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  • Print publication year: 2017
  • Online publication date: March 2017

Chapter 49 - Pyelonephritis and Urinary Tract Infections

from Subpart IVI - Clinical – Genitourinary
1.Foxman, B. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. The American Journal of Medicine. 2002;113 Suppl 1A:5S13S. Epub 2002/07/13.
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3.Boam, WD, Miser, WF. Acute focal bacterial pyelonephritis. American Family Physician. 1995;52(3):919924. Epub 1995/09/01.
4.Mace, SE. Pediatric observation medicine. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 2001;19(1):239254. Epub 2001/02/24.
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6.Mombelli, G, Pezzoli, R, Pinoja-Lutz, G, et al. Oral vs intravenous ciprofloxacin in the initial empirical management of severe pyelonephritis or complicated urinary tract infections: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1999;159(1):5358. Epub 1999/01/19.
7.Efstathiou, SP, Pefanis, AV, Tsioulos, DI, et al. Acute pyelonephritis in adults: prediction of mortality and failure of treatment. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2003;163(10):12061212. Epub 2003/05/28.
8.Kim, K, Lee, CC, Rhee, JE, et al. The effects of an institutional care map on the admission rates and medical costs in women with acute pyelonephritis. Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 2008;15(4):319323. Epub 2008/03/29.
9.Claessens, YE, Schmidt, J, Batard, E, et al. Can C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide measurements guide choice of in-patient or out-patient care in acute pyelonephritis? Biomarkers In Sepsis (BIS) multicentre study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection: The Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(6):753760. Epub 2009/09/15.
10.Guinard-Barbier, S, Grabar, S, Chenevier-Gobeaux, C, et al. Is mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP) an accurate marker of bacteremia in pyelonephritis? Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals. 2011;16(4):355363. Epub 2011/05/21.
11.Crenshaw, LA, Lindsell, CJ, Storrow, AB, Lyons, MS. An evaluation of emergency physician selection of observation unit patients. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2006;24(3):271279. Epub 2006/04/26.
12.Schrock, JW, Reznikova, S, Weller, S. The effect of an observation unit on the rate of ED admission and discharge for pyelonephritis. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2010;28(6):682688. Epub 2010/07/20.
13.Israel, RS, Lowenstein, SR, Marx, JA, et al. Management of acute pyelonephritis in an emergency department observation unit. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1991;20(3):253257. Epub 1991/03/01.
14.Ward, G, Jorden, RC, Severance, HW. Treatment of pyelonephritis in an observation unit. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1991;20(3): 258261. Epub 1991/03/01.
15.Gonzalez, CM, Schaeffer, AJ. Treatment of urinary tract infection: what's old, what's new, and what works. World Journal of Urology. 1999;17(6):372382. Epub 2000/02/02.
16.Chen, KC, Hung, SW, Seow, VK, et al. The role of emergency ultrasound for evaluating acute pyelonephritis in the ED. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2011;29(7):721724. Epub 2010/09/10.
17.Carnell, J, Fischer, J, Nagdev, A. Ultrasound detection of obstructive pyelonephritis due to urolithiasis in the ED. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2011;29(7):843 e1–3. Epub 2010/10/12.
18.Roberts, R. Management of patients with infectious diseases in an emergency department observation unit. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 2001;19(1):187207. Epub 2001/02/24.
19.Ross, MA, Compton, S, Richardson, D, et al. The use and effectiveness of an emergency department observation unit for elderly patients. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2003;41(5):668677. Epub 2003/04/25.
20.Gonnah, R, Hegazi, MO, Hmdy, I, Shenoda, MM. Can a change in policy reduce emergency hospital admissions? Effect of admission avoidance team, guideline implementation and maximising the observation unit. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2008;25(9):575578. Epub 2008/08/30.