Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 13
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: June 2012

2 - Teaching for Creativity in an Era of Content Standards and Accountability

Summary

INTRODUCTION

Teaching for creativity and teaching specific content knowledge need not be in opposition, as is often feared by educators. Creative thinking actually requires significant content knowledge, and thinking creatively about a topic helps deepen one's knowledge of that topic. Many creativity-relevant skills, such as divergent thinking, can be used in ways that increase both creativity and knowledge of specific content. There are also ways to make use of rewards and evaluations judiciously that will allow teachers to help students become more creative thinkers and also acquire important domain-specific skills and content knowledge. This chapter summarizes relevant research to provide a theoretical framework and describes specific classroom techniques that promote both creativity and the acquisition of content knowledge.

MUST CONTENT STANDARDS AND ACCOUNTABILITY BE IN CONFLICT WITH CREATIVITY?

The past two decades have seen a major and unrelenting call for more testing of students and more explicit and more detailed content standards that form the framework for such assessment. Although No Child Left Behind legislation has played a prominent role in recent educational policy formulations, federal mandates have not been the only force pushing for greater accountability (Fuhrman, 2001; Ladd, 1996). This movement includes both state initiatives and nongovernment, nationwide efforts like the Core Knowledge Foundation's Core Knowledge Sequence (Core Knowledge Foundation, 1998; Hirsch, 1987, 1991–1997, 1996). We will not argue the merit (or lack of merit) of an increasing reliance on standardized testing or the wisdom of fine-grained, grade-by-grade content standards.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
REFERENCES
Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Ashcraft, M. H. (1989). Human memory and cognition. New York: Harper Collins.
Baer, J. (1993). Creativity and divergent thinking: A task-specific approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Baer, J. (1996). The effects of task-specific divergent thinking training. Journal of Creative Behavior, 30, 183–187.
Baer, J. (1997a). Creative teachers, creative students. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Baer, J. (1997b). Gender differences in the effects of anticipated evaluation on creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 10, 25–31.
Baer, J. (1998a). The case for domain specificity in creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 11, 173–177.
Baer, J. (1998b). Gender differences in the effects of extrinsic motivation on creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 32, 18–37.
Baer, J. (1999). Creativity in a climate of standards. Focus on Education, 43, 16–21.
Baer, J. (2002). Are creativity and content standards allies or enemies?Research in the Schools, 9(2), 35–42.
Baer, J. (2003). Impact of the Core Knowledge Curriculum on creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 297–300.
Baer, J., & Kaufman, J. C. (2005). Bridging generality and specificity: The Amusement Park Theoretical (APT) model of creativity. Roeper Review, 27, 158–163.
,Bank Street College. (1997). America reads: Bank Street College's approach to early literacy acquisition [online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2008, from: http://www.paec.org/david/reading/amreads.pdf.
Beghetto, R. A., & Plucker, J. A. (2006). The relationship among schooling, learning, and creativity. In Kaufman, J. C. & Baer, J. (Eds.), Reason and creativity in development (pp. 316–332). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Burns, M. S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C. E. (Eds.). (2000). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children's reading success. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Campbell, D. T. (1960). Blind variation and selective retention in creative thought as in other knowledge processes. Psychological Review, 67, 380–400.
Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). The mind's eye in chess. In Chase, W. G. (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 215–281). New York: Academic Press.
Chi, M. T. H., Glaser, R., & Farr, M. (Eds.). (1988). The nature of expertise. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
,Core Knowledge Foundation. (1998). Core Knowledge sequence: Content guidelines for grades K–8. Charlottesville, VA: Core Knowledge Foundation.
Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.
Eberle, B., & Stanish, B. (1980). CPS for kids: A resource book for teaching creative problem-solving to children. Buffalo, NY: D.O.K. Publishers.
Eisenberger, R., Pierce, W. D., & Cameron, J. (1999). Effects of reward on intrinsic motivation: Negative, neutral, and positive. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 677–691.
Eisenberger, R., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Incremental effects of reward on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 728–741 (Award for the Best Paper on Organizational Behavior at the 2001 Academy of Management Conference).
Eisenberger, R., & Shanock, L. (2003). Rewards, intrinsic motivation, and creativity: A case study of conceptual and methodological isolation. Creativity Research Journal, 15, 121–130.
Fasko, D. (2001). Education and creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 317–327.
Feldhusen, J. F. (2006). The role of the knowledge base in creative thinking. In Kaufman, J. C. & Baer, J. (Eds.), Reason and creativity in development (pp. 137–144). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fuhrman, S. H. (Ed.). (2001). From the capital to the classroom: Standards-based reform in the states. Chicago, IL: National Society for the Study of Education.
Gage, N. L., & Berliner, D. C.Educational psychology (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Glass, A. L., & Holyoak, K. J. (1986). Cognition (2nd ed.). New York: Random House.
Gordon, W. J. J. (1961). Synectics. New York: Harper & Row.
Gruber, H. E. (1981). Darwin on man: A psychological study of scientific creativity (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gruber, H. E., & Davis, S. N. (1988). Inching our way up Mt. Olympus: The evolving-systems approach to creative thinking. In Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.), The nature of creativity (pp. 243–270). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Guilford, J. P. (1956). The structure of intellect. Psychological Bulletin, 53, 267–293.
Hayes, J. R. (1989). Cognitive processes in creativity. In Glover, J. A., Ronning, R. R., & Reynolds, C. R. (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 135–145). New York: Plenum.
Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. (1988). Conditions of creativity. In Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.), The nature of creativity (pp. 11–38). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hennessey, B. A., & Zbikowski, S. (1993). Immunizing children against the negative effects of reward: A further examination of intrinsic motivation techniques. Creativity Research Journal, 6, 297–308.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, . (1987). Cultural literacy: What every American needs to know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, . (Ed.). (1991–1997). The Core Knowledge Series: Resource books for kindergarten through six. New York: Doubleday.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr, . (1996). The schools we need and why we don't have them. New York: Doubleday.
Isaksen, S. G., & Treffinger, D. J. (1985). Creative problem solving: The basic course. Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited Press.
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jones, G., Jones, B., & Hargrove, T. (2003). The unintended consequences of high-stakes testing. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kaufman, J. C., & Baer, J. (2002). Could Steven Spielberg manage the Yankees? Creative thinking in different domains. Korean Journal of Thinking and Problem Solving, 12, 5–14.
Kaufman, J. C., & Baer, J. (2005). The amusement park theory of creativity. In Kaufman, J. C. & Baer, J. (Eds.), Creativity across domains: Faces of the muse (pp. 321–328). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kaufman, J. C., & Baer, J. (Eds.). (2006). Reason and creativity in development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kennedy, M. M. (2006). Inside teaching: How classroom life undermines reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kim, K. H. (2006). Can we trust creativity tests? A review of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18, 3–14.
Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., and Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist 41(2), 75–86.
Ladd, H. F. (1996). Holding schools accountable: Performance-based reform in education. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Lockhart, R. S., & Craik, F. I. M. (1990). Levels of processing: A retrospective commentary on a framework for memory research. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 44, 87–122.
Mayer, R. E. (1987). Educational psychology: A cognitive approach. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Mayer, R. E. (2006). The role of domain knowledge in creative problem solving. In Kaufman, J. C. & Baer, J. (Eds.), Reason and creativity in development (pp. 145–158). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Micklus, C. S. (1986). OM-AHA! Problems to develop creative thinking skills. Glassboro, NJ: Creative Competitions.
Micklus, C. S., & Micklus, C. (1986). OM program handbook. Glassboro, NJ: Creative Competitions.
,New Jersey Department of Education. (2004). New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards [On-line]. Retrieved on May 10, 2007, from http://www.state.nj.us/njded/cccs/index.html.
Olson, L. (2000). Worries of a standards ‘backlash’ grow. Education Week, 19(30), 1, 12–13.
Olson, L. (2001). Education alliance calls for corrections to standards-based systems. Education Week, 20(19), 6.
Orwin, C., & Forbes, H. D. (1994). Cultural literacy: A Canadian perspective. International Journal of Social Education, 9(1), 15–30.
Paul, R. W. (1990). Critical thinking and cultural literacy: Where E. D. Hirsch goes wrong. In Paul, R. W. (Ed.), Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world (pp. 429–435). Rohnert Park, CA: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique (Sonoma State University).
Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (1988). Teaching for transfer. Educational Leadership, 46(1), 22–32.
Pletka, B. (2005, March 26). Review of the unintended consequences of high-stakes testing. Education Review. Retrieved on May 12, 2007, from http://edrev.asu.edu/reviews/rev369.htm.
Puccio, G. J., Murdock, M. C., & Mance, M. (2007). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change. San Diego, CA: Sage Publications.
Runco, M. A. (Ed.). (2003). Critical creative processes. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. N. (1989). Rocky roads to transfer: Rethinking mechanisms of a neglected phenomenon. Educational Psychologist, 24(2), 113–142.
Schear, E. L. (1992). Cultural literacy and the developmental student: Whose culture and what kind of literacy?Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 8(2), 5–14.
Schuh, K. L. (2003). Knowledge construction in the learner-centered classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 426–442.
Simonton, D. K. (1994). Greatness: Who makes history and why. New York: Guilford Press.
Simonton, D. K. (1998). Scientific genius: A psychology of science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Simonton, D. K. (1999). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. New York: Oxford University Press.
Simonton, D. K. (2004). Creativity in science: Chance, logic, genius, and zeitgeist. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Simonton, D. K. (2006). Creative genius, knowledge, and reason. In Kaufman, J. C. & Baer, J. (Eds.), Reason and creativity in development (pp. 43–59). New York: Cambridge University Press.
,Talents Unlimited, Inc. (2009). Talents Unlimited. Retrieved on Dec. 28, 2009, from the Talents Unlimited, Inc. website: http://www.mcpss.com/?DivisionID=2142&DepartmentID=2004&ToggleSideNav=ShowAll.
Torrance, E. P. (1966). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking – Norms-Technical Manual Research Edition – Verbal Tests, Forms A and B – Figural Tests, Forms A and B. Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press.
Torrance, E. P. (1974). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking – Norms-Technical Manual Research Edition – Verbal Tests, Forms A and B – Figural Tests, Forms A and B. Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press.
Torrance, E. P. (1998). The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Norms-Technical Manual Figural (Streamlined) Forms A & B. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service, Inc.
Torrance, E. P., & Presbury, J. (1984). The criteria of success used in 242 recent experimental studies of creativity. Creative Child & Adult Quarterly, 9, 238–243.
Treffinger, D. J., Isaksen, S. G., & Dorval, K. B. (2006). Creative problem solving: An introduction (4th ed.). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.
Tucker, M. S. (2002). The roots of backlash. Education Week, 21(16), 76, 42–43.
Vail, K. (1997). Core comes to Crooksville. American School Board Journal, 184(3), 14–18.
Weisberg, R. W. (1988). Problem solving and creativity. In Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.), The nature of creativity (pp. 148–176). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weisberg, R. W. (1999). Creativity and knowledge: A challenge to theories. In Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 226–250). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weisberg, R. W. (2006). Expertise and reason in creative thinking. In Kaufman, J. C. & Baer, J. (Eds.), Reason and creativity in development (pp. 7–42). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Willingham, D. B. (2001). Cognition: The thinking animal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Woolfolk, A. (2001). Educational psychology (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational psychology (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Zimbardo, P. G., & Gerrig, R. J. (1999). Psychology and life (15th ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.