1.Finer, LB, Zolna, MR. Unintended pregnancy in the United States: incidence and disparities, 2006. Contraception 2011 Nov;84(5):478–85.
2.Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Unintended Pregnancy, 1995.
3.Jones, RK, Kavanaugh, ML. Changes in abortion rates between 2000 and 2008 and lifetime incidence of abortion. Obstet Gynecol 2011 Jun;117(6):1358–66.
4.Finer, LB, Zolna, MR. Shifts in intended and unintended pregnancies in the United States, 2001–2008. Am J Public Health 2014 Feb;104(Suppl 1):S43–8.
5.Pazol, K, Creanga, AA, Burley, KD, et al. Abortion surveillance – United States, 2010. MMWR Surveill Summ 2013 Nov 29;62(8):1–44.
6.Barber, JS, Axinn, WG, Thornton, A. Unwanted childbearing, health, and mother-child relationships. J Health Soc Behav 1999 Sep;40(3):231–57.
7.Sonfeld, A, Kost, K. Public Costs from Unintended Pregnancies and the Role of Public Insurance Programs in Paying for Pregnancy and Infant Care: Estimates for 2008. New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2013.
8.Peipert, JF, Madden, T, Allsworth, JE, Secura, GM. Preventing unintended pregnancies by providing no-cost contraception. Obstet Gynecol 2012 Dec;120(6):1291–7.
9.Sedgh, G, Singh, S, Shah, IH, et al. Induced abortion: incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008. Lancet 2012 Feb 18;379(9816):625–32.
10.Jones, RK, Zolna, MR, Henshaw, SK, Finer, LB. Abortion in the United States: incidence and access to services, 2005. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2008 Mar;40(1):6–16.
11.Jones, RK, Jerman, J. Abortion incidence and service availability in the United States, 2011. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2014 Mar;46(1):3–14.
12.Jerman, J, Jones, RK. Secondary measures of access to abortion services in the United States, 2011 and 2012: gestational age limits, cost, and harassment. Womens Health Issues 2014 Jul–Aug;24(4):e419–24.
13.Boonstra, HD, Nash, E. A Surge of State Abortion Restrictions Puts Providers – and the Women They Serve – in the Crosshairs. Guttmacher Policy Review 2014;17(1):9–15.
14.Creinin, MD. Randomized comparison of efficacy, acceptability and cost of medical versus surgical abortion. Contraception 2000 Sep;62(3):117–24.
15.ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins – Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 143: Medical management of first-trimester abortion. Obstet Gynecol 2014 Mar;123(3):676–92.
16.Rorbye, C, Norgaard, M, Nilas, L. Medical versus surgical abortion: comparing satisfaction and potential confounders in a partly randomized study. Hum Reprod 2005 Mar;20(3):834–8.
17.Henshaw, RC, Naji, SA, Russell, IT, Templeton, AA. Comparison of medical abortion with surgical vacuum aspiration: women’s preferences and acceptability of treatment. BMJ 1993 Sep 18;307(6906):714–17.
18.Gould, H, Perrucci, A, Barar, R, et al. Patient education and emotional support practices in abortion care facilities in the United States. Womens Health Issues 2012 Jul–Aug;22(4):e359–64.
19.Guiahi, M, Davis, A, Society of Family Planning. First-trimester abortion in women with medical conditions. Contraception 2012 Dec;86(6):622–30.
20.Bartlett, LA, Berg, CJ, Shulman, HB, et al. Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2004 Apr;103(4):729–37.
21.Kulier, R, Kapp, N. Comprehensive analysis of the use of pre-procedure ultrasound for first- and second-trimester abortion. Contraception 2011 Jan; 83(1):30–3.
22.O’Connell, K, Jones, HE, Simon, M, et al. First-trimester surgical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members. Contraception 2009 May;79(5):385–92.
23.Lichtenberg, ES, Paul, M, Society of Family Planning. Surgical abortion prior to 7 weeks of gestation. Contraception 2013 Jul;88(1):7–17.
24.Edwards, J, Carson, SA. New technologies permit safe abortion at less than six weeks’ gestation and provide timely detection of ectopic gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997 May;176(5):1101–6.
25.von Hertzen, H, Huong, NT, Piaggio, G, et al. Misoprostol dose and route after mifepristone for early medical abortion: a randomised controlled noninferiority trial. BJOG 2010 Sep;117(10):1186–96.
26.Creinin, MD, Fox, MC, Teal, S, et al. A randomized comparison of misoprostol 6 to 8 hours versus 24 hours after mifepristone for abortion. Obstet Gynecol 2004 May;103(5 Pt 1):851–9.
27.Winikoff, B, Dzuba, IG, Chong, E, et al. Extending outpatient medical abortion services through 70 days of gestational age. Obstet Gynecol 2012 Nov;120(5):1070–6.
28.Grossman, D, Grindlay, K. Alternatives to ultrasound for follow-up after medication abortion: a systematic review. Contraception 2011 Jun;83(6):504–10.
29.Clark, W, Bracken, H, Tanenhaus, J, et al. Alternatives to a routine follow-up visit for early medical abortion. Obstet Gynecol 2010 Feb;115(2 Pt 1):264–72.
30.Dayananda, I, Maurer, R, Fortin, J, Goldberg, AB. Medical abortion follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin compared with ultrasonography: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2013 Mar;121(3):607–13.
31.Cohen, AL, Bhatnagar, J, Reagan, S, et al. Toxic shock associated with Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion. Obstet Gynecol 2007 Nov;110(5):1027–33.
32.Reeves, MF, Kudva, A, Creinin, MD. Medical abortion outcomes after a second dose of misoprostol for persistent gestational sac. Contraception 2008 Oct; 78(4):332–5.
33.Bird, ST, Harvey, SM, Beckman, LJ, et al. Similarities in women’s perceptions and acceptability of manual vacuum aspiration and electric vacuum aspiration for first trimester abortion. Contraception 2003 Mar;67(3):207–12.
34.Kulier, R, Fekih, A, Hofmeyr, GJ, Campana, A. Surgical methods for first trimester termination of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;4:CD002900.
35.Allen, RH, Goldberg, AB, Board of Society of Family Planning. Cervical dilation before first-trimester surgical abortion. Contraception 2007 Aug;76(2):139–56.
36.Kapp, N, Lohr, PA, Ngo, TD, Hayes, JL. Cervical preparation for first trimester surgical abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Feb 17;2:CD007207.
37.Achilles, SL, Reeves, MF, Society of Family Planning. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102. Contraception 2011 Apr;83(4):295–309.
38.Weitz, TA, Taylor, D, Desai, S, et al. Safety of aspiration abortion performed by nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and physician assistants under a California legal waiver. Am J Public Health 2013 Mar;103(3):454–61.
39.Kerns, J, Steinauer, J. Management of postabortion hemorrhage: release date November 2012 SFP Guideline #20131. Contraception 2013 Mar;87(3):331–42.
40.Jackson, E, Kapp, N. Pain control in first-trimester and second-trimester medical termination of pregnancy: a systematic review. Contraception 2011 Feb;83(2):116–26.
41.Avraham, S, Gat, I, Duvdevani, NR, et al. Pre-emptive effect of ibuprofen versus placebo on pain relief and success rates of medical abortion: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Fertil Steril 2012 Mar;97(3):612–15.
42.Raymond, EG, Weaver, MA, Louie, KS, et al. Prophylactic compared with therapeutic ibuprofen analgesia in first-trimester medical abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2013 Sep;122(3):558–64.
43.Renner, RM, Jensen, JT, Nichols, MD, Edelman, AB. Pain control in first-trimester surgical abortion: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Contraception 2010 May;81(5):372–88.
44.Renner, RM, Nichols, MD, Jensen, JT, et al. Paracervical block for pain control in first-trimester surgical abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2012 May;119(5):1030–7.
45.Suprapto, K, Reed, S. Naproxen sodium for pain relief in first-trimester abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Dec 15;150(8):1000–1.
46.Braaten, KP, Hurwitz, S, Fortin, J, Goldberg, AB. Intramuscular ketorolac versus oral ibuprofen for pain relief in first-trimester surgical abortion: a randomized clinical trial. Contraception 2014 Feb;89(2):116–21.
47.Micks, EA, Edelman, AB, Renner, RM, et al. Hydrocodone-acetaminophen for pain control in first-trimester surgical abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2012 Nov;120(5):1060–9.
48.Allen, RH, Kumar, D, Fitzmaurice, G, et al. Pain management of first-trimester surgical abortion: effects of selection of local anesthesia with and without lorazepam or intravenous sedation. Contraception 2006 Nov;74(5):407–13.
49.Low, N, Mueller, M, Van Vliet, HA, Kapp, N. Perioperative antibiotics to prevent infection after first-trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Mar 14;3:CD005217.
50.ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins – Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 104: antibiotic prophylaxis for gynecologic procedures. Obstet Gynecol 2009 May;113(5):1180–9.
51.Fjerstad, M, Trussell, J, Sivin, I, et al. Rates of serious infection after changes in regimens for medical abortion. N Engl J Med 2009 Jul 9;361(2):145–51.
52.Trussell, J, Nucatola, D, Fjerstad, M, Lichtenberg, ES. Reduction in infection-related mortality since modifications in the regimen of medical abortion. Contraception 2014 Mar;89(3):193–6.
53.Winner, B, Peipert, JF, Zhao, Q, et al. Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. N Engl J Med 2012 May 24;366(21):1998–2007.
54.Okusanya, BO, Oduwole, O, Effa, EE. Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Jul 28;7:CD001777.