhibitor in combination with levodopa. BMJ 1971; 3: 72932.
13.Cenci, MA, Lundblad, M. Post- versus presynaptic plasticity in l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. J Neurochem 2006; 99: 38192.
14.Nutt, JG, Holford, NH. The response to levodopa in Parkinson's disease: imposing pharmacological law and order. Ann Neurol 1996; 39: 56173.
15.Nyholm, D, Lennernas, H, Gomes-Trolin, C, Aquilonius, SM. Levodopa pharmacokinetics and motor performance during activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson's disease on individual drug combinations. Clin Neuropharmacol 2002; 25: 8996.
16.Contin, M, Martinelli, P. Pharmacokinetics of levodopa. J Neurol 2010; 257 (Suppl. 2): S25361.
17.Nyholm, D, Stepien, V. Levodopa fractionation in Parkinson's disease. J Parkinsons Dis 2014; 4: 8996.
18.Fasano, A, Bove, F, Gabrielli, M, et al. The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2013; 28: 12419.
19.Chapuis, S, Ouchchane, L, Metz, O, Gerbaud, L, Durif, F. Impact of the motor complications of Parkinson's disease on the quality of life. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 22430.
20.Fabbrini, G, Brotchie, JM, Grandas, F, Nomoto, M, Goetz, CG. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 137989; quiz 523.
21.Stacy, M, Bowron, A, Guttman, M, et al. Identification of motor and nonmotor wearing-off in Parkinson's disease: comparison of a patient questionnaire versus a clinician assessment. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 72633.
22.Fahn, S. Parkinson disease, the effect of levodopa, and the ELLDOPA trial. Earlier vs later l-DOPA. Arch Neurol 1999; 56: 52935.
23.Fahn, S. A new look at levodopa based on the ELLDOPA study. J Neural Transm Suppl 2006: 41926.
24.Stocchi, F, Rascol, O, Kieburtz, K, et al. Initiating levodopa/carbidopa therapy with and without entacapone in early Parkinson disease: the STRIDE-PD study. Ann Neurol 2010; 68: 1827.
25.Castro-Garcia, A. [Psychiatric complications of L-dopa: physiopathology and treatment]. Rev Neurol. 1997; 25 (Suppl. 2): S15762.
26.Weintraub, D, Koester, J, Potenza, MN, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients. Arch Neurol 2010; 67: 58995.
27.O'Sullivan, SS, Evans, AH, Lees, AJ. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome: an overview of its epidemiology, mechanisms and management. CNS Drugs 2009; 23: 15770.
28.Spencer, AH, Rickards, H, Fasano, A, Cavanna, AE. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 57886.
29.Storch, A, Schneider, CB, Wolz, M, et al. Nonmotor fluctuations in Parkinson disease: severity and correlation with motor complications. Neurology 2013; 80: 8009.
30.Rossi, P, Colosimo, C, Moro, E, Tonali, P, Albanese, A. Acute challenge with apomorphine and levodopa in Parkinsonism. Eur Neurol. 2000; 43: 95101.
31.Cedarbaum, JM, Kutt, H, McDowell, FH. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparison of Sinemet CR (50/200) and standard Sinemet (25/100). Neurology 1989; 39 (Suppl. 2): 3844; discussion 59.
32.MacMahon, DG, Sachdev, D, Boddie, HG, et al. A comparison of the effects of controlled-release levodopa (Madopar CR) with conventional levodopa in late Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990; 53: 2203.
33.Gauthier, S, Amyot, D. Sustained release antiparkinson agents: controlled release levodopa. Can J Neurol Sci 1992; 19 (Suppl.): 1535.
34.Sage, JI, Mark, MH. Pharmacokinetics of continuous-release carbidopa/levodopa. Clin Neuropharmacol 1994; 17 (Suppl. 2): S16.
35.Block, G, Liss, C, Reines, S, Irr, J, Nibbelink, D. Comparison of immediate-release and controlled release carbidopa/levodopa in Parkinson's disease. A multicenter 5-year study. The CR First Study Group. Eur Neurol 1997; 37: 237.
36.Wolters, EC, Tesselaar, HJ. International (NL-UK) double-blind study of Sinemet CR and standard Sinemet (25/100) in 170 patients with fluctuating Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 1996; 243: 23540.
37.Jankovic, J, Schwartz, K, Vander Linden, C. Comparison of Sinemet CR4 and standard Sinemet: double blind and long-term open trial in parkinsonian patients with fluctuations. Mov Disord 1989; 4: 3039.
38.Koller, WC, Hutton, JT, Tolosa, E, Capilldeo, R. Immediate-release and controlled-release carbidopa/levodopa in PD: a 5-year randomized multicenter study. Carbidopa/Levodopa Study Group. Neurology 1999; 53: 10129.
39.Baas, H, Zehrden, F, Selzer, R, et al. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of levodopa with and without tolcapone in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40: 38393.
40.Kuoppamaki, M, Korpela, K, Marttila, R, et al. Comparison of pharmacokinetic profile of levodopa throughout the day between levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone and levodopa/carbidopa when administered four or five times daily. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65: 44355.
41.Adler, CH, Singer, C, O'Brien, C, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of tolcapone in patients with fluctuating Parkinson disease treated with levodopa-carbidopa. Tolcapone Fluctuator Study Group III. Arch Neurol 1998; 55: 108995.
42.Deane, KH, Spieker, S, Clarke, CE. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; CD004554.
43.Kurth, MC, Adler, CH, Hilaire, MS, et al. Tolcapone improves motor function and reduces levodopa requirement in patients with Parkinson's disease experiencing motor fluctuations: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Tolcapone Fluctuator Study Group I. Neurology 1997; 48: 817.
44.Rocha, JF, Santos, A, Falcao, A, et al. Effect of moderate liver impairment on the pharmacokinetics of opicapone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2014; 70: 27986.
45.Rascol, O, Brooks, DJ, Melamed, E, et al. Rasagiline as an adjunct to levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations (LARGO, Lasting effect in Adjunct therapy with Rasagiline Given Once daily, study): a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Lancet 2005; 365: 94754.
46.Olanow, CW, Rascol, O, Hauser, R, et al. A double-blind, delayed-start trial of rasagiline in Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 126878.
47.Adler, CH, Sethi, KD, Hauser, RA, et al. Ropinirole for the treatment of early Parkinson's disease. The Ropinirole Study Group. Neurology 1997; 49: 3939.
48.Shannon, KM, Bennett, JP Jr, Friedman, JH. Efficacy of pramipexole, a novel dopamine agonist, as monotherapy in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. The Pramipexole Study Group. Neurology 1997; 49: 7248.
49.Fahn, S, Oakes, D, Shoulson, I, et al. Levodopa and the progression of Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2498508.
50.Rinne, UK, Bracco, F, Chouza, C, et al. Cabergoline in the treatment of early Parkinson's disease: results of the first year of treatment in a double-blind comparison of cabergoline and levodopa. The PKDS009 Collaborative Study Group. Neurology 1997; 48: 3638.
51.Oertel, WH, Wolters, E, Sampaio, C, et al. Pergolide versus levodopa monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease patients: The PELMOPET study. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 34353.
52.Rascol, O, Brooks, DJ, Korczyn, AD, et al. A five-year study of the incidence of dyskinesia in patients with early Parkinson's disease who were treated with ropinirole or levodopa. 056 Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 148491.
53.Butzer, JF, Silver, DE, Sahs, AL. Amantadine in Parkinson's disease. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with long-term follow-up. Neurology 1975; 25: 6036.
54.Fox, SH, Katzenschlager, R, Lim, SY, et al. The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26 (Suppl. 3): S241.
55.Hauser, RA, Ellenbogen, AL, Metman, LV, et al. Crossover comparison of IPX066 and a standard levodopa formulation in advanced Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 224652.
56.Hauser, RA, Hsu, A, Kell, S, et al. Extended-release carbidopa-levodopa (IPX066) compared with immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations: a phase 3 randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12: 34656.
57.Hauser, RA. Future treatments for Parkinson's disease: surfing the PD pipeline. Int J Neurosci. 2011; 121 (Suppl. 2): 5362.
58.LeWitt, PA, Huff, FJ, Hauser, RA, et al. Double-blind study of the actively transported levodopa prodrug XP21279 in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2014; 29: 7582.
59.Stocchi, F, Zappia, M, Dall'Armi, V, et al. Melevodopa/carbidopa effervescent formulation in the treatment of motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 18817.
60.Nyholm, D, Ehrnebo, M, Lewander, T, et al. Frequent administration of levodopa/carbidopa microtablets vs levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone in healthy volunteers. Acta Neurol Scand 2013; 127: 12432.
61.Shoulson, I, Glaubiger, GA, Chase, TN. On–off response. Clinical and biochemical correlations during oral and intravenous levodopa administration in parkinsonian patients. Neurology 1975; 25: 11448.
62.Quinn, N, Marsden, CD, Parkes, JD. Complicated response fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: response to intravenous infusion of levodopa. Lancet 1982; 320: 4125.
63.Kurlan, R, Rubin, AJ, Miller, C, et al. Duodenal delivery of levodopa for on–off fluctuations in parkinsonism: preliminary observations. Ann Neurol 1986; 20: 2625.
64.Nyholm, D. Enteral levodopa/carbidopa gel infusion for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias in advanced Parkinson's disease. Expert Rev Neurother 2006; 6: 140311.
65.Fernandez, HH, Odin, P. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011; 27: 90719.
66.Olanow, CW, Kieburtz, K, Odin, P, et al. Continuous intrajejunal infusion of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study. Lancet Neurol 2014; 13: 1419.
67.Fernandez, HH, Vanagunas, A, Odin, P, et al. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel in advanced Parkinson's disease open-label study: interim results. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013; 19: 33945.
68.Honig, H, Antonini, A, Martinez-Martin, P, et al. Intrajejunal levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease: a pilot multicenter study of effects on nonmotor symptoms and quality of life. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 146874.
69.Busk, K, Nyholm, D. Long-term 24-h levodopa/carbidopa gel infusion in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012; 18: 10001.
70.Seppi, K, Weintraub, D, Coelho, M, et al. The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26 (Suppl. 3): S4280.
71.Ferreira, JJ, Katzenschlager, R, Bloem, BR, et al. Summary of the recommendations of the EFNS/MDS-ES review on therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol 2013; 20: 515.