Skip to main content Accessibility help
Parasites in Ecological Communities
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 75
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Interactions between competitors, predators and their prey have traditionally been viewed as the foundation of community structure. Parasites – long ignored in community ecology – are now recognized as playing an important part in influencing species interactions and consequently affecting ecosystem function. Parasitism can interact with other ecological drivers, resulting in both detrimental and beneficial effects on biodiversity and ecosystem health. Species interactions involving parasites are also key to understanding many biological invasions and emerging infectious diseases. This book bridges the gap between community ecology and epidemiology to create a wide-ranging examination of how parasites and pathogens affect all aspects of ecological communities, enabling the new generation of ecologists to include parasites as a key consideration in their studies. This comprehensive guide to a newly emerging field is of relevance to academics, practitioners and graduates in biodiversity, conservation and population management, and animal and human health.


'Hatcher and Dunn have done us a great service. Theirs is an important and timely book that should catalyse research at the interface of epidemiology and community ecology. It reads well … is also well referenced … With its nice combination of models and empirical examples, [this book] seems tailor-made for a graduate course in community ecology or ecological parasitology.'

Robert Poulin Source: Ecology

'The ecology of infectious disease is a fast growing topic … To date, there has not been an adequate text to teach from. [This book] … fills this niche well. In contrast to contributed volumes, [it] speaks with a single voice. The authors use themes centered around mathematical epidemiology and community ecology, but they do so in such a way that is accessible to non-math savvy students … does a very good job summarizing the relevant literature in tables that efficiently indicate who has done what on a particular question. The text covers many systems … We just finished using it in our graduate seminar and found it to be up to date and comprehensive. Since then, I have referred to it regularly … will be required reading for our future graduate students … should be required reading for any ecologist.'

Kevin Lafferty - US Geological Survey

'This is a very useful book which is likely to have considerable impact in stimulating both theoretical as well as empirical studies on the way in which parasites manipulate and modify the world in which we live. It is particularly recommended to graduate and postgraduate students for its logical, comprehensive layout and the wealth of literature, mostly recent, which is discussed.'

Trevor Petney Source: Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Abrams, P. A. (1992). Predators that benefit prey and prey that harm predators: unusual effects of interacting foraging adaptations. American Naturalist, 140, 573–600.
Abrams, P. A. & Matsuda, H. (1996). Positive indirect effects between prey species that share predators. Ecology, 77, 610–616.
Abrams, P. A. & Roth, J. D. (1994). The effects of enrichment of three-species food-chains with nonlinear functional-responses. Ecology, 75, 1118–1130.
Agrawal, A. A. & Kotanen, P. M. (2003). Herbivores and the success of exotic plants: a phylogenetically controlled experiment. Ecology Letters, 6, 712–715.
Agrawal, A. A., Kotanen, P. M., Mitchell, C. E., Power, A. G., Godsoe, W. & Klironomos, J. (2005). Enemy release? An experiment with congeneric plant pairs and diverse above- and belowground enemies. Ecology, 86, 2979–2989.
Aguirre, A. A., Ostfeld, R. S., Tabor, G. M., House, C. A. & Pearl, M. C. (eds) (2002). Conservation Medicine: Ecological Health in Practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Alexander, H. M. & Holt, R. D. (1998). The interaction between plant competition and disease. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 1, 206–220.
Aliabadi, B. W. & Juliano, S. A. (2002). Escape from gregarine parasites affects the competitive interactions of an invasive mosquito. Biological Invasions, 4, 283–297.
Allan, B. F., Keesing, F. & Ostfeld, R. S. (2003). Effect of forest fragmentation on Lyme disease risk. Conservation Biology, 17, 267–272.
Allan, B. F., Langerhans, R. B., Ryberg, W. A., Landesman, W. J., Griffin, N. W., Katz, R. S., Oberle, B. J., Schutzenhofer, M. R., Smyth, K. N., St Maurice, A., Clark, L., Crooks, K. R., Hernandez, D. E., McLean, R. G., Ostfeld, R. S. & Chase, J. M. (2009). Ecological correlates of risk and incidence of West Nile virus in the United States. Oecologia, 158, 699–708.
Altizer, S., Dobson, A., Hosseini, P., Hudson, P., Pascual, M. & Rohani, P. (2006). Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecology Letters, 9, 467–484.
Ameloot, E., Verlinden, G., Boeckx, P., Verheyen, K. & Hermy, M. (2008). Impact of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus angustifolius and R. minor on nitrogen availability in grasslands. Plant and Soil, 311, 255–268.
Amundsen, P. A., Lafferty, K. D., Knudsen, R., Primicerio, R., Klemetsen, A. & Kuris, A. M. (2009). Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 563–572.
Anderson, A., McCormack, S., Helden, A. J., Sheridan, H., Kinsella, A. & Purvis, G. (2011). The potential of parasitoid Hymenoptera as bioindicators of arthropod diversity in agricultural grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology. In press.
Anderson, R. A., Koella, J. C. & Hurd, H. (1999). The effect of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis infection on the feeding persistence of Anopheles stephensi Liston throughout the sporogonic cycle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 266, 1729–1733.
Anderson, R. C. (1972). The ecological relationships of meningeal worm and native cervids in North America. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 8, 304–310.
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1981). The population dynamics of micro-parasites and their invertebrate hosts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 291, 451–524.
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1982). Coevolution of hosts and parasites. Parasitology, 85, 411–426.
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1985). Age-related changes in the rate of disease transmissions: implications for the design of vaccination programs. Journal of Hygiene, 94, 365–436.
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1986). The invasion, persistence and spread of infectious-diseases within animal and plant communities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 314, 533–570.
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1991). Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Andreadis, T. G. (1980). Nosema pyrausta infection in Macrocentrus grandii, a braconid parasite of the European corn-borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 35, 229–233.
Antia, R., Regoes, R. R., Koella, J. C. & Bergstrom, C. T. (2003). The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases. Nature, 426, 658–661.
Arim, M. & Marquet, P. A. (2004). Intraguild predation: a widespread interaction related to species biology. Ecology Letters, 7, 557–564.
Arinaminpathy, N. & McLean, A. R. (2009). Evolution and emergence of novel human infections. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 276, 3937–3943.
Arnold, A. E., Maynard, Z., Gilbert, G. S., Coley, P. D. & Kursar, T. A. (2000). Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse?Ecology Letters, 3, 267–274.
Aron, J. L. & May, R. M. (1982). The population dynamics of malaria. In Anderson, R. M. (ed.), The Population Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: Theory and Applications. London: Chapman & Hall.
Askary, H. & Brodeur, J. (1999). Susceptibility of larval stages of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes to the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 73, 129–132.
Auger, P., Mchich, R., Chowdhury, T., Sallet, G., Tchuente, M. & Chattopadhyay, J. (2009). Effects of a disease affecting a predator on the dynamics of a predator–prey system. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 258, 344–351.
Augspurger, C. K. (1983). Seed dispersal of the tropical tree, Platypodium elegans, and the escape of its seedlings from fungal pathogens. Journal of Ecology, 71, 759–771.
Augspurger, C. K. (1984). Seedling survival of tropical tree species – interactions of dispersal distance, light-gaps, and pathogens. Ecology, 65, 1705–1712.
Bailes, E., Gao, F., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Courgnaud, V., Peeters, M., Marx, P. A., Hahn, B. H. & Sharp, P. M. (2003). Hybrid origin of SIV in chimpanzees. Science, 300, 1713.
Bally, M. & Garrabou, J. (2007). Thermodependent bacterial pathogens and mass mortalities in temperate benthic communities: a new case of emerging disease linked to climate change. Global Change Biology, 13, 2078–2088.
Bandi, C., Dunn, A. M., Hurst, G. D. D. & Rigaud, T. (2001). Inherited microorganisms, sex-specific virulence and reproductive parasitism. Trends in Parasitology, 17, 88–94.
Baranowski, E., Ruiz-Jarabo, C. M. & Domingo, E. (2001). Evolution of cell recognition by viruses. Science, 292, 1102–1105.
Bardgett, R. D., Smith, R. S., Shiel, R. S., Peacock, S., Simkin, J. M., Quirk, H. & Hobbs, P. J. (2006). Parasitic plants indirectly regulate below-ground properties in grassland ecosystems. Nature, 439, 969–972.
Barrett, L. G., Kniskern, J. M., Bodenhausen, N., Zhang, W. & Bergelson, J. (2009). Continua of specificity and virulence in plant host–pathogen interactions: causes and consequences. New Phytologist, 183, 513–529.
Bartha, I., Simon, P. & Muller, V. (2008). Has HIV evolved to induce immune pathogenesis?Trends in Immunology, 29, 322–328.
Bascompte, J., Jordano, P., Melián, C. J. & Olesen, J. M. (2003). The nested assembly of plant–animal mutualistic networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 9383–9387.
Bascompte, J. & Melian, C. J. (2005). Simple trophic modules for complex food webs. Ecology, 86, 2868–2873.
Bataille, A., Cunningham, A. A., Cedeno, V., Cruz, M., Eastwood, G., Fonseca, D. M., Causton, C. E., Azuero, R., Loayza, J., Martinez, J. D. C. & Goodman, S. J. (2009a). Evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the Galapagos Islands. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 276, 3769–3775.
Bataille, A., Cunningham, A. A., Cedeno, V., Patino, L., Constantinou, A., Kramer, L. D. & Goodman, S. J. (2009b). Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Galapagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 10230–10235.
Bauer, A., Trouve, S., Gregoire, A., Bollache, L. & Cezilly, F. (2000). Differential influence of Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) on the behaviour of native and invader gammarid species. International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 1453–1457.
Bauer, L. S., Miller, D. L., Maddox, J. V. & McManus, M. L. (1998). Interactions between a Nosema sp. (Microspora: Nosematidae) and nuclear polyhedrosis virus infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 72, 147–153.
Beckstead, J. & Parker, I. M. (2003). Invasiveness of Ammophila arenaria: release from soil-borne pathogens?Ecology, 84, 2824–2831.
Bedhomme, S., Agnew, P., Vital, Y., Sidobre, C. & Michalakis, Y. (2005). Prevalence-dependent costs of parasite virulence. PLoS Biology, 3, 1403–1408.
Begon, M. & Bowers, R. G. (1994). Host–host–pathogen models and microbial pest-control: the effect of host self-regulation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 169, 275–287.
Begon, M. & Bowers, R. G. (1995). Beyond host–pathogen dynamics. In Grenfell, B. T. & Dobson, A. P. (eds), Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 478–509.
Begon, M., Bowers, R. G., Kadianakis, N. & Hodgkinson, D. E. (1992). Disease and community structure: the importance of host self-regulation in a host–host–pathogen model. American Naturalist, 139, 1131–1150.
Begon, M., Sait, S. M. & Thompson, D. J. (1999). Host–parasite–parasitoid systems. In Hawkins, B. A. & Cornell, H. V. (eds), Theoretical Approaches to Biological Control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 327–348.
Bell, S. S., White, A., Sherratt, J. A. & Boots, M. (2009). Invading with biological weapons: the role of shared disease in ecological invasion. Theoretical Ecology, 2, 53–66.
Belliure, B., Janssen, A., Maris, P. C., Peters, D. & Sabelis, M. W. (2005). Herbivore arthropods benefit from vectoring plant viruses. Ecology Letters, 8, 70–79.
Belliure, B., Janssen, A. & Sabelis, M. W. (2008). Herbivore benefits from vectoring plant virus through reduction of period of vulnerability to predation. Oecologia, 156, 797–806.
Ben-Ami, F., Mouton, L. & Ebert, D. (2008). The effects of multiple infections on the expression and evolution of virulence in a Daphnia–endoparasite system. Evolution, 62, 1700–1711.
Bennetts, R. E., White, G. C., Hawksworth, F. G. & Severs, S. E. (1996). The influence of dwarf mistletoe on bird communities in Colorado ponderosa pine forests. Ecological Applications, 6, 899–909.
Benson, J., Driesche, R. G., Pasquale, A. & Elkinton, J. (2003). Introduced braconid parasitoids and range reduction of a native butterfly in New England. Biological Control, 28, 197–213.
Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D. E., Cunningham, A. A., Goggin, C. L., Slocombe, R., Ragan, M. A., Hyatt, A. D., McDonald, K. R., Hines, H. B., Lips, K. R., Marantelli, G. & Parkes, H. (1998). Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 9031–9036.
Bernot, R. J. & Lamberti, G. A. (2008). Indirect effects of a parasite on a benthic community: an experiment with trematodes, snails and periphyton. Freshwater Biology, 53, 322–329.
Berthe, F. C. J., Roux, F., Adlard, R. D. & Figueras, A. (2004). Marteiliosis in molluscs: a review. Aquatic Living Resources, 17, 433–448.
Bertolino, S., Lurz, P. W. W., Sanderson, R. & Rushton, S. P. (2008). Predicting the spread of the American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Europe: a call for a co-ordinated European approach. Biological Conservation, 141, 2564–2575.
Bever, J. D., Westover, K. M. & Antonovics, J. (1997). Incorporating the soil community into plant population dynamics: the utility of the feedback approach. Journal of Ecology, 85, 561–573.
Bezemer, T. M. & Dam, N. M. (2005). Linking aboveground and belowground interactions via induced plant defenses. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20, 617–624.
Bilu, E. & Coll, M. (2007). The importance of intraguild interactions to the combined effect of a parasitoid and a predator on aphid population suppression. Biocontrol, 52, 753–763.
Blackmore, M. S., Scoles, G. A. & Craig, G. B. (1995). Parasitism of Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) by Ascogregarina spp. (Apicomplexa, Lecudinidae) in Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology, 32, 847–852.
Blossey, B. & Notzold, R. (1995). Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive nonindigenous plants: a hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 83, 887–889.
Bolker, B., Holyoak, M., Krivan, V., Rowe, L. & Schmitz, O. (2003). Connecting theoretical and empirical studies of trait-mediated interactions. Ecology, 84, 1101–1114.
Bolzoni, L., Leo, G. A., Gatto, M. & Dobson, A. P. (2008). Body-size scaling in an SEI model of wildlife diseases. Theoretical Population Biology, 73, 374–382.
Bonsall, M. B. (2004). The impact of diseases and pathogens on insect population dynamics. Physiological Entomology, 29, 223–236.
Bonsall, M. B. & Hassell, M. P. (1997). Apparent competition structures ecological assemblages. Nature, 388, 371–373.
Bonsall, M. B. & Hassell, M. P. (2000). The effects of metapopulation structure on indirect interactions in host–parasitoid assemblages. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 267, 2207–2212.
Bordes, F. & Morand, S. (2008). Helminth species diversity of mammals: parasite species richness is a host species attribute. Parasitology, 135, 1701–1705.
Borer, E. T., Briggs, C. J. & Holt, R. D. (2007a). Predators, parasitoids, and pathogens: a cross-cutting examination of intraguild predation theory. Ecology, 88, 2681–2688.
Borer, E. T., Briggs, C. J., Murdoch, W. W. & Swarbrick, S. L. (2003). Testing intraguild predation theory in a field system: does numerical dominance shift along a gradient of productivity?Ecology Letters, 6, 929–935.
Borer, E. T., Hosseini, P. R., Seabloom, E. W. & Dobson, A. P. (2007b). Pathogen-induced reversal of native dominance in a grassland community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 5473–5478.
Bosch, J. & Rincon, P. A. (2008). Chytridiomycosis-mediated expansion of Bufo bufo in a montane area of Central Spain: an indirect effect of the disease. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 637–643.
Bostock, R. M. (2005). Signal crosstalk and induced resistance: straddling the line between cost and benefit. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43, 545–580.
Bouwma, A. M., Ahrens, M. E., DeHeer, C. J. & DeWayne Shoemaker, D. (2006). Distribution and prevalence of Wolbachia in introduced populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Insect Molecular Biology, 15, 89–93.
Bowers, R. G. & Begon, M. (1991). A host–host–pathogen model with free-living infective stages, applicable to microbial pest-control. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 148, 305–329.
Bowers, R. G. & Turner, J. (1997). Community structure and the interplay between interspecific infection and competition. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 187, 95–109.
Bradley, D. J., Gilbert, G. S. & Martiny, J. B. H. (2008). Pathogens promote plant diversity through a compensatory response. Ecology Letters, 11, 461–469.
Brasier, C. (2000). Plant pathology: the rise of the hybrid fungi. Nature, 405, 134–135.
Briggs, C. J. (1993). Competition among parasitoid species on a stage-structured host and its effect on host suppression. American Naturalist, 141, 372–397.
Briggs, C. J., Knapp, R. A. & Vredenburg, V. T. (2010). Enzootic and epizootic dynamics of the chytrid fungal pathogen of amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 9695–9700.
Brisson, D., Dykhuizen, D. E. & Ostfeld, R. S. (2008). Conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the Lyme disease epidemic. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 275, 227–235.
Brodeur, J. & Rosenheim, J. A. (2000). Intraguild interactions in aphid parasitoids. Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata, 97, 93–108.
Brook, B. W., Sodhi, N. S. & Bradshaw, C. J. A. (2008). Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 453–460.
Brooks, D. R. & Hoberg, E. P. (2007). How will global climate change affect parasite–host assemblages?Trends in Parasitology, 23, 571–574.
Brown, D. H. & Hastings, A. (2003). Resistance may be futile: dispersal scales and selection for disease resistance in competing plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 222, 373–388.
Brown, S. P., Inglis, R. F. & Taddei, F. (2009). Evolutionary ecology of microbial wars: within-host competition and (incidental) virulence. Evolutionary Applications, 2, 32–39.
Bruce, T. J. & Pickett, J. A. (2007). Plant defence signalling induced by biotic attacks. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 10, 387–392.
Bull, E. L., Heater, T. W. & Youngblood, A. (2004). Arboreal squirrel response to silvicultural treatments for dwarf mistletoe control in northeastern Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 19, 133–141.
Bull, J. J. & Ebert, D. (2008). Invasion thresholds and the evolution of nonequilibrium virulence. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 172–182.
Bullock, J. M. & Pywell, R. F. (2005). Rhinanthus: a tool for restoring diverse grassland?Folia Geobotanica, 40, 273–288.
Burden, J. P., Nixon, C. P., Hodgkinson, A. E., Possee, R. D., Sait, S. M., King, L. A. & Hails, R. S. (2003). Covert infections as a mechanism for long-term persistence of baculoviruses. Ecology Letters, 6, 524–531.
Bush, S. E. & Malenke, J. R. (2008). Host defence mediates interspecific competition in ectoparasites. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 558–564.
Byers, J. E. (2009). Including parasites in food webs. Trends in Parasitology, 25, 55–57.
Byrne, C. J., Holland, C. V., Kennedy, C. R. & Poole, W. R. (2003). Interspecific interactions between Acanthocephala in the intestine of brown trout: are they more frequent in Ireland?Parasitology, 127, 399–409.
Caesar, A. J. & Caesar-Ton That, T. (2008). Rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with insect root herbivory of an invasive plant, Euphorbia esula/virgata. In Julien, M. H., Sforza, R., Bon, M. C., Evans, H. C., Hatcher, P. E., Hinz, H. L. & Rector, B. G. (eds), Proceedings of the XII Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 13–19.
Calisher, C. H., Childs, J. E., Field, H. E., Holmes, K. V. & Schountz, T. (2006). Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 19, 531–545.
Callaway, R. M. & Pennings, S. C. (1998). Impact of a parasitic plant on the zonation of two salt marsh perennials. Oecologia, 114, 100–105.
Callaway, R. M. & Ridenour, W. M. (2004). Novel weapons: invasive success and the evolution of increased competitive ability. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2, 436–443.
Callaway, R. M., Thelen, G. C., Rodriguez, A. & Holben, W. E. (2004). Soil biota and exotic plant invasion. Nature, 427, 731–733.
Cameron, T. C., Wearing, H. J., Rohani, P. & Sait, S. M. (2005). A koinobiont parasitoid mediates competition and generates additive mortality in healthy host populations. Oikos, 110, 620–628.
Cardoza, Y. J., Lait, C. G., Schmelz, E. A., Huang, J. & Tumlinson, J. H. (2003). Fungus-induced biochemical changes in peanut plants and their effect on development of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Environmental Entomology, 32, 220–228.
Carroll, B., Russell, P., Gurnell, J., Nettleton, P. & Sainsbury, A. W. (2009). Epidemics of squirrelpox virus disease in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris): temporal and serological findings. Epidemiology and Infection, 137, 257–265.
Chadha, M. S., Comer, J. A., Lowe, L., Rota, P. A., Rollin, P. E., Bellini, W. J., Ksiazek, T. G. & Mishra, A. C. (2006). Nipah virus-associated encephalitis outbreak, Siliguri, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12, 235–240.
Chapuis, J. L., Bousses, P. & Barnaud, G. (1994). Alien mammals, impact and management in the French sub-Antarctic islands. Biological Conservation, 67, 97–104.
Chattopadhyay, J. & Bairagi, N. (2001). Pelicans at risk in Salton Sea: an eco-epidemiological model. Ecological Modelling, 136, 103–112.
Chattopadhyay, J., Srinivasu, P. D. N. & Bairagi, N. (2003). Pelicans at risk in Salton Sea: an eco-epidemiological model-II. Ecological Modelling, 167, 199–211.
Chen, H. W., Liu, W. C., Davis, A. J., Jordan, F., Hwang, M. J. & Shao, K. T. (2008). Network position of hosts in food webs and their parasite diversity. Oikos, 117, 1847–1855.
Chilcutt, C. F. & Tabashnik, B. E. (1997). Host-mediated competition between the pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae of the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Environmental Entomology, 26, 38–45.
Childs, J. E., Mackenzie, J. S. & Richt, J. A. (eds) (2007a). Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequence of Cross-species Transmission. Berlin: Springer.
Childs, J. E., Richt, J. A. & Mackenzie, J. S. (2007b). Introduction: conceptualizing and partitioning the emergence process of zoonotic viruses from wildlife to humans. In Childs, J. E., Mackenzie, J. S. & Richt, J. A. (eds) Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-species Transmission. Berlin: Springer, pp. 1–31.
Choisy, M. & Rohani, P. (2006). Harvesting can increase severity of wildlife disease epidemics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 273, 2025–2034.
Chomel, B. B. (2008). Control and prevention of emerging parasitic zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology, 38, 1211–1217.
Chong, J. H. & Oetting, R. D. (2007). Intraguild predation and interference by the mealybug predator Cryptolalemus montrouzieri on the parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 17, 933–944.
Choo, K., Williams, P. D. & Day, T. (2003). Host mortality, predation and the evolution of parasite virulence. Ecology Letters, 6, 310–315.
Chua, K. B., Bellini, W. J., Rota, P. A., Harcourt, B. H., Tamin, A., Lam, S. K., Ksiazek, T. G., Rollin, P. E., Zaki, S. R., Shieh, W. J., Goldsmith, C. S., Gubler, D. J., Roehrig, J. T., Eaton, B., Gould, A. R., Olson, J., Field, H., Daniels, P., Ling, A. E., Peters, C. J., Anderson, L. J. & Mahy, B. W. J. (2000). Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science, 288, 1432–1435.
Clay, K. (1996). Interactions among fungal endophytes, grasses and herbivores. Researches on Population Ecology, 38, 191–201.
Clay, K. & Holah, J. (1999). Fungal endophyte symbiosis and plant diversity in successional fields. Science, 285, 1742–1744.
Clay, K., Holah, J. & Rudgers, J. A. (2005). Herbivores cause a rapid increase in hereditary symbiosis and alter plant community composition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 12465–12470.
Clay, K., Marks, S. & Cheplick, G. P. (1993). Effects of insect herbivory and fungal endophyte infection on competitive interactions among grasses. Ecology, 74, 1767–1777.
Clay, K. & Schardl, C. (2002). Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses. American Naturalist, 160, S99–S127.
Cleaveland, S., Haydon, D. T. & Taylor, L. (2007). Overviews of pathogen emergence: which pathogens emerge, when and why? In Childs, J. E., Mackenzie, J. S. & Richt, J. A. (eds) Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-species Transmission. Berlin: Springer, pp. 85–111.
Cleaveland, S., Kaare, M., Tiringa, P., Mlengeya, T. & Barrat, J. (2003). A dog rabies vaccination campaign in rural Africa: impact on the incidence of dog rabies and human dog-bite injuries. Vaccine, 21, 1965–1973.
Cohen, J. E., Jonsson, T. & Carpenter, S. R. (2003). Ecological community description using the food web, species abundance, and body size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 1781–1786.
Colautti, R. I., Muirhead, J. R., Biswas, R. N. & MacIsaac, H. J. (2005). Realized vs apparent reduction in enemies of the European starling. Biological Invasions, 7, 723–732.
Colautti, R. I., Ricciardi, A., Grigorovich, I. A. & MacIsaac, H. J. (2004). Is invasion success explained by the enemy release hypothesis?Ecology Letters, 7, 721–733.
Collinge, S. K., Johnson, W. C., Ray, C., Matchett, R., Grensten, J., Cully, J. F., Gage, K. L., Kosoy, M. Y., Loye, J. E. & Martin, A. P. (2005). Testing the generality of a trophic-cascade model for plague. Ecohealth, 2, 102–112.
Collinge, S. K. & Ray, C. (2006). Disease Ecology: Community Structure and Pathogen Dynamics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Connell, J. H. (1971). On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In Boer, P. J. & Gradwell, G. R. (eds), Dynamics of Populations. Wageningen: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, pp. 298–312.
Cope, D. R., Iason, G. R. & Gordon, I. J. (2004). Disease reservoirs in complex systems: a comment on recent work by Laurenson et al. Journal of Animal Ecology, 73, 807–810.
Cory, J. S. & Hoover, K. (2006). Plant-mediated effects in insect–pathogen interactions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 278–286.
Cory, J. S. & Myers, J. H. (2000). Direct and indirect ecological effects of biological control. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 15, 137–139.
Cossentine, J. E. & Lewis, L. C. (1988). Impact of Nosema pyrausta, Nosema sp. and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus on Lydella thompsoni within infected Ostrinia nubilalis hosts. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 51, 126–132.
Cottrell, T. E. & Yeargan, K. V. (1998). Intraguild predation between an introduced lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and a native lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 71, 159–163.
Courchamp, F. & Sugihara, G. (1999). Modeling the biological control of an alien predator to protect island species from extinction. Ecological Applications, 9, 112–123.
Craig, B. H., Pilkington, J. G., Kruuk, L. E. B. & Pemberton, J. M. (2007). Epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda. Parasitology, 134, 9–21.
Cremer, S., Ugelvig, L. V., Drijfhout, F. P., Schlick-Steiner, B. C., Steiner, F. M., Seifert, B., Hughes, D. P., Schulz, A., Petersen, K. S., Konrad, H., Stauffer, C., Kiran, K., Espadaler, X., d'Ettorre, P., Aktac, N., Eilenberg, J., Jones, G. R., Nash, D. R., Pedersen, J. S. & Boomsma, J. J. (2008). The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants. PLoS One, 3, e3838.
Cronin, J. T. (2007). Shared parasitoids in a metacommunity: indirect interactions inhibit herbivore membership in local communities. Ecology, 88, 2977–2990.
Daszak, P., Cunningham, A. A. & Hyatt, A. D. (2000). Wildlife ecology: emerging infectious diseases of wildlife – threats to biodiversity and human health. Science, 287, 443–449.
Daszak, P., Epstein, J. H., Kilpatrick, A. M., Aguirre, A. A., Karesh, W. B. & Cunningham, A. A. (2007). Collaborative research approaches to the role of wildlife in zoonotic disease emergence. In Childs, J. E., Mackenzie, J. S. & Richt, J. A. (eds) Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-species Transmission. Berlin: Springer, pp. 463–475.
Davies, C. M., Fairbrother, E. & Webster, J. P. (2002). Mixed strain schistosome infections of snails and the evolution of parasite virulence. Parasitology, 124, 31–38.
Davies, D. M., Graves, J. D., Elias, C. O. & Williams, P. J. (1997). The impact of Rhinanthus spp. on sward productivity and composition: implications for the restoration of species-rich grasslands. Biological Conservation, 82, 87–93.
Dawkins, R. (1982). The Extended Phenotype. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Day, J. F. & Edman, J. D. (1983). Malaria renders mice susceptible to mosquito feeding when gametocytes are most infective. Journal of Parasitology, 69, 163–170.
Day, T. & Gandon, S. (2007). Applying population–genetic models in theoretical evolutionary epidemiology. Ecology Letters, 10, 876–888.
Castro, F. & Bolker, B. (2005). Mechanisms of disease-induced extinction. Ecology Letters, 8, 117–126.
Moraes, C. M., Mescher, M. C. & Tumlinson, J. H. (2001). Caterpillar-induced nocturnal plant volatiles repel conspecific females. Nature, 410, 577–580.
Roode, J. C., Helinski, M. E. H., Anwar, M. A. & Read, A. F. (2005a). Dynamics of multiple infection and within-host competition in genetically diverse malaria infections. American Naturalist, 166, 531–542.
Roode, J. C., Pansini, R., Cheesman, S. J., Helinski, M. E. H., Huijben, S., Wargo, A. R., Bell, A. S., Chan, B. H. K., Walliker, D. & Read, A. F. (2005b). Virulence and competitive ability in genetically diverse malaria infections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 7624–7628.
Vos, M., Oosten, V. R., Poecke, R. M. P., Pelt, J. A., Pozo, M. J., Mueller, M. J., Buchala, A. J., Metraux, J. P., Loon, L. C., Dicke, M. & Pieterse, C. M. J. (2005). Signal signature and transcriptome changes of Arabidopsis during pathogen and insect attack. Molecular Plant–Microbe Interactions, 18, 923–937.
Dennehy, J. J., Friedenberg, N. A., Holt, R. D. & Turner, P. E. (2006). Viral ecology and the maintenance of novel host use. American Naturalist, 167, 429–439.
Diamond, J. M. (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton.
Dick, J. T. A. (1996). Post-invasion amphipod communities of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland: influences of habitat selection and mutual predation. Journal of Animal Ecology, 65, 756–767.
Dick, J. T. A. (2008). Role of behaviour in biological invasions and species distributions: lessons from interactions between the invasive Gammarus pulex and the native G. duebeni (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Contributions to Zoology, 77, 91–98.
Dick, J. T. A., Armstrong, M., Clarke, H. C., Farnesworth, K. D., Hatcher, M. J., Ennis, , , M., Kelly, A. & Dunn, A. M. (2010). Parasitism may enhance rather than reduce the predatory impact of an invader. Biology Letters, 6, 636–638.
Dick, J. T. A., Montgomery, I. & Elwood, R. W. (1993). Replacement of the indigenous amphipod Gammarus duebeni celticus by the introduced Gammarus pulex: differential cannibalism and mutual predation. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 79–88.
Dick, J. T. A. & Platvoet, D. (1996). Intraguild predation and species exclusions in amphipods: the interaction of behaviour, physiology and environment. Freshwater Biology, 36, 375–383.
Dicke, M. & Baldwin, I. T. (2010). The evolutionary context for herbivore-induced plant volatiles: beyond the ‘cry for help’. Trends in Plant Science, 15, 167–175.
Dicke, M. & Dijkman, H. (1992). Induced defense in detached uninfested plant leaves: effects on behavior of herbivores and their predators. Oecologia, 91, 554–560.
Diehl, S. & Feissel, M. (2000). Effects of enrichment on three-level food chains with omnivory. American Naturalist, 155, 200–218.
Diekmann, O., Heesterbeek, J. A. P. & Metz, J. A. J. (1990). On the definition and the computation of the basic reproduction ratio R0 in models for infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 28, 365–382.
Dillon, R. J., Vennard, C. T., Buckling, A. & Charnley, A. K. (2005). Diversity of locust gut bacteria protects against pathogen invasion. Ecology Letters, 8, 1291–1298.
Dobson, A. (2004). Population dynamics of pathogens with multiple host species. American Naturalist, 164, S64–S78.
Dobson, A. (2009). Climate variability, global change, immunity, and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecology, 90, 920–927.
Dobson, A., Cattadori, I., Holt, R. D., Ostfeld, R. S., Keesing, F., Krichbaum, K., Rohr, J. R., Perkins, S. E. & Hudson, P. J. (2006). Sacred cows and sympathetic squirrels: the importance of biological diversity to human health. PLoS Med, 3, e231.
Dobson, A. & Crawley, W. (1994). Pathogens and the structure of plant communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9, 393–398.
Dobson, A. & Foufopoulos, J. (2001). Emerging infectious pathogens of wildlife. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 356, 1001–1012.
Dobson, A., Lafferty, K. D., Kuris, A. M., Hechinger, R. F. & Jetz, W. (2008). Homage to Linnaeus: how many parasites? How many hosts?Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 11482–11489.
Dobson, A. P. (1985). The population dynamics of competition between parasites. Parasitology, 91, 317–347.
Dobson, A. P. (1988). The population biology of parasite-induced changes in host behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology, 63, 139–165.
Dobson, A. P. (1995). The ecology and epidemiology of rinderpest virus in Serengeti and Ngorongoro crater conservation area. In Sinclair, A. R. E. & Arcese, P. (eds), Serengeti II: Research, Management and Conservation of an Ecosystem. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 485–505.
Dobson, A. P. (2005). What links bats to emerging infectious diseases?Science, 310, 628–629.
Dobson, A. P. & Carper, E. R. (1996). Infectious diseases and human population history: throughout history the establishment of disease has been a side effect of the growth of civilization. Bioscience, 46, 115–126.
Dobson, A. P. & Hudson, P. J. (1986). Parasites, disease and the structure of ecological communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 1, 11–15.
Dobson, A. P. & Hudson, P. J. (1992). Regulation and stability of a free-living host–parasite system: Trichostrongylus tenuis in red grouse – 2. Population models. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61, 487–498.
Dobson, A. P. & Keymer, A. E. (1985). Life history models. In Crompton, D. W. T. & Nickol, B. B. (eds), Biology of the Acanthocephala. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 347–384.
Dobson, A. P. & May, R. M. (1987). The effects of parasites on fish populations: theoretical aspects. International Journal for Parasitology, 17, 363–370.
Drake, J. M. (2003). The paradox of the parasites: implications for biological invasion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 270, S133–S135.
Duffy, M. A. & Hall, S. R. (2008). Selective predation and rapid evolution can jointly dampen effects of virulent parasites on Daphnia populations. American Naturalist, 171, 499–510.
Duffy, M. A., Hall, S. R., Tessier, A. J. & Huebner, M. (2005). Selective predators and their parasitized prey: are epidemics in zooplankton under top-down control?Limnology and Oceanography, 50, 412–420.
Duffy, M. A. & Sivars-Becker, L. (2007). Rapid evolution and ecological host–parasite dynamics. Ecology Letters, 10, 44–53.
Dumont, A. & Crete, M. (1996). The meningeal worm, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, a marginal limiting factor for moose, Alces alces, in Southern Quebec. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 110, 413–418.
Dunn, A. M. (2009). Parasites and biological invasions. Advances in Parasitology, 68, 161–184.
Dunn, A. M. & Dick, J. T. A. (1998). Parasitism and epibiosis in native and non-native gammarids in freshwater in Ireland. Ecography, 21, 593–598.
Dunn, A. M., Terry, R. S. & Smith, J. E. (2001). Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia. Advances in Parasitology, 48, 57–100.
Dunn, J. C., McClymont, H. E., Christmas, M. & Dunn, A. M. (2009). Competition and parasitism in the native white clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes and the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in the UK. Biological Invasions, 11, 315–324.
Dunne, J. A., Williams, R. J. & Martinez, N. D. (2002a). Food-web structure and network theory: the role of connectance and size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 12917–12922.
Dunne, J. A., Williams, R. J. & Martinez, N. D. (2002b). Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: robustness increases with connectance. Ecology Letters, 5, 558–567.
Duron, O., Bouchon, D., Boutin, S., Bellamy, L., Zhou, L. Q., Engelstadter, J. & Hurst, G. D. (2008). The diversity of reproductive parasites among arthropods: Wolbachia do not walk alone. BMC Biology, 6, e27.
Dwosh, H. A., Hong, H. H. L., Austgarden, D., Herman, S. & Schabas, R. (2003). Identification and containment of an outbreak of SARS in a community hospital. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 168, 1415–1420.
Dwyer, G., Dushoff, J. & Yee, S. H. (2004). The combined effects of pathogens and predators on insect outbreaks. Nature, 430, 341–345.
Dybdahl, M. F. & Lively, C. M. (1995). Host–parasite interactions: infection of common clones in natural populations of a fresh-water snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 260, 99–103.
Dye, C. & Gay, N. (2003). Modeling the SARS epidemic. Science, 300, 1884–1885.
Edeline, E., Ben Ari, T., Vollestad, L. A., Winfield, I. J., Fletcher, J. M., Ben James, J. & Stenseth, N. C. (2008). Antagonistic selection from predators and pathogens alters food-web structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 19792–19796.
Elton, C. S. (1958). The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. London: Methuen.
Engelberth, J., Alborn, H. T., Schmelz, E. A. & Tumlinson, J. H. (2004). Airborne signals prime plants against insect herbivore attack. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 1781–1785.
Enscore, R. E., Biggerstaff, B. J., Brown, T. L., Fulgham, R. F., Reynolds, P. J., Engelthaler, D. M., Levy, C. E., Parmenter, R. R., Montenieri, J. A., Cheek, J. E., Grinnell, R. K., Ettestad, P. J. & Gage, K. L. (2002). Modeling relationships between climate and the frequency of human plague cases in the southwestern United States, 1960–1997. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 66, 186–196.
Epstein, P. R. (2000). Is global warming harmful to health?Scientific American, 283 (2), 50–57.
Epstein, P. R., Diaz, H. F., Elias, S., Grabherr, G., Graham, N. E., Martens, W. J. M., Mosley-Thompson, E. & Susskind, J. (1998). Biological and physical signs of climate change: focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79, 409–417.
Evans, H. C. (2008). The endophyte–enemy release hypothesis: implications for classical biological control and plant invasions. In Julien, M. H., Sforza, R., Bon, M. C., Evans, H. C., Hatcher, P. E., Hinz, H. L. & Rector, B. G. (eds), Proceedings of the XII Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 20–25.
Ezenwa, V. O., Godsey, M. S., King, R. J. & Guptill, S. C. (2006). Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 273, 109–117.
Ezenwa, V. O., Milheim, L. E., Coffey, M. F., Godsey, M. S., King, R. J. & Guptill, S. C. (2007). Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: patterns, processes, and implications for disease control. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 7, 173–180.
Fa, J. E., Peres, C. A. & Meeuwig, J. (2002). Bushmeat exploitation in tropical forests: an intercontinental comparison. Conservation Biology, 16, 232–237.
Fauchier, J. & Thomas, F. (2001). Interaction between Gammarinema gammari (Nematoda), Microphallus papillorobustus (Trematoda) and their common host Gammarus insensibilis (Amphipoda). Journal of Parasitology, 87, 1479–1481.
Feener, D. H. (1981). Competition between ant species: outcome controlled by parasitic flies. Science, 214, 815–817.
Feener, D. H. (2000). Is the assembly of ant communities mediated by parasitoids?Oikos, 90, 79–88.
Fenton, A. & Pedersen, A. B. (2005). Community epidemiology framework for classifying disease threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11, 1815–1821.
Fenton, A. & Rands, S. A. (2006). The impact of parasite manipulation and predator foraging behavior on predator–prey communities. Ecology, 87, 2832–2841.
Ferguson, K. I. & Stiling, P. (1996). Non-additive effects of multiple natural enemies on aphid populations. Oecologia, 108, 375–379.
Ferrari, N., Cattadori, I. M., Rizzoli, A. & Hudson, P. J. (2009). Heligmosomoides polygyrus reduces infestation of Ixodes ricinus in free-living yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis. Parasitology, 136, 305–316.
Ferrer, M. & Negro, J. J. (2004). The near extinction of two large European predators: super specialists pay a price. Conservation Biology, 18, 344–349.
Field, H. E., Mackenzie, J. S. & Daszak, P. (2007). Henipaviruses: emerging paramyxoviruses associated with fruit bats. In Childs, J. E., Mackenzie, J. S. & Richt, J. A. (eds) Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-species Transmission. Berlin: Springer, pp. 133–159.
Fielding, N. J., MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T. A., Elwood, R. W., Riddell, G. E. & Dunn, A. M. (2003). Effects of the acanthocephalan parasite Echinorhynchus truttae on the feeding ecology of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of Zoology, 261, 321–325.
Fielding, N. J., MacNeil, C., Robinson, N., Dick, J. T. A., Elwood, R. W., Terry, R. S., Ruiz, Z. & Dunn, A. M. (2005). Ecological impacts of the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora mulleri on its freshwater amphipod host Gammarus duebeni celticus. Parasitology, 131, 331–336.
Finkes, L. K., Cady, A. B., Mulroy, J. C., Clay, K. & Rudgers, J. A. (2006). Plant–fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields. Ecology Letters, 9, 344–353.
Firlej, A., Boivin, G., Lucas, E. & Coderre, D. (2005). First report of Harmonia axyridis Pallas being attacked by Dinocampus coccinellae Schrank in Canada. Biological Invasions, 7, 553–556.
Frank, S. A. (1996). Models of parasite virulence. Quarterly Review of Biology, 71, 37–78.
Fransen, J. J. & Vanlenteren, J. C. (1993). Host selection and survival of the parasitoid Encarsia formosa on greenhouse-whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, in the presence of hosts infected with the fungus Aschersonia aleyrodis. Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata, 69, 239–249.
Fraser, C., Riley, S., Anderson, R. M. & Ferguson, N. M. (2004). Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 6146–6151.
Freckleton, R. P. & Lewis, O. T. (2006). Pathogens, density dependence and the coexistence of tropical trees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 273, 2909–2916.
Fredensborg, B. L. & Poulin, R. (2005). Larval helminths in intermediate hosts: does competition early in life determine the fitness of adult parasites?International Journal for Parasitology, 35, 1061–1070.
Freedman, H. I. (1990). A model of predator–prey dynamics as modified by the action of a parasite. Mathematical Biosciences, 99, 143–155.
Furlong, M. J. & Pell, J. K. (1996). Interactions between the fungal entomopathogen Zoophthora radicans Brefeld (Entomophthorales) and two hymenopteran parasitoids attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 68, 15–21.
Futerman, P. H., Layen, S. J., Kotzen, M. L., Franzen, C., Kraaijeveld, A. R. & Godfray, H. C. J. (2006). Fitness effects and transmission routes of a microsporidian parasite infecting Drosophila and its parasitoids. Parasitology, 132, 479–492.
Galbreath, J., Smith, J. E., Terry, R. S., Becnel, J. J. & Dunn, A. M. (2004). Invasion success of Fibrillanosema crangonycis, n.sp., n.g.: a novel vertically transmitted microsporidian parasite from the invasive amphipod host Crangonyx pseudogracilis. International Journal for Parasitology, 34, 235–244.
Gallup, J. L. & Sachs, J. D. (2001). The economic burden of malaria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 64, 85–96.
Gandon, S. (2002). Local adaptation and the geometry of host–parasite coevolution. Ecology Letters, 5, 246–256.
Gandon, S., Capowiez, Y., Dubois, Y., Michalakis, Y. & Olivieri, I. (1996). Local adaptation and gene-for-gene coevolution in a metapopulation model. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 263, 1003–1009.
Garner, T. W. J., Perkins, M. W., Govindarajulu, P., Seglie, D., Walker, S., Cunningham, A. A. & Fisher, M. C. (2006). The emerging amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis globally infects introduced populations of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Biology Letters, 2, 455–459.
Gatherer, D. (2009). The 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in its historical context. Journal of Clinical Virology, 45, 174–178.
Genner, M. J., Michel, E. & Todd, J. A. (2008). Resistance of an invasive gastropod to an indigenous trematode parasite in Lake Malawi. Biological Invasions, 10, 41–49.
George-Nascimento, M. A. & Marin, S. L. (1992). Effects induced by two host species, the South American fur-seal Arctocephalus australis (Zimmerman), and the South American sea lion Otaria Byronia (Blainville) (Carnivora, Otariidae), on the morphology and fecundity of Corynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae) in Uruguay. Revista Chilena De Historia Natural, 65, 183–193.
Georgiev, B. B., Sanchez, M. I., Vasileva, G. P., Nikolov, P. N. & Green, A. J. (2007). Cestode parasitism in invasive and native brine shrimps (Artemia spp.) as a possible factor promoting the rapid invasion of A. franciscana in the Mediterranean region. Parasitology Research, 101, 1647–1655.
Gibbs, J. N. (1978). Intercontinental epidemiology of Dutch elm disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 16, 287–307.
Gibson, C. C. & Watkinson, A. R. (1992). The role of the hemiparasitic annual Rhinanthus minor in determining grassland community structure. Oecologia, 89, 62–68.
Gilbert, L., Norman, R., Laurenson, K. M., Reid, H. W. & Hudson, P. J. (2001). Disease persistence and apparent competition in a three-host community: an empirical and analytical study of large-scale, wild populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 1053–1061.
Gilbert, M. T. P., Rambaut, A., Wlasiuk, G., Spira, T. J., Pitchenik, A. E. & Worobey, M. (2007). The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 18566–18570.
Gilligan, C. A. & Kleczkowski, A. (1997). Population dynamics of botanical epidemics involving primary and secondary infection. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 352, 591–608.
Gilligan, C. A. & Bosch, F. (2008). Epidemiological models for invasion and persistence of pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 46, 385–418.
Godfree, R. C., Tinnin, R. O. & Forbes, R. B. (2002). The effects of dwarf mistletoe, witches' brooms, stand structure, and site characteristics on the crown architecture of lodgepole pine in Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32, 1360–1371.
Graham, A. L. (2008). Ecological rules governing helminth–microparasite coinfection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 566–570.
Greenman, J. V. & Hudson, P. J. (1997). Infected coexistence instability with and without density-dependent regulation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 185, 345–356.
Greenman, J. V. & Hudson, P. J. (1999). Host exclusion and coexistence in apparent and direct competition: an application of bifurcation theory. Theoretical Population Biology, 56, 48–64.
Greenman, J. V. & Hudson, P. J. (2000). Parasite-mediated and direct competition in a two-host shared macroparasite system. Theoretical Population Biology, 57, 13–34.
Greger, M. (2007). The human/animal interface: emergence and resurgence of zoonotic infectious diseases. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 33, 243–299.
Grenfell, B. T. (1988). Gastrointestinal nematode parasites and the stability and productivity of intensive ruminant grazing systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 321, 541–563.
Grenfell, B. T. (1992). Parasitism and the dynamics of ungulate grazing systems. American Naturalist, 139, 907–929.
Grewell, B. J. (2008). Parasite facilitates plant species coexistence in a coastal wetland. Ecology, 89, 1481–1488.
Grosholz, E. D. (1992). Interactions of intraspecific, interspecific, and apparent competition with host–pathogen population dynamics. Ecology, 73, 507–514.
Grosholz, E. D. & Ruiz, G. M. (2003). Biological invasions drive size increases in marine and estuarine invertebrates. Ecology Letters, 6, 700–705.
Grossman, Z., Meier-Schellersheim, M., Sousa, A. E., Victorino, R. M. M. & Paul, W. E. (2002). CD4(+) T-cell depletion in HIV infection: are we closer to understanding the cause?Nature Medicine, 8, 319–323.
Gubbins, S., Gilligan, C. A. & Kleczkowski, A. (2000). Population dynamics of plant–parasite interactions: thresholds for invasion. Theoretical Population Biology, 57, 219–233.
Guernier, V., Hochberg, M. E. & Guegan, J. F. O. (2004). Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biology, 2, 740–746.
Gumel, A. B., Ruan, S. G., Day, T., Watmough, J., Brauer, F., Driessche, P., Gabrielson, D., Bowman, C., Alexander, M. E., Ardal, S., Wu, J. H. & Sahai, B. M. (2004). Modelling strategies for controlling SARS outbreaks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 271, 2223–2232.
Gurnell, J., Rushton, S. P., Lurz, P. W. W., Sainsbury, A. W., Nettleton, P., Shirley, M. D. F., Bruemmer, C. & Geddes, N. (2006). Squirrel poxvirus: landscape scale strategies for managing disease threat. Biological Conservation, 131, 287–295.
Gurnell, J., Wauters, L. A., Lurz, P. W. W. & Tosi, G. (2004). Alien species and interspecific competition: effects of introduced eastern grey squirrels on red squirrel population dynamics. Journal of Animal Ecology, 73, 26–35.
Hadeler, K. P. & Freedman, H. I. (1989). Predator–prey populations with parasitic infection. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 27, 609–631.
Hahn, B. H., Shaw, G. M., Cock, K. M. & Sharp, P. M. (2000). AIDS as a zoonosis – scientific and public health implications. Science, 287, 607–614.
Haine, E. R., Boucansaud, K. & Rigaud, T. (2005). Conflict between parasites with different transmission strategies infecting an amphipod host. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 272, 2505–2510.
Hall, S. R., Becker, C. R., Simonis, J. L., Duffy, M. A., Tessier, A. L. & Cáceres, C. E. (2009). Friendly competition: evidence for a dilution effect among competitors in a planktonic host–parasite system. Ecology, 90, 791–801.
Hall, S. R., Duffy, M. A. & Caceres, C. E. (2005). Selective predation and productivity jointly drive complex behavior in host–parasite systems. American Naturalist, 165, 70–81.
Hall, S. R., Tessier, A. J., Duffy, M. A., Huebner, M. & Cáceres, C. E. (2006). Warmer does not have to mean sicker: temperature and predators can jointly drive timing of epidemics. Ecology, 87, 1684–1695.
Hamback, P. A., Stenberg, J. A. & Ericson, L. (2006). Asymmetric indirect interactions mediated by a shared parasitoid: connecting species traits and local distribution patterns for two chrysomelid beetles. Oecologia, 148, 475–481.
Hanley, K. A., Petren, K. & Case, T. J. (1998). An experimental investigation of the competitive displacement of a native gecko by an invading gecko: no role for parasites. Oecologia, 115, 196–205.
Hanley, K. A., Vollmer, D. M. & Case, T. J. (1995). The distribution and prevalence of helminths, coccidia and blood parasites in two competing species of gecko: implications for apparent competition. Oecologia, 102, 220–229.
Hanselmann, R., Rodriguez, A., Lampo, M., Fajardo-Ramos, L., Aguirre, A. A., Kilpatrick, A. M., Rodriguez, J. P. & Daszak, P. (2004). Presence of an emerging pathogen of amphibians in introduced bullfrogs Rana catesbiana in Venezuela. Biological Conservation, 120, 115–119.
Haque, M. & Venturino, E. (2006). The role of transmissible diseases in the Holling–Tanner predator–prey model. Theoretical Population Biology, 70, 273–288.
Harkonen, T., Harding, K., Rasmussen, T. D., Teilmann, J. & Dietz, R. (2007). Age- and sex-specific mortality patterns in an emerging wildlife epidemic: the phocine distemper in European harbour seals. PLoS One, 2, e887.
Harmon, J. P. & Andow, D. A. (2004). Indirect effects between shared prey: predictions for biological control. Biocontrol, 49, 605–626.
Hartemink, N. A., Davis, S. A., Reiter, P., Hubalek, Z. & Heesterbeek, J. A. P. (2007). Importance of bird-to-bird transmission for the establishment of West Nile virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 7, 575–584.
Harvell, C. D., Mitchell, C. E., Ward, J. R., Altizer, S., Dobson, A. P., Ostfeld, R. S. & Samuel, M. D. (2002). Ecology: climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science, 296, 2158–2162.
Hatcher, M. J., Dick, J. T. A. & Dunn, A. M. (2006). How parasites affect interactions between competitors and predators. Ecology Letters, 9, 1253–1271.
Hatcher, M. J., Dick, J. T. A. & Dunn, A. M. (2008). A keystone effect for parasites in intraguild predation?Biology Letters, 4, 534–537.
Hatcher, M. J., Taneyhill, D. E., Dunn, A. M. & Tofts, C. (1999). Population dynamics under parasitic sex ratio distortion. Theoretical Population Biology, 56, 11–28.
Hatcher, M. J. & Tofts, , C. (2004). Reductionism isn't functional. HP Laboratories Technical Report HPL-2004-222.
Hatcher, P. E. (1995). Three-way interactions between plant pathogenic fungi, herbivorous insects and their host plants. Biological Reviews, 70, 639–694.
Hatcher, P. E., Moore, J., Taylor, J. E., Tinney, G. W. & Paul, N. D. (2004). Phytohormones and plant–herbivore–pathogen interactions: integrating the molecular with the ecological. Ecology, 85, 59–69.
Hatcher, P. E. & Paul, N. D. (2000). Beetle grazing reduces natural infection of Rumex obtusifolius by fungal pathogens. New Phytologist, 146, 325–333.
Hatcher, P. E. & Paul, N. D. (2001). Plant pathogen–herbivore interactions and their effects on weeds. In Jeger, M. J. & Spence, N. J. (eds), Biotic Interactions in Plant–Pathogen Associations. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 193–225.
Hatcher, P. E., Paul, N. D., Ayres, P. G. & Whittaker, J. B. (1994a). The effect of a foliar disease (rust) on the development of Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Ecological Entomology, 19, 349–360.
Hatcher, P. E., Paul, N. D., Ayres, P. G. & Whittaker, J. B. (1994b). Interactions between Rumex spp., herbivores and a rust fungus: Gastrophysa viridula grazing reduces subsequent infection by Uromyces rumicis. Functional Ecology, 8, 265–272.
Hawkins, B. A. & Cornell, H. V. (eds) (1999). Theoretical Approaches to Biological Control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hay, S. I., Guerra, C. A., Tatem, A. J., Noor, A. M. & Snow, R. W. (2004). The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4, 327–336.
Haydon, D. T., Randall, D. A., Matthews, L., Knobel, D. L., Tallents, L. A., Gravenor, M. B., Williams, S. D., Pollinger, J. P., Cleaveland, S., Woolhouse, M. E. J., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Marino, J., Macdonald, D. W. & Laurenson, M. K. (2006). Low-coverage vaccination strategies for the conservation of endangered species. Nature, 443, 692–695.
Hayes, E. B., Komar, N., Nasci, R. S., Montgomery, S. P., O'Leary, D. R. & Campbell, G. L. (2005). Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11, 1167–1173.
Hearne, S. J. (2009). Control: the Striga conundrum. Pest Management Science, 65, 603–614.
Hechinger, R. F. & Lafferty, K. D. (2005). Host diversity begets parasite diversity: bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 272, 1059–1066.
Hechinger, R. F., Lafferty, K. D., Huspeni, T. C., Brooks, A. J. & Kuris, A. M. (2007). Can parasites be indicators of free-living diversity? Relationships between species richness and the abundance of larval trematodes and of local benthos and fishes. Oecologia, 151, 82–92.
Heil, M. (2008). Indirect defence via tritrophic interactions. New Phytologist, 178, 41–61.
Heinz, K. M. & Nelson, J. M. (1996). Interspecific interactions among natural enemies of Bemisia in an inundative biological control program. Biological Control, 6, 384–393.
Henneman, M. L. & Memmott, J. (2001). Infiltration of a Hawaiian community by introduced biological control agents. Science, 293, 1314–1316.
Henttonen, H., Fuglei, E., Gower, C. N., Haukisalmi, V., Ims, R. A., Niemimaa, J. & Yoccoz, N. G. (2001). Echinococcus multilocularis on Svalbard: introduction of an intermediate host has enabled the local life-cycle. Parasitology, 123, 547–552.
Hernandez, A. D. & Sukhdeo, M. V. K. (2008a). Parasite effects on isopod feeding rates can alter the host's functional role in a natural stream ecosystem. International Journal for Parasitology, 38, 683–690.
Hernandez, A. D. & Sukhdeo, M. V. K. (2008b). Parasites alter the topology of a stream food web across seasons. Oecologia, 156, 613–624.
Herrick, N. J., Reitz, S. R., Carpenter, J. E. & O'Brien, C. W. (2008). Predation by Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its impact on cabbage. Biological Control, 45, 386–395.
Hethcote, H. W., Wang, W. D., Han, L. T. & Zhien, M. (2004). A predator–prey model with infected prey. Theoretical Population Biology, 66, 259–268.
Hilker, F. M. & Schmitz, K. (2008). Disease-induced stabilization of predator–prey oscillations. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 255, 299–306.
Hoch, G., Schopf, A. & Maddox, J. V. (2000). Interactions between an entomopathogenic microsporidium and the endoparasitoid Glyptapanteles liparidis within their host, the gypsy moth larva. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 75, 59–68.
Hochberg, M. E., Hassell, M. P. & May, R. M. (1990). The dynamics of host–parasitoid–pathogen interactions. American Naturalist, 135, 74–94.
Hochberg, M. E. & Holt, R. D. (1990). The coexistence of competing parasites:1 – the role of cross-species infection. American Naturalist, 136, 517–541.
Hochberg, M. E. & Lawton, J. H. (1990). Competition between kingdoms. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 5, 367–371.
Holdich, D. M. (2002). Biology of Freshwater Crayfish. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Holdich, D. M. & Poeckl, M. (2007). Invasive crustaceans in European inland waters. In Gherardi, F. (ed.), Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution and Threats. Netherlands: Springer, pp. 29–75.
Holdo, R. M., Sinclair, A. R. E., Dobson, A. P., Metzger, K. L., Bolker, B. M., Ritchie, M. E. & Holt, R. D. (2009). A disease-mediated trophic cascade in the Serengeti and its implications for ecosystem C. PLoS Biology, 7, e1000210.
Holt, R. D. (1977). Predation, apparent competition, and structure of prey communities. Theoretical Population Biology, 12, 197–229.
Holt, R. D. (1984). Spatial heterogeneity, indirect interactions, and the coexistence of prey species. American Naturalist, 124, 377–406.
Holt, R. D. (1997). Community modules. In Gange, A. C. & Brown, V. K. (eds), Multitrophic Interactions in Terrestrial Systems. London: Blackwell Science, pp. 333–350.
Holt, R. D. & Dobson, A. P. (2006). Extending the principles of community ecology to address the epidemiology of host–pathogen systems. In Collinge, S. K. & Ray, C. (eds), Disease Ecology: Community Structure and Pathogen Dynamics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 6–27.
Holt, R. D., Dobson, A. P., Begon, M., Bowers, R. G. & Schauber, E. M. (2003). Parasite establishment in host communities. Ecology Letters, 6, 837–842.
Holt, R. D., Grover, J. & Tilman, D. (1994). Simple rules for interspecific dominance in systems with exploitative and apparent competition. American Naturalist, 144, 741–771.
Holt, R. D. & Hochberg, M. E. (1998). The coexistence of competing parasites: part II – hyperparasitism and food chain dynamics. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 193, 485–495.
Holt, R. D. & Hochberg, M. E. (2001). Indirect interactions, community modules and biological control: a theoretical perspective. In Wajnberg, E., Scott, J. K. & Quimby, P. C. (eds), Evaluating Indirect Ecological Effects of Biological Control. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 13–37.
Holt, R. D. & Huxel, G. R. (2007). Alternative prey and the dynamics of intraguild predation: theoretical perspectives. Ecology, 88, 2706–2712.
Holt, R. D. & Kotler, B. P. (1987). Short-term apparent competition. American Naturalist, 130, 412–430.
Holt, R. D. & Lawton, J. H. (1993). Apparent competition and enemy-free space in insect host–parasitoid communities. American Naturalist, 142, 623–645.
Holt, R. D. & Pickering, J. (1985). Infectious disease and species coexistence: a model of Lotka–Volterra form. American Naturalist, 126, 196–211.
Holt, R. D. & Polis, G. A. (1997). A theoretical framework for intraguild predation. American Naturalist, 149, 745–764.
Holt, R. D. & Roy, M. (2007). Predation can increase the prevalence of infectious disease. American Naturalist, 169, 690–699.
Hoogendoorn, M. & Heimpel, G. E. (2002). Indirect interactions between an introduced and a native ladybird beetle species mediated by a shared parasitoid. Biological Control, 25, 224–230.
Horimoto, T. & Kawaoka, Y. (2005). Influenza: lessons from past pandemics, warnings from current incidents. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3, 591–600.
Hudault, S., Guignot, J. & Servin, A. L. (2001). Escherichia coli strains colonising the gastrointestinal tract protect germfree mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection. GUT, 49, 47–55.
Hudson, P. J., Dobson, A. P. & Lafferty, K. D. (2006). Is a healthy ecosystem one that is rich in parasites?Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 381–385.
Hudson, P. J., Dobson, A. P. & Newborn, D. (1992a). Do parasites make prey vulnerable to predation: red grouse and parasites. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61, 681–692.
Hudson, P. J., Dobson, A. P. & Newborn, D. (1998). Prevention of population cycles by parasite removal. Science, 282, 2256–2258.
Hudson, P. J. & Greenman, J. (1998). Competition mediated by parasites: biological and theoretical progress. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 13, 387–390.
Hudson, P. J., Newborn, D. & Dobson, A. P. (1992b). Regulation and stability of a free-living host–parasite system: Trichostrongylus tenuis in red grouse – 1. Monitoring and parasite reduction experiments. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61, 477–486.
Huspeni, T. C. & Lafferty, K. D. (2004). Using larval trematodes that parasitize snails to evaluate a saltmarsh restoration project. Ecological Applications, 14, 795–804.
Huxham, M., Beaney, S. & Raffaelli, D. (1996). Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web?Oikos, 76, 284–300.
Huxham, M., Raffaelli, D. & Pike, A. (1995). Parasites and food-web patterns. Journal of Animal Ecology, 64, 168–176.
Inbar, M. & Gerling, D. (2008). Plant-mediated interactions between whiteflies, herbivores, and natural enemies. Annual Review of Entomology, 53, 431–448.
Ishtiaq, F., Beadell, J. S., Baker, A. J., Rahmani, A. R., Jhala, Y. V. & Fleischer, R. C. (2006). Prevalence and evolutionary relationships of haematozoan parasites in native versus introduced populations of common myna Acridotheres tristis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 273, 587–594.
Ives, A. R. & Murray, D. L. (1997). Can sublethal parasitism destabilize predator–prey population dynamics? A model of snowshoe hares, predators and parasites. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 265–278.
Jaenike, J. (1995). Interactions between mycophagous Drosophila and their nematode parasites: from physiological to community ecology. Oikos, 72, 235–244.
James, T. Y., Litvintseva, A. P., Vilgalys, R., Morgan, J. A. T., Taylor, J. W., Fisher, M. C., Berger, L., Weldon, C., du Preez, L. & Longcore, J. E. (2009). Rapid global expansion of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis into declining and healthy amphibian populations. PLoS Pathogens, 5, e1000458.
Janssen, A., Sabelis, M. W., Magalhaes, S., Montserrat, M. & Hammen, T. (2007). Habitat structure affects intraguild predation. Ecology, 88, 2713–2719.
Janzen, D. H. (1970). Herbivores and number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist, 104, 501–528.
Jensen, T., Jensen, K. T. & Mouritsen, K. N. (1998). The influence of the trematode Microphallus claviformis on two congeneric intermediate host species (Corophium): infection characteristics and host survival. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 227, 35–48.
Johnson, N. C., Graham, J. H. & Smith, F. A. (1997). Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism–parasitism continuum. New Phytologist, 135, 575–586.
Johnson, P. T. J., Dobson, A., Lafferty, K. D., Marcogliese, D. J., Memmott, J., Orlofske, S. A., Poulin, R. & Thieltges, D. W. (2010). When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasites. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25, 362–371.
Joly, D. O. & Messier, F. (2004). The distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in moose: evidence for parasite-induced vulnerability to predation by wolves?Oecologia, 140, 586–590.
Jones, C. G., Lawton, J. H. & Shachak, M. (1994). Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos, 69, 373–386.
Jones, K. E., Patel, N. G., Levy, M. A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J. L. & Daszak, P. (2008). Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451, 990–993.
Joo, J., Gunny, M., Cases, M., Hudson, P., Albert, R. & Harvill, E. (2006). Bacteriophage-mediated competition in Bordetella bacteria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 273, 1843–1848.
Joshi, J., Matthies, D. & Schmid, B. (2000). Root hemiparasites and plant diversity in experimental grassland communities. Journal of Ecology, 88, 634–644.
Juliano, S. A. & Lounibos, L. P. (2005). Ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health. Ecology Letters, 8, 558–574.
Kaltz, O. & Shykoff, J. A. (1998). Local adaptation in host–parasite systems. Heredity, 81, 361–370.
Kanno, H. & Fujita, Y. (2003). Induced systemic resistance to rice blast fungus in rice plants infested by white-backed planthopper. Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata, 107, 155–158.
Kanno, H., Satoh, M., Kimura, T. & Fujita, Y. (2005). Some aspects of induced resistance to rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, in rice plant infested by white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 40, 91–97.
Karban, R., Baldwin, I. T. (1997). Induced Responses to Herbivory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Karban, R., Baldwin, I. T., Baxter, K. J., Laue, G. & Felton, G. W. (2000). Communication between plants: induced resistance in wild tobacco plants following clipping of neighboring sagebrush. Oecologia, 125, 66–71.
Keane, R. M. & Crawley, M. J. (2002). Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17, 164–170.
Keele, B. F., Jones, J. H., Terio, K. A., Estes, J. D., Rudicell, R. S., Wilson, M. L., Li, Y. Y., Learn, G. H., Beasley, T. M., Schumacher-Stankey, J., Wroblewski, E., Mosser, A., Raphael, J., Kamenya, S., Lonsdorf, E. V., Travis, D. A., Mlengeya, T., Kinsel, M. J., Else, J. G., Silvestri, G., Goodall, J., Sharp, P. M., Shaw, G. M., Pusey, A. E. & Hahn, B. H. (2009). Increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild chimpanzees infected with SIVcpz. Nature, 460, 515–519.
Keele, B. F., Heuverswyn, F., Li, Y. Y., Bailes, E., Takehisa, J., Santiago, M. L., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Chen, Y. L., Wain, L. V., Liegeois, F., Loul, S., Ngole, E. M., Bienvenue, Y., Delaporte, E., Brookfield, J. F. Y., Sharp, P. M., Shaw, G. M., Peeters, M. & Hahn, B. H. (2006). Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1. Science, 313, 523–526.
Keesing, F., Holt, R. D. & Ostfeld, R. S. (2006). Effects of species diversity on disease risk. Ecology Letters, 9, 485–498.
Kelly, D. W., Bailey, R. J., MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T. A. & McDonald, R. A. (2006). Invasion by the amphipod Gammarus pulex alters community composition of native freshwater macroinvertebrates. Diversity and Distributions, 12, 525–534.
Kelly, D. W., Paterson, R. A., Townsend, C. R., Poulin, R. & Tompkins, D. M. (2009). Parasite spillback: a neglected concept in invasion ecology?Ecology, 90, 2047–2056.
Kennedy, C. R. & Guegan, J. F. (1994). Regional versus local helminth parasite richness in British fresh-water fish: saturated or unsaturated parasite communities. Parasitology, 109, 175–185.
Kessler, A. & Baldwin, I. T. (2001). Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science, 291, 2141–2144.
Kfir, R., Gouws, J. & Moore, S. D. (1993). Biology of Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae): a facultative hyperparasitoid of stem borers. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3, 149–159.
Kiesecker, J. M. & Blaustein, A. R. (1999). Pathogen reverses competition between larval amphibians. Ecology, 80, 2442–2448.
Kilpatrick, A. M., Daszak, P., Goodman, S. J., Rogg, H., Kramer, L. D., Cedeno, V. & Cunningham, A. A. (2006). Predicting pathogen introduction: West Nile virus spread to Galapagos. Conservation Biology, 20, 1224–1231.
Kim, K. & Harvell, C. D. (2004). The rise and fall of a six-year coral–fungal epizootic. American Naturalist, 164, S52–S63.
King, A. A. & Hastings, A. (2003). Spatial mechanisms for coexistence of species sharing a common natural enemy. Theoretical Population Biology, 64, 431–438.
Kleczkowski, A., Gilligan, C. A. & Bailey, D. J. (1997). Scaling and spatial dynamics in plant–pathogen systems: from individuals to populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 264, 979–984.
Kloepper, J. W., Ryu, C. M. & Zhang, S. A. (2004). Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology, 94, 1259–1266.
Knevel, I. C., Lans, T., Menting, F. B. J., Hertling, U. M. & Putten, W. H. (2004). Release from native root herbivores and biotic resistance by soil pathogens in a new habitat both affect the alien Ammophila arenaria in South Africa. Oecologia, 141, 502–510.
Koella, J. C., Lynch, P. A., Thomas, M. B. & Read, A. F. (2009). Towards evolution-proof malaria control with insecticides. Evolutionary Applications, 2, 469–480.
Kohler, S. L. (2008). The ecology of host–parasite interactions in aquatic insects. In Lancaster, J., Briers, R. & Macadam, C. (eds), Aquatic Insects: Challenges to Populations. Wallingford: CAB International, pp. 55–80.
Kohler, S. L. & Wiley, M. J. (1997). Pathogen outbreaks reveal large-scale effects of competition in stream communities. Ecology, 78, 2164–2176.
Kokko, H. & Lindstrom, J. (1998). Seasonal density dependence, timing of mortality, and sustainable harvesting. Ecological Modelling, 110, 293–304.
Kolar, C. S. & Lodge, D. M. (2001). Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16, 199–204.
Komar, N., Langevin, S., Hinten, S., Nemeth, N., Edwards, E., Hettler, D., Davis, B., Bowen, R. & Bunning, M. (2003). Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9, 311–322.
Kopp, K. & Jokela, J. (2007). Resistant invaders can convey benefits to native species. Oikos, 116, 295–301.
Koprivnikar, J., Forbes, M. R. & Baker, R. L. (2008). Larval amphibian growth and development under varying density: are parasitized individuals poor competitors?Oecologia, 155, 641–649.
Krkosek, M., Lewis, M. A., Morton, A., Frazer, L. N. & Volpe, J. P. (2006). Epizootics of wild fish induced by farm fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 15506–15510.
Kuiken, T., Kennedy, S., Barrett, T., Bildt, M. W. G., Borgsteede, F. H., Brew, S. D., Codd, G. A., Duck, C., Deaville, R., Eybatov, T., Forsyth, M. A., Foster, G., Jepson, P. D., Kydyrmanov, A., Mitrofanov, I., Ward, C. J., Wilson, S. & Osterhaus, A. (2006). The 2000 canine distemper epidemic in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica): pathology and analysis of contributory factors. Veterinary Pathology, 43, 321–338.
Kulmatiski, A., Beard, K. H., Stevens, J. R. & Cobbold, S. M. (2008). Plant–soil feedbacks: a meta-analytical review. Ecology Letters, 11, 980–992.
Kuo, C. H., Corby-Harris, V. & Promislow, D. E. L. (2008). The unavoidable costs and unexpected benefits of parasitism: population and metapopulation models of parasite-mediated competition. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 250, 244–256.
Kuris, A. M., Hechinger, R. F., Shaw, J. C., Whitney, K. L., Aguirre-Macedo, L., Boch, C. A., Dobson, A. P., Dunham, E. J., Fredensborg, B. L., Huspeni, T. C., Lorda, J., Mababa, L., Mancini, F. T., Mora, A. B., Pickering, M., Talhouk, N. L., Torchin, M. E. & Lafferty, K. D. (2008). Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries. Nature, 454, 515–518.
Kuris, A. M. & Lafferty, K. D. (1992). Modeling crustacean fisheries: effects of parasites on management strategies. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 49, 327–336.
Kuris, A. M. & Lafferty, K. D. (1994). Community structure: larval trematodes in snail hosts. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 25, 189–217.
LaDeau, S. L., Kilpatrick, A. M. & Marra, P. P. (2007). West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature, 447, 710–713.
Lafferty, K. D. (1992). Foraging on prey that are modified by parasites. American Naturalist, 140, 854–867.
Lafferty, K. D. (2009). The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases. Ecology, 90, 888–900.
Lafferty, K. D., Allesina, S., Arim, M., Briggs, C. J., Leo, G., Dobson, A. P., Dunne, J. A., Johnson, P. T. J., Kuris, A. M., Marcogliese, D. J., Martinez, N. D., Memmott, J., Marquet, P. A., McLaughlin, J. P., Mordecai, E. A., Pascual, M., Poulin, R. & Thieltges, D. W. (2008a). Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links. Ecology Letters, 11, 533–546.
Lafferty, K. D., Dobson, A. P. & Kuris, A. M. (2006a). Parasites dominate food web links. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 11211–11216.
Lafferty, K. D., Hechinger, R. F., Shaw, J. C., Whitney, K. & Kuris, A. M. (2006b). Food webs and parasites in a salt marsh ecosystem. In Collinge, S. K. & Ray, C. (eds), Disease Ecology: Community Structure and Pathogen Dynamics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 119–134.
Lafferty, K. D. & Kuris, A. M. (2009). Parasites reduce food web robustness because they are sensitive to secondary extinction as illustrated by an invasive estuarine snail. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 364, 1659–1663.
Lafferty, K. D. & Morris, A. K. (1996). Altered behavior of parasitized killifish increases susceptibility to predation by bird final hosts. Ecology, 77, 1390–1397.
Lafferty, K. D., Porter, J. W. & Ford, S. E. (2004). Are diseases increasing in the ocean?Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 35, 31–54.
Lafferty, K. D., Shaw, J. C. & Kuris, A. M. (2008b). Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island. Ecohealth, 5, 338–345.
Lagrue, C. & Poulin, R. (2008). Intra- and interspecific competition among helminth parasites: effects on Coitocaecum parvum life history, strategy, size and fecundity. International Journal for Parasitology, 38, 1435–1444.
Lau, S. K. P., Woo, P. C. Y., Li, K. S. M., Huang, Y., Tsoi, H. W., Wong, B. H. L., Wong, S. S. Y., Leung, S. Y., Chan, K. H. & Yuen, K. Y. (2005). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 14040–14045.
Laurenson, M. K., McKendrick, I. J., Reid, H. W., Challenor, R. & Mathewson, G. K. (2007). Prevalence, spatial distribution and the effect of control measures on louping-ill virus in the Forest of Bowland, Lancashire. Epidemiology and Infection, 135, 963–973.
Laurenson, M. K., Norman, R. A., Gilbert, L., Reid, H. W. & Hudson, P. J. (2003). Identifying disease reservoirs in complex systems: mountain hares as reservoirs of ticks and louping-ill virus, pathogens of red grouse. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 177–185.
Laurenson, M. K., Norman, R. A., Gilbert, L., Reid, H. W. & Hudson, P. J. (2004). Mountain hares, louping-ill, red grouse and harvesting: complex interactions but few data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 73, 811–813.
Lavigne, D. M. & Schmitz, O. J. (1990). Global warming and increasing population densities: a prescription for seal plagues. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 21, 280–284.
Leath, K. T. & Byers, R. A. (1977). Interaction of fusarium root-rot with pea aphid and potato leafhopper feeding on forage legumes. Phytopathology, 67, 226–229.
Lee, K. A. & Klasing, K. C. (2004). A role for immunology in invasion biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 523–529.
Lee, K. A., Martin, L. B. & Wikelski, M. C. (2005). Responding to inflammatory challenges is less costly for a successful avian invader, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), than its less-invasive congener. Oecologia, 145, 244–251.
Lefevre, T., Roche, B., Poulin, R., Hurd, H., Renaud, F. & Thomas, F. (2008). Exploiting host compensatory responses: the ‘must’ of manipulation?Trends in Parasitology, 24, 435–439.
Lehtonen, P., Helander, M., Wink, M., Sporer, F. & Saikkonen, K. (2005). Transfer of endophyte-origin defensive alkaloids from a grass to a hemiparasitic plant. Ecology Letters, 8, 1256–1263.
Lello, J., Boag, B., Fenton, A., Stevenson, I. R. & Hudson, P. J. (2004). Competition and mutualism among the gut helminths of a mammalian host. Nature, 428, 840–844.
Lemons, A., Clay, K. & Rudgers, J. A. (2005). Connecting plant–microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition. Oecologia, 145, 595–604.
Lenski, R. E. & May, R. M. (1994). The evolution of virulence in parasites and pathogens: reconciliation between two competing hypotheses. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 169, 253–265.
Leroy, E. M., Kumulungui, B., Pourrut, X., Rouquet, P., Hassanin, A., Yaba, P., Delicat, A., Paweska, J. T., Gonzalez, J. P. & Swanepoel, R. (2005). Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature, 438, 575–576.
Leroy, E. M., Rouquet, P., Formenty, P., Souquiere, S., Kilbourne, A., Froment, J. M., Bermejo, M., Smit, S., Karesh, W., Swanepoel, R., Zaki, S. R. & Rollin, P. E. (2004). Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife. Science, 303, 387–390.
Leung, T. L. F., Keeney, D. B. & Poulin, R. (2009). Cryptic species complexes in manipulative echinostomatid trematodes: when two become six. Parasitology, 136, 241–252.
Li, W. D., Shi, Z. L., Yu, M., Ren, W. Z., Smith, C., Epstein, J. H., Wang, H. Z., Crameri, G., Hu, Z. H., Zhang, H. J., Zhang, J. H., McEachern, J., Field, H., Daszak, P., Eaton, B. T., Zhang, S. Y. & Wang, L. F. (2005). Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science, 310, 676–679.
Lips, K. R., Diffendorfer, J., Mendelson, J. R. & Sears, M. W. (2008). Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines. PLoS Biology, 6, 441–454.
Lipsitch, M., Cohen, T., Cooper, B., Robins, J. M., Ma, S., James, L., Gopalakrishna, G., Chew, S. K., Tan, C. C., Samore, M. H., Fisman, D. & Murray, M. (2003). Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science, 300, 1966–1970.
Lloyd-Smith, J. O., Galvani, A. P. & Getz, W. M. (2003). Curtailing transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome within a community and its hospital. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 270, 1979–1989.
Lloyd-Smith, J. O., George, D., Pepin, K. M., Pitzer, V. E., Pulliam, J. R. C., Dobson, A. P., Hudson, P. J. & Grenfell, B. T. (2009). Epidemic dynamics at the human–animal interface. Science, 326, 1362–1367.
Lloyd-Smith, J. O., Schreiber, S. J., Kopp, P. E. & Getz, W. M. (2005). Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence. Nature, 438, 355–359.
Lockwood, J. L., Hoopes, M. F. & Marchetti, M. P. (2007). Invasion Ecology. Oxford: Blackwell.
LoGiudice, K., Duerr, S. T. K., Newhouse, M. J., Schmidt, K. A., Killilea, M. E. & Ostfeld, R. S. (2008). Impact of host community composition on Lyme disease risk. Ecology, 89, 2841–2849.
LoGiudice, K., Ostfeld, R. S., Schmidt, K. A. & Keesing, F. (2003). The ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 567–571.
Loo, J. (2009). Ecological impacts of non-indigenous invasive fungi as forest pathogens. Biological Invasions, 11, 81–96.
Lopez, G., Lopez-Parra, M., Fernandez, L., Martinez-Granados, C., Martinez, F., Meli, M. L., Gil-Sanchez, J. M., Viqueira, N., Diaz-Portero, M. A., Cadenas, R., Lutz, H., Vargas, A. & Simon, M. A. (2009). Management measures to control a feline leukemia virus outbreak in the endangered Iberian lynx. Animal Conservation, 12, 173–182.
Losey, J. E., Ives, A. R., Harmon, J., Ballantyne, F. & Brown, C. (1997). A polymorphism maintained by opposite patterns of parasitism and predation. Nature, 388, 269–272.
Lubick, N. (2010). Emergency medicine for frogs. Nature, 465, 680–681.
MacArthur, R. (1955). Fluctuations of animal populations, and a measure of community stability. Ecology, 36, 533–536.
MacDonald, D. W. & Laurenson, M. K. (2006). Infectious disease: inextricable linkages between human and ecosystem health. Biological Conservation, 131, 143–150.
MacDonald, D. W., Riordan, P. & Mathews, F. (2006). Biological hurdles to the control of TB in cattle: a test of two hypotheses concerning wildlife to explain the failure of control. Biological Conservation, 131, 268–286.
Mack, K. M. L. & Rudgers, J. A. (2008). Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungal endophytes. Oikos, 117, 310–320.
Mack, R. N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W. M., Evans, H., Clout, M. & Bazzaz, F. A. (2000). Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications, 10, 689–710.
MacLeod, C. J., Paterson, A. M., Tompkins, D. M. & Duncan, R. P. (2010). Parasites lost: do invaders miss the boat or drown on arrival?Ecology Letters, 13, 516–527.
MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T. A., Hatcher, M. J. & Dunn, A. M. (2003a). Differential drift and parasitism in invading and native Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Ecography, 26, 467–473.
MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T. A., Hatcher, M. J., Fielding, N. J., Hume, K. D. & Dunn, A. M. (2003b). Parasite transmission and cannibalism in an amphipod (Crustacea). International Journal for Parasitology, 33, 795–798.
MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T. A., Hatcher, M. J., Terry, R. S., Smith, J. E. & Dunn, A. M. (2003c). Parasite-mediated predation between native and invasive amphipods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 270, 1309–1314.
MacNeil, C., Fielding, N. J., Dick, J. T. A., Briffa, M., Prenter, J., Hatcher, M. J. & Dunn, A. M. (2003d). An acanthocephalan parasite mediates intraguild predation between invasive and native freshwater amphipods (Crustacea). Freshwater Biology, 48, 2085–2093.
MacNeil, C., Fielding, N. J., Hume, K. D., Dick, J. T. A., Elwood, R. W., Hatcher, M. J. & Dunn, A. M. (2003e). Parasite altered micro-distribution of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda). International Journal for Parasitology, 33, 57–64.
Malmstrom, C. M., Hughes, C. C., Newton, L. A. & Stoner, C. J. (2005a). Virus infection in remnant native bunchgrasses from invaded California grasslands. New Phytologist, 168, 217–230.
Malmstrom, C. M., McCullough, A. J., Johnson, H. A., Newton, L. A. & Borer, E. T. (2005b). Invasive annual grasses indirectly increase virus incidence in California native perennial bunchgrasses. Oecologia, 145, 153–164.
Malmstrom, C. M., Stoner, C. J., Brandenburg, S. & Newton, L. A. (2006). Virus infection and grazing exert counteracting influences on survivorship of native bunchgrass seedlings competing with invasive exotics. Journal of Ecology, 94, 264–275.
March, W. A. & Watson, D. M. (2007). Parasites boost productivity: effects of mistletoe on litterfall dynamics in a temperate Australian forest. Oecologia, 154, 339–347.
Marcogliese, D. J. & Cone, D. K. (1997). Food webs: a plea for parasites. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12, 394–394.
Marr, S. R., Mautz, W. J. & Hara, A. H. (2008). Parasite loss and introduced species: a comparison of the parasites of the Puerto Rican tree frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui) in its native and introduced ranges. Biological Invasions, 10, 1289–1298.
Marra, P. P., Griffing, S., Caffrey, C., Kilpatrick, A. M., McLean, R., Brand, C., Saito, E., Dupuis, A. P., Kramer, L. & Novak, R. (2004). West Nile virus and wildlife. Bioscience, 54, 393–402.
Marshall, K., Mamone, M. & Barclay, R. (2003). A survey of Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe brooms used for nests by northern spotted owls on the Applegate Ranger District and Ashland Resource area in southwest Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 18, 115–117.
Martens, P., Kovats, R. S., Nijhof, S., Vries, P., Livermore, M. T. J., Bradley, D. J., Cox, J. & McMichael, A. J. (1999). Climate change and future populations at risk of malaria. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions, 9, S89–S107.
Martens, W. J. M., Jetten, T. H. & Focks, D. A. (1997). Sensitivity of malaria, schistosomiasis and dengue to global warming. Climatic Change, 35, 145–156.
Massey, R. C., Buckling, A. & French-Constant, R. (2004). Interference competition and parasite virulence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 271, 785–788.
Mathews, F. (2009). Zoonoses in wildlife: integrating ecology into management. Advances in Parasitology, 68, 185–209.
Mathiasen, R. L., Nickrent, D. L., Shaw, D. C. & Watson, D. M. (2008). Mistletoes: pathology, systematics, ecology, and management. Plant Disease, 92, 988–1006.
Matson, K. D. (2006). Are there differences in immune function between continental and insular birds?Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 273, 2267–2274.
Matthies, D. (1995). Parasitic and competitive interactions between the hemiparasites Rhinanthus serotinus and Odontites rubra and their host Medicago sativa. Journal of Ecology, 83, 245–251.
May, R. M. (1973). Stability and complexity in model ecosystems. Monographs in Population Biology, 6, 1–235.
May, R. M. & Anderson, R. M. (1987). Transmission dynamics of HIV infection. Nature, 326, 137–142.
May, R. M. & Anderson, R. M. (1990). Parasite–host coevolution. Parasitology, 100, S89–S101.
May, R. M., Gupta, S. & McLean, A. R. (2001). Infectious disease dynamics: what characterizes a successful invader?Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 356, 901–910.
McCallum, H., Barlow, N. & Hone, J. (2001). How should pathogen transmission be modelled?Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16, 295–300.
McCallum, H., Gerber, L. & Jani, A. (2005). Does infectious disease influence the efficacy of marine protected areas? A theoretical framework. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 688–698.
McCallum, H., Tompkins, D. M., Jones, M., Lachish, S., Marvanek, S., Lazenby, B., Hocking, G., Wiersma, J. & Hawkins, C. E. (2007). Distribution and impacts of Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease. Ecohealth, 4, 318–325.
McCann, K., Hastings, A. & Huxel, G. R. (1998). Weak trophic interactions and the balance of nature. Nature, 395, 794–798.
McCann, K. S. (2000). The diversity–stability debate. Nature, 405, 228–233.
McGeoch, M. A., Butchart, S. H. M., Spear, D., Marais, E., Kleynhans, E. J., Symes, A., Chanson, J. & Hoffmann, M. (2010). Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses. Diversity and Distributions, 16, 95–108.
McMichael, A. J., Bouma, M. J., Mooney, H. A. & Hobbs, R. J. (2000). Global changes, invasive species, and human health. In Mooney, H. A. & Hobbs, R. J. (eds), Invasive Species in a Changing World. Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 191–240.
Medoc, V. & Beisel, J. N. (2008). An acanthocephalan parasite boosts the escape performance of its intermediate host facing non-host predators. Parasitology, 135, 977–984.
Medoc, V., Bollache, L. & Beisel, J. N. (2006). Host manipulation of a freshwater crustacean (Gammarus roeseli) by an acanthocephalan parasite (Polymorphus minutus) in a biological invasion context. International Journal for Parasitology, 36, 1351–1358.
Memmott, J., Fowler, S. V., Paynter, Q., Sheppard, A. W. & Syrett, P. (2000). The invertebrate fauna on broom, Cytisus scoparius, in two native and two exotic habitats. Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology, 21, 213–222.
Meyling, N. V. & Hajek, A. E. (2010). Principles from community and metapopulation ecology: application to fungal entomopathogens. Biocontrol, 55, 39–54.
Michaelis, M., Doerr, H. W. & Cinatl, J. (2009). Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at the door. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 198, 175–183.
Milinski, M. (1985). Risk of predation of parasitized sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) under competition for food. Behaviour, 93, 203–215.
Mills, N. J. & Gutierrez, A. P. (1996). Prospective modelling in biological control: an analysis of the dynamics of heteronomous hyperparasitism in a cotton–whitefly–parasitoid system. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 1379–1394.
Minchella, D. J. & Scott, M. E. (1991). Parasitism: a cryptic determinant of animal community structure. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 6, 250–254.
Mitchell, C. E. & Power, A. G. (2003). Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens. Nature, 421, 625–627.
Mitchell, C. E., Tilman, D. & Groth, J. V. (2002). Effects of grassland plant species diversity, abundance, and composition on foliar fungal disease. Ecology, 83, 1713–1726.
Mittelbach, G. G. (2005). Parasites, communities, and ecosystems: conclusions and perspectives. In Thomas, F., Renaud, F. & Geugan, J. F. (eds) Parasitism and Ecosystems, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 171–176.
Moleon, M., Almaraz, P. & Sanchez-Zapata, J. A. (2008). An emerging infectious disease triggering large-scale hyperpredation. PLoS One, 3, e2307.
Moller, A. P. (2008). Interactions between interactions: predator–prey, parasite–host, and mutualistic interactions. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1133, 180–186.
Molofsky, J., Bever, J. D. & Antonovics, J. (2001). Coexistence under positive frequency dependence. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 268, 273–277.
Molofsky, J., Bever, J. D., Antonovics, J. & Newman, T. J. (2002). Negative frequency dependence and the importance of spatial scale. Ecology, 83, 21–27.
Money, N. P. (2007). Triumph of the Fungi: A Rotten History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moore, J. (2002). Parasites and the Behavior of Animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moore, S. M., Borer, E. T. & Hosseini, P. R. (2010). Predators indirectly control vector-borne disease: linking predator–prey and host–pathogen models. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 161–176.
Morens, D. M., Folkers, G. K. & Fauci, A. S. (2008). Emerging infections: a perpetual challenge. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 8, 710–719.
Moret, Y., Bollache, L., Wattier, R. & Rigaud, T. (2007). Is the host or the parasite the most locally adapted in an amphipod–acanthocephalan relationship? A case study in a biological invasion context. International Journal for Parasitology, 37, 637–644.
Morris, R. J., Lewis, O. T. & Godfray, H. C. J. (2004). Experimental evidence for apparent competition in a tropical forest food web. Nature, 428, 310–313.
Morris, R. J., Muller, C. B. & Godfray, H. C. J. (2001). Field experiments testing for apparent competition between primary parasitoids mediated by secondary parasitoids. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 301–309.
Morris, W. F., Hufbauer, R. A., Agrawal, A. A., Bever, J. D., Borowicz, V. A., Gilbert, G. S., Maron, J. L., Mitchell, C. E., Parker, I. M., Power, A. G., Torchin, M. E. & Vazquez, D. P. (2007). Direct and interactive effects of enemies and mutualists on plant performance: a meta-analysis. Ecology, 88, 1021–1029.
Morrison, L. W. (1999). Indirect effects of phorid fly parasitoids on the mechanisms of interspecific competition among ants. Oecologia, 121, 113–122.
Mouillot, D., Krasnov, B. R. & Poulin, R. (2008a). High intervality explained by phylogenetic constraints in host–parasite webs. Ecology, 89, 2043–2051.
Mouillot, D., Krasnov, B. R., Shenbrot, G. I. & Poulin, R. (2008b). Connectance and parasite diet breadth in flea–mammal webs. Ecography, 31, 16–20.
Mouritsen, K. N. (2001). Hitch-hiking parasite: a dark horse may be the real rider. International Journal for Parasitology, 31, 1417–1420.
Mouritsen, K. N. & Haun, S. C. B. (2008). Community regulation by herbivore parasitism and density: trait-mediated indirect interactions in the intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 367, 236–246.
Mouritsen, K. N. & Jensen, T. (2006). The effect of Sacculina carcini infections on the fouling, burying behaviour and condition of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. Marine Biology Research, 2, 270–275.
Mouritsen, K. N., Mouritsen, L. T. & Jensen, K. T. (1998). Change of topography and sediment characteristics on an intertidal mud-flat following mass-mortality of the amphipod Corophium volutator. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 78, 1167–1180.
Mouritsen, K. N. & Polml, R. (2006). A parasite indirectly impacts both abundance of primary producers and biomass of secondary producers in an intertidal benthic community. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86, 221–226.
Mouritsen, K. N. & Poulin, R. (2003). Parasite-induced trophic facilitation exploited by a non-host predator: a manipulator's nightmare. International Journal for Parasitology, 33, 1043–1050.
Mouritsen, K. N. & Poulin, R. (2005). Parasitism can influence the intertidal zonation of non-host organisms. Marine Biology, 148, 1–11.
Mueller, R. C. & Gehring, C. A. (2006). Interactions between an above-ground plant parasite and below-ground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on pinyon pine. Journal of Ecology, 94, 276–284.
Muller, C. B. & Brodeur, J. (2002). Intraguild predation in biological control and conservation biology. Biological Control, 25, 216–223.
Murray, D. L., Cary, J. R. & Keith, L. B. (1997). Interactive effects of sublethal nematodes and nutritional status on snowshoe hare vulnerability to predation. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 250–264.
Musselman, L. J. & Press, M. C. (1995). Introduction to parasitic plants. In Press, M. C. & Graves, J. D. (eds), Parasitic Plants. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 1–13.
Myers, J. H. & Bazely, D. R. (2003). Ecology and Control of Introduced Plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mylius, S. D., Klumpers, K., Roos, A. M. & Persson, L. (2001). Impact of intraguild predation and stage structure on simple communities along a productivity gradient. American Naturalist, 158, 259–276.
Naugle, D. E., Aldridge, C. L., Walker, B. L., Cornish, T. E., Moynahan, B. J., Holloran, M. J., Brown, K., Johnson, G. D., Schmidtmann, E. T., Mayer, R. T., Kato, C. Y., Matchett, M. R., Christiansen, T. J., Cook, W. E., Creekmore, T., Falise, R. D., Rinkes, E. T. & Boyce, M. S. (2004). West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse. Ecology Letters, 7, 704–713.
Nel, L. H. & Rupprecht, C. E. (2007). Emergence of Lyssaviruses in the old world: the case of Africa. In Childs, J. E., Mackenzie, J. S. & Richt, J. A. (eds), Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-species Transmission. Berlin: Springer, pp. 161–193.
Neutel, A. M., Heesterbeek, J. A. P. & Ruiter, P. C. (2002). Stability in real food webs: weak links in long loops. Science, 296, 1120–1123.
New, T. R. (2005). Invertebrate Conservation and Agricultural Ecosystems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nickrent, D. L., Malecot, V., Vidal-Russell, R. & Der, J. P. (2010). A revised classification of Santalales. Taxon, 59, 538–558.
Nogales, M., Martin, A., Tershy, B. R., Donlan, C. J., Witch, D., Puerta, N., Wood, B. & Alonso, J. (2004). A review of feral cat eradication on islands. Conservation Biology, 18, 310–319.
Norman, R., Bowers, R. G., Begon, M. & Hudson, P. J. (1999). Persistence of tick-borne virus in the presence of multiple host species: tick reservoirs and parasite mediated competition. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 200, 111–118.
Norton, D. A. & Reid, N. (1997). Lessons in ecosystem management from management of threatened and pest loranthaceous mistletoes in New Zealand and Australia. Conservation Biology, 11, 759–769.
Novembre, J., Galvani, A. P. & Slatkin, M. (2005). The geographic spread of the CCR5 Delta32 HIV-resistance allele. PLoS Biology, 3, e339.
Odum, E. P. (1953). Fundamentals of Ecology. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Oidtmann, B., El-Matbouli, M., Fischer, H., Hoffmann, R., Klarding, K., Schmid, I. & Schmidt, R. (1997). Light Microscopy of Astacus astacus L. Under Normal and Selected Pathological Conditions, with Special Emphasis to Porcelain Disease and Crayfish Plague. Lafayette: International Association of Astacology.
Oksanen, L., Fretwell, S. D., Arruda, J. & Niemela, P. (1981). Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary productivity. American Naturalist, 118, 240–261.
Olff, H., Hoorens, B., Goede, R. G. M., Putten, W. H. & Gleichman, J. M. (2000). Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species: the possible role of soil-borne pathogens. Oecologia, 125, 45–54.
Oliveira, N. M. & Hilker, F. M. (2010). Modelling disease introduction as biological control of invasive predators to preserve endangered prey. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 72, 444–468.
Olsen, B., Munster, V. J., Wallensten, A., Waldenstrom, J., Osterhaus, A. & Fouchier, R. A. M. (2006). Global patterns of influenza A virus in wild birds. Science, 312, 384–388.
Omacini, M., Chaneton, E. J., Ghersa, C. M. & Muller, C. B. (2001). Symbiotic fungal endophytes control insect host–parasite interaction webs. Nature, 409, 78–81.
Omacini, M., Chaneton, E. J., Ghersa, C. M. & Otero, P. (2004). Do foliar endophytes affect grass litter decomposition? A microcosm approach using Lolium multiflorum. Oikos, 104, 581–590.
Omacini, M., Eggers, T., Bonkowski, M., Gange, A. C. & Jones, T. H. (2006). Leaf endophytes affect mycorrhizal status and growth of co-infected and neighbouring plants. Functional Ecology, 20, 226–232.
Onstad, D. W. (1992). Evaluation of epidemiological thresholds and asymptotes with variable plant densities. Phytopathology, 82, 1028–1032.
Onstad, D. W. & Kornkven, E. A. (1992). Persistence and endemicity of pathogens in plant populations over time and space. Phytopathology, 82, 561–566.
Orr, M. R., Camargo, R. X. & Benson, W. W. (2003). Interactions between ant species increase arrival rates of an ant parasitoid. Animal Behaviour, 65, 1187–1193.
Ostfeld, R. S. (2009a). Biodiversity loss and the rise of zoonotic pathogens. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 15, 40–43.
Ostfeld, R. S. (2009b). Climate change and the distribution and intensity of infectious diseases. Ecology, 90, 903–905.
Ostfeld, R. S., Canham, C. D., Oggenfuss, K., Winchcombe, R. J. & Keesing, F. (2006). Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in Lyme-disease risk. PloS Biology, 4, 1058–1068.
Ostfeld, R. S., Glass, G. E. & Keesing, F. (2005). Spatial epidemiology: an emerging (or re-emerging) discipline. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20, 328–336.
Ostfeld, R. S. & Holt, R. D. (2004). Are predators good for your health? Evaluating evidence for top-down regulation of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2, 13–20.
Ostfeld, R. S. & Keesing, F. (2000). Biodiversity and disease risk: the case of Lyme disease. Conservation Biology, 14, 722–728.
Ostfeld, R. S. & LoGiudice, K. (2003). Community disassembly, biodiversity loss, and the erosion of an ecosystem service. Ecology, 84, 1421–1427.
Otterstatter, M. C. & Thomson, J. D. (2008). Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators?PLoS One, 3, e2771.
Ouellet, M., Mikaelian, I., Pauli, B. D., Rodrigue, J. & Green, D. M. (2005). Historical evidence of widespread chytrid infection in North American amphibian populations. Conservation Biology, 19, 1431–1440.
Paaijmans, K. P., Read, A. F. & Thomas, M. B. (2009). Understanding the link between malaria risk and climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 13844–13849.
Packer, A. & Clay, K. (2000). Soil pathogens and spatial patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree. Nature, 404, 278–281.
Packer, C., Altizer, S., Appel, M., Brown, E., Martenson, J., O'Brien, S. J., Roelke-Parker, M., Hofmann-Lehmann, R. & Lutz, H. (1999). Viruses of the Serengeti: patterns of infection and mortality in African lions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 1161