Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: March 2008

18 - Scandinavia



The image of the societies of Scandinavia in the late Iron Age has been based predominantly on their economic character, involving aspects such as agriculture and settlement, economy and society, trade and urbanisation. What are known as the Middle Ages in Scandinavia begin around the year 1000, half a millennium later than for the rest of western and central Europe. Only from this date onwards did Scandinavia consist of unified kingdoms and was Christianity established as a serious force in pagan Scandinavia. Much of what was written about Scandinavian history actually comes from Iceland. In Europe, the roman script was adopted at an early date, and only in Scandinavia did the runic script develop further during the Viking period. The settlement structure in late Iron Age Scandinavia clearly developed hierarchically with respect to size and function. Myths played a vital role in the creation of a political mentality amongst the new Germanic warlords and kings in Europe.
Andersen, H. (1998), ‘Vier og lunde’, Skalk, 1
Andréasson, A. (1995), ‘Skandinaviens Guldgubbar’, C-Uppsats in archaeolog, University of Gothenburg
Andrén, A. (1991), ‘Guld och makt-en tolkning av de skandinaviska guldbrakteatemas funktion’, in Fabech and Ringtved (1991)
Andrén, A. (2000), ‘Re-reading embodied texts – an interpretation of rune stones’, Current Swedish Archaeology 8
Arrhenius, B. (1983), ‘The chronology of the Vendel graves’, in Lamm, J. P. and Nordström, H.-Å (eds.), Vendel Period Studies, Stockholm
Ausenda, G. (1995), ‘The segmentary lineage in contemporary anthropology and among the Langobards’, in Ausenda, G. (ed.), After Empire: Towards an Ethnology of Europe’s Barbarians, Woodbridge
Axboe, M. (1991), ‘Guld og guder i folkevandringstiden’, in Fabech and Ringtved (1991)
Barrett, J. C., Bradley, R. and Green, M. (eds.) (1999), Landscape, Monuments and Society: The Prehistory of Cranborne Chase, Cambridge
Bazelmans, J. (1992), ‘The gift in the Old English epic Beowulf’, lecture given at a seminar on Theory and Method in the Study of Material Culture, Leiden 31 August/2 September 1992
Bazelmans, J. (1999), By Weapons Made Worthy: Lords, Retainers and Their Relationship in Beowulf, Amsterdam
Bazelmans, J. (2000), ‘Beyond power. Ceremonial exchanges in Beowulf’, in Theuws, F. and Nelson, J. L. (eds.), Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, Leiden
Bierbrauer, V. (1994), ‘Archäologie und Geschichte der Goten vom 1.–7. Jahrhundert’, FrSt 28
Brøgger, N. C. (1951), ‘Frøya-dyrkelse og seid’, Viking 15
Brink, S. (1996), ‘Political and social structures in early Scandinavia’, TOR 28
Bruce-Mitford, R. (1979), The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, London.
Buchholz, P. (1971), ‘Shamanism – the testimony of Old Icelandic literary tradition’, Mediaeval Scandinavia 4
Busch, R. (1988), Die Langobarden: Von der Unterelbe nach Italien, Neumünster
Callmer, J. (1991), ‘Territory and dominion in the Late Iron Age in southern Scandinavia’, in Jennbert, K. et al. (eds.), Regions and Reflections: In Honour of Märta Strömberg, Stockholm
Callmer, J. (1997), ‘Aristokratisk präglade residens från yngre järnolderen I forskningshistorien och deres problematic’, in Callmer, J. and Rosengren, E. (eds.), ‘…gick Grendel att söka det höga huset …’: arkeologiska källor till aristokratiska miljōer i Skandinavien under yngre järnålder. Rapport från ett seminarium i Falkenberg 16.–17. November 1995 (Halland Länsmuseers Sriftserie/GOTARC C. Arkeologiska Skrifter 17), Halmstad
Christensen, T. (1991), Lejre – syn og sagn, Roskilde
Christie, N. (1995), The Lombards (The Peoples of Europe),Oxford
Clunies Ross, M. (1994), Prolonged Echoes: Old Norse Myths in Medieval Northern Society, 1: The Myths, Odense
Düwel, K. (1978), ‘Runeninschriften’, in Ahrens, C. (ed.), Sachsen und Angelsachsen (Veröffentlichungen des Helms-Museums 32), Hamburg
De Marrais, E. L., Castillo, J. and Earle, T. (1996), ‘Ideology, materialization, and power strategies’, Current Anthropology 37.1
De Vries, J. (1956), ‘Das Königtum bei den Germanen’, Saeculum 7
De Vries, J. (1956/1970), Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, 1: Berlin
Duczko, W. (ed.) (1993), Arkeologi och miljögeografi I Gamla Uppsala: Studier och rapport (Opia 7), Uppsala
Dumézil, G. (1959), Les Dieux des Germains: essai sur la formation de la religion scandinave, Paris. Danish, trans. (1969), De nordiske Guder, Copenhagen
Earle, T. (1990), ‘Style and iconography as legitimation in complex chiefdoms’, in Conkey, M. and Hastorf, C. (eds.), The Use of Style in Archaeology, Cambridge
Eliade, M. (1989), Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, Harmondsworth
Ellis Davidson, H. R. (1978), ‘Shape-changing in Old Norse sagas’, in Porter, J. R. and Russell, W. M. S. (eds.), Animals in Folklore, Cambridge
Ellis Davidson, H. R. (1988), Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe, Manchester
Ellmers, D. (1970), ‘Zur Ikonographie nordischer Goldbrakteaten’, Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 17
Enright, M. J. (1996), Lady with a Mead Cup, Dublin
Fabech, C. (1994a), ‘Reading society from the cultural landscape. South Scandinavia between sacral and political power’, in Nielsen, P. O., Randsborg, K. and Thrane, H. (eds.), The Archaeology of Gudme and Lundeborg, Copenhagen
Fabech, C. (1994b), ‘Society and landscape. From collective manifestations to ceremonies of a new ruling class’, in Keller, H. and Staubach, N. (eds.), Iconologia Sacra: Festschrift für Karl Hauck, Berlin and New York.
Fabech, C. (1997), ‘Slöinge I perspektiv’, in Callmer, J. and Rosengren, E. (eds.), ‘… gick Grendel att söka det höga huset … ’: arkeologiska källor till aristokratiska miljöer i Skandinavien under yngre järnålder. Rapport från ett seminarium i Falkenberg 16.–17. November 1995 (Hallands Länsmuseer Skriftserie 9/GOTARC C. Arkeologiska Skrifter 17), Halmstad
Fabech, C. (1998), ‘Kult og samfund i yngre jernalder – Ravlunda som eksempel’, in Larsson, L. and Hårdh, B. (eds.), Centrala Platser – Centrala Frågor: En vänbok til Berta Stjernquist (Acta Archaeologica Lundensia 28), Lund
Fabech, C. (1999), ‘Centrality on sites and landscapes’, in Fabech, C. and Ringtved, J. (eds.), Settlement and Landscape, århus
Fabech, C. and Ringtved, J. (eds.) (1991), Samfundsorganisation og Regional Variation Jysk Arkælogisk Selskabs Skrifter 27), århus
Fonnesbech-Sandberg, E. (1985), ‘Hoard finds from the Early Germanic Iron Age’, in Kristiansen, K. (ed.), Archaeological Formation Processes, Copenhagen
Gaimster, M. (1998),Vendel Period Bracteates on Gotland: On the Significance of Germanic Art, Stockholm
Gasparri, S. (1983), La cultura tradizionale dei Longobardi, Spoleto
Gasparri, S. (2000), ‘Kingship rituals and ideology in Lombard Italy’, in Theuws, F. and Nelson, J. (eds.), Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, Leiden
Geary, P. J. (2003), The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe, Princeton, NJ
Geisslinger, H. (1967), Horte als Geschichtsquelle (Offa-Bücher Neue Folge 19), Neumünster
Glosecki, S. O. (1989), Shamanism and Old English Poetry, New York and London
Godlowski, K. (1992), ‘Germanische Wanderungen im 3. Jh. v. Chr. – 6. Jh. n. Chr. und ihre Widerspiegelung in den historischen und archäologischen Quellen’, in Straume, E. and Skar, E. (eds.), Peregrinatio Gothica, 111 (Universitetets Oldsaksamlings Skrifter 14), Oslo
Goffart, W. (1980), Barbarians and Romans, A.D. 418–584: The Techniques of Accommodation, Princeton, NJ
Goffart, W. (1980), Barbarians and Romans:. Techniques of Accommodation, Princeton, NJ
Goffart, W. (1988), The Narrators of Barbarian History, Princeton, NJ
Härke, H. (1992a), ‘Changing symbols in a changing society: the Anglo-Saxon weapon burial rite in the seventh century’, in Carver, M. (ed.), The Age of Sutton Hoo, Woodbridge
Härke, H. (1992b), Early Anglo-Saxon Shields, London
Hårdh, B. (ed.) (2003), Fler fynd i centrum (Uppåkrastudier 9), Stockholm
Hårdh, B. and Larsson, L. (eds.) (2002), Central Places in the Migration and Merovingian Periods: Papers from the 52nd Sachsensymposium Lund, August 2001 (Uppåkrastudier 6), Stockholm
Høilund Nielsen, K. (1997), ‘Retainers of the Scandinavian kings: an alternative interpretation of Salin’s Style 11 (sixth–seventh centuries ad)’, European Journal of Archaeology 5 1
Høilund Nielsen, K. (1999), ‘Ulvekrigeren. Dyresymbolik på våbenudstyret fra 6.–7. århundrede’, in Højris, O. et al. (eds.),Menneskelivets Mangfoldighed, Århus
Hachmann, R. (1970), Die Goten und Skandinavien, Berlin
Haseloff, G. (1981), Die germanische Tierornamentik der Völkerwanderungszeit, 3 vols., Berlin and New York
Haseloff, G. (1984), ‘Stand der Forschung: Stilgeschichte Völkerwanderungs-und Merowingerzeit’, in M. Høgestøl, Larsen, J. H., Straume, E. and Weber, B. (eds.), Festskrift til Thorleif Sjøvold på 70-årsdagen (Universitetets Oldsaksamlings Skrifter 5), Oslo
Haseloff, G. (1986), ‘Bild und Motiv im Nydam-Stil und Stil 1’, in Roth, H. (ed.), Zum Problem der Deutung frühmittelalterlicher Bildinhalte (Akten des 1. Internationalen Kolloquiums in Marburg a.d. Lahn, 15.–19. Februar 1983), Sigmaringen
Hastrup, K. (1990), ‘Iceland: sorcerers and paganism’, in Ankarloo, B. and Henningsen, G. (eds.), Early Modern Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries, Oxford
Hauck, K. (1974), ‘Ein neues Drei-Götter-Amulett von der Insel von Fünen’, in Geschichte in der Gesellschaft: Festschrift für Karl Bosl, Stuttgart
Hauck, K. (1978), ‘Gotterglaube im Spiegel der goldenen Brakteaten’, in Ahrens, C. (ed.), Sachsen und Angelsachsen (Veröffentlichungen des Helms-Museums 32), Hamburg
Hauck, K. (1985–89), Die Goldbrakteaten der Völkerwanderungszeit, Mit Beiträge, M. Axboe, Düwel, C., Padberg, L., Myra, U. S. and Wypior, C. (Münstersche Mittelalterschriften 24), Munich
Hauck, K. (1986), ‘Methodenfragen der Brakteatendeutung. Erprobung eines Interpretationsmusters für die Bildzeugnisse aus einer oralen Kultur’, in Roth, H. (ed.), Zum Problem der Deutung frühmittelalterlicher Bildinhalte (Akten des 1. Internationalen Kolloquiums in Marburg a. d. Lahn, 15.–19. Februar 1983), Sigmaringen
Hauck, K. (1994), ‘Gudme als Kultort und seine Rolle beim Austausch von Bildformularen der Goldbrakteaten’, in Nielsen, , Randsborg, and Thrane, (1994)
Heather, P. (1989), ‘Cassiodorus and the rise of the Amals: genealogy and the Goths under Hun domination’, JRS 89
Heather, P. (1993), ‘The historical culture of Ostrogothic Italy’, in Teoderico il Grande e i Goti d’Italia (Atti del XIII Congresso internazionale di studi sull’ alto medioevo), Spoleto
Heather, P. (1994), Goths and Romans 332–489, Oxford
Heather, P. (1995), ‘Theoderic, king of the Goths’, Early Medieval Europe 4
Heather, P. (1998), ‘Disappearing and reappearing of tribes’, in Pohl, W. and Reimitz, H. (eds.), Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of Ethnic Communities, 300–800, Leiden
Heather, P. and Matthews, J. (1991), The Goths in the Fourth Century, Liverpool
Hedeager, L. (1991), ‘Die dänischen Golddepots der Völkerwanderungszeit’, Frühmittelalterliche Studien 25
Hedeager, L. (1992a), Iron-Age Societies: From Tribe to State in Northern Europe, 500 BC to AD 700, Oxford
Hedeager, L. (1992b), ‘Kingdoms, ethnicity and material culture: Denmark in a European perspective’, in Carver, M. (ed.), The Age of Sutton Hoo, Woodbridge
Hedeager, L. (1993), ‘The creation of Germanic identity. A European origin myth’, in Brun, P., Leeuw, S. and Whittaker, C. (eds.), Frontières d’Empire: nature et signification des frontières romaines (Mémoires du Musée de Préhistoire d&’;Ile-de-France 5), Nemours
Hedeager, L. (1997), Skygger af en anden virkelighed: studien i oldnordiske og tildig europaeiste myter, Copenhagen
Hedeager, L. (1998), ‘Cosmological endurance: pagan identities in Early Christian Europe’, Journal of European Archaeology 3
Hedeager, L. (1999a), ‘Skandinavisk dyreornamentik. Symbolsk repræsentation af en Førkristen kosmologi’, in Fuglestvedt, I., Gansum, T. and Opedal, A. (eds.), Et hus med mange rom: vennebok til Bjørn Myhre på 60-årsdagen (AmS – Rapport 11A), Stavanger
Hedeager, L. (1999b), ‘Sacred topography. Depositions of wealth in the cultural landscape’, in Gustafsson, A. and Karlsson, H. (eds.), Glyfer och Arkeologiska Rum: in honorem Jarl Nordbladh (Gotarc Series A, 3), Gothenburg
Hedeager, L. (2000), ‘Europe in the Migration Period. The formation of a political mentality’, in Theuws, F. and Nelson, J. L. (eds.), Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, Leiden
Hedeager, L. (2001), ‘Asgard reconstructed? Gudme – a “central place” in the North’, in Jong, M. and Theuws, F. (eds.), Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages, Leiden
Hedeager, L. (2003), ‘Beyond mortality. Scandinavian animal style ad 400–1200’, in Downes, J. and Ritchie, A. (eds.), Sea Change: Orkney and Northern Europe in the later Iron Age AD 300–800, Angus
Hedeager, L. (2004), ‘Dyr og andre mennesker – mennesker og andre dyr. Dyreornamentikkens transcendentale realitet’, in Andr, A.én, Jennbert, K. and Raudvere, C. (eds.), Ordning mot kaos: studier av nordisk förkristen kosmologi (Vägar till Midgård 4), Lund
Helms, M. W. (1988), Ulysses’ Sail: An Ethnographic Odyssey of Power, Knowledge, and Geographical Distance, Princeton, NJ
Helms, M. W. (1993), Craft and the Kingly Ideal: Art, Trade and Power, Austin, TX
Herschend, F. (1978–79), ‘Två studier i ölandska guldfynd. 1: Det myntade guldet, 11: Det omyntade guldet’, TOR 18
Herschend, F. (1993), ‘The origin of the hall in south Scandinavia’, TOR 25
Herschend, F. (1994), ‘Models of petty rulership: two early settlements in Iceland’, TOR 26
Herschend, F. (1995), ‘Hus på Helgö’, Fornvännen 90
Herschend, F. (1996), ‘A note on Late Iron Age kingship mythology’, TOR 28
Herschend, F. (1997a), Livet i Hallen (Occasional Papers in Archaeology 14), Uppsala
Herschend, F. (1997b), ‘Striden om Finnsborg’, TOR 29
Herschend, F. (1998), The Idea of the Good in Late Iron Age Society (Occasional Papers in Archaeology 15), Uppsala
Herschend, F. (1999), ‘Halle’, Reallexicon der germanischen Altertumskunde, XIII Berlin
Hill, C. (2003), Origins of the English, London
Hines, J. (1984), The Scandinavian Character of Anglian England in the Pre-Viking Period (BAR British Series 124), Oxford
Hines, J. (1989), ‘Ritual hoarding in Migration-Period Scandinavia: a review of recent interpretations’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 55
Hines, J. (1992), ‘The Scandinavian character of Anglian England: an update’, in Carver, M. (ed.), The Age of Sutton Hoo, Woodbridge
Hines, J. (1993), Clasps, Hektespenner, Agraffen: Anglo-Scandinavian Clasps of Classes A–C of the 3rd to the 6th Centuries A.D.: Typology, Diffusion and Function, Stockholm
Hines, J. (1994), ‘The becoming of English: identity, material culture and language in Early Anglo-Saxon England’, in Filmer, W.-Sankey and Griffith, D. (eds.), Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History, VII, Oxford
Hines, J. (1995), ‘Cultural change and social organisation in early Anglo-Saxon England’, in Ausenda, G. (ed.), After Empire: Towards an Ethnology of Europe’s Barbarians, Woodbridge
Holtsmark, A. (1964), Studier i Snorres Mytologi, Oslo
Hultgård, A. (1999), ‘Fornskandinavisk hinsidestro i Snorre Sturlusons spegling’, in Drobin, U. (ed.), Religion och Samhälle i det förkristna Norden, Odense
Ingold, T. (2000), The Perception of the Environment, London and New York
Jørgensen, L. (1990), Bækkegård and Glasergård: Two Cemeteries from the Late Iron Age on Bornholm, Copenhagen
Jørgensen, L. (1995), ‘Stormandssreder og skattefund i 3.–12. århundrede’, Fortid og Nutid 2
Jørgensen, L. (2003), ‘Manor and market at Lake Tissø in the sixth to the eleventh centuries: the Danish “productive” sites’, in Pestell, T. and Ulmschneider, K. (eds.), Markets in Early Medieval Europe: Trading and ‘Productive’ Sites, 650–850, Bollington
Jørgensen, L. and Nørgård Jørgensen, A. (1997), Nørre Sandegård Vest: A Cemetery from the 6th–8th Centuries on Bornholm, Copenhagen
Jakobsson, A. H. (2003), Smältdeglars Härskare och Jerusalems Tillskyndare, Stockholm
Jakobsson, M. (1997), ‘Burial layout, society and sacred geography’, Current Swedish Archaeology 5
Johansen, B. (1996), ‘The transformative dragon. The construction of social identity and the use of metaphors during the Nordic Iron Age’, Current Swedish Archaeology 4
Johansen, B. (1997), Ormalur: aspekter av tillvaro och landskap (Stockholm Studies in Archaeology 14), Stockholm
Karlsson, L. (1983), Nordisk Form: Om djurornamentik, Stockholm
Kazanski, M. (1991), Les Goths, Paris
Kristoffersen, S. (1995), ‘Transformation in Migration Period animal art’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 28
Kristoffersen, S. (2000a), Sverd og Spenne: Dyreornamentikk og sosial kontekst, Kristiansand
Kristoffersen, S. (2000b), ‘Expressive objects’, in Olausson, D. and Vandkilde, H. (eds.), Form, Function and Context, Stockholm
Lamm, J. P. and Nordström, H. A. (eds.) (1983), Vendel Period Studies, Stockholm
Larsson, L. and Hårdh, B. (eds.) (1998), Centrala Platser, Centrala Frågor (Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, Ser. in 8, 28), Lund
Lidén, R.-E. (1969), ‘From pagan sanctuary to Christian church. The excavation of Mære Church in Trøndelag’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 2
Lindstrøm, T. C. and Kristoffersen, S. (2001), ‘Figure it out! Psychological perspectives on perception of Migration Period animal art’, Norwegian Archaeological Report 34.2
Lund Hansen, U. (1992), ‘Die Rortproblematik im Licht der neuen Diskussion zur Chronologie und zur Deutung der Goldschätze in der Völkerwanderungszeit’, in Hauck, K. (ed.), Der historische Horizont der Götterbild-Amulette aus der Übergangsepoche von der Spätantike zum Frühmittelalter, Göttingen
Lundqvist, L., Lindeblad, K., Nielsen, A.-L. and Ersgard, L. (1996), Slöinge och Borg Riksantikvarieämbetet; Arkeologiska Undersökningar, Skrifter 18), Linköping
Mackeprang, M. (1952), De Nordiske Guldbrakteater (Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter 2), Århus
Magnus, B. (2001), ‘The enigmatic brooches’, in Magnus, B. (ed.), Roman Gold and the Development of the Early Germanic Kingdoms, Stockholm
Menghin, W. (1985), Die Langobarden: Archäologie und Geschichte, Stuttgart
Meulengracht Sørensen, P. (1991), ‘Om eddadigtenes alder’, in Steinsland, G., DrobinPentikäinen, U. J. and Meulengracht Sørensen, P. (eds.), Nordisk Hedendom. Et symposia, Odense
Morphy, H. (1989), ‘Introduction’, in Morphy, H. (ed.), Animals into Art, London
Mortensen, P. and Rasmussen, B. (eds.) (1988), Jernalderens Stammesamfund (Fra Stamme til Stat i Danmark 1. Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter 22.1), Århus
Mortensen, P. and Rasmussen, B. (eds.) (1991), Høvdingesamfund og Kongemagt (Fra Stamme til Stat i Danmark 2. Jysk Arkreologisk Selskabs Skrifter 22.2), Århus
Munch, G. S., Johansen, O. S. and Roesdahl, E. (eds.) (2003), Borg in Lofoten: A Chieftain&’s Farm in North Norway (Arkeologisk Skriftserie 1), Vikingsmuseet på Borg
Munch, G. S., Roland, I. and Johansen, O. S. (1988), ‘Borg in Lofoten’, Norwegian Archaeological Review 21
Murray, A. C. (1988), ‘From Roman to Frankish Gaul: “centenarii” and “centenae” in the administration of the Merovingian kingdom’, Traditio 44
Myhre, B. (1992), ‘The royal cemetery at Borre, Vestfold. A Norwegian centre in a European periphery’, in Carver, M. (ed.), The Age of Sutton Hoo, Woodbridge
Myhre, B. (2003), ‘The Iron Age’, in Helle, K. (ed.), The Cambridge History of Scandinavia Cambridge
Näsman, U. (1984), Glas och Handel i Senromersk tid och Folkvandringstid (AUN 5) Uppsala
Näsman, U. (1988), ‘Analogislutning i nordisk jernalderarkæologi. Et bidrag til udviklingen af an nordisk historisk etnografi’, in Mortensen and Rasmussen (1988)
Näsman, U. (1991), ‘Sea trade during the Scandinavian Iron Age. Its character, commodities and routes’, in Crumlin-Pedersen, O. (ed.), Aspects of Maritime Scandinavia AD 200–1200, Roskilde
Näsman, U. (1999), ‘The ethnogenesis of the Danes and the making of a Danish kingdom’, Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History, 10
Newton, S. (1993), The Origins of Beowulf and the Pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia, Woodbridge
Nielsen, P. O., Randsborg, K. and Thrane, R. (eds.) (1994), The Archaeology of Gudme and Lundeborg, Copenhagen
Nordén, A. (1938), ‘Le problème des “Bonhommes en or”’, Acta Archaeologica 9
North, R. (1997), Heathen Gods in Old English Literature (Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England 22), Cambridge
North, R. (1997), Heathen Gods in Old English Literature, Cambridge
Ohlmarks, Å. (1939), ‘Arktischer Shamanismus und altnordischer Seidr’, Archiv fūr Religionswissenschaft 36
Orchard, A. (2002), Cassell’s Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend, London
Oxenstierna, E. (1956), Die Goldhörner von Gallehus, Lidingö
Parry, J. and Bloch, M. (1993), ‘Introduction: money and the morality of exchange’, in Parry, J. and Bloch, M. (eds.), Money and the Morality of Exchange, Cambridge
Pohl, W. (1994), ‘Tradition, Ethnogenese und literarische Gestaltung: eine Zwischenbilanz’, in Brunner, K. and Merta, B. (eds.), Ethnogenese und Überlieferung, Vienna and Munich
Polomé, E. C. (1992), ‘Schamanismus in der germanischen Religion?’, in Hauck, K. (ed.), Der historische Horizont der Götterbild-Amulette aus der Übergangsepoche von der Spätantike zum Frühmittelalter, Göttingen
Price, N. S. (2002), The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia (AUN 31), Uppsala
Raudvere, C. (2001), ‘Trolldom in earlymedieval Scandinavia’, in Jolly, K., Raudvere, C. and Peters, E., Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Middle Ages, Philadelphia
Raudvere, C. (2003), Kunskap och Insikt i Norrön Tradition, Lund
Roe, P. G. (1995), ‘Style, society, myth, and structure’, in Carr, C. and Neitzel, J. E. (eds.), Style, Society, and Person, New York and London
Roth, H. (1979), Kunst der Völkerwanderungszeit, Frankfurt a.M.
Salin, B. (1904), Die altgermanische Thierornamentik, Stockholm and Berlin
Simek, R. (1996), Dictionary of Northern Mythology, Woodbridge
Skre, D. (1998), Herredømmet: bosetning og besittelse på Romerike 200–1350 e.Kr. (Acta Humaniora 32), Oslo
Skre, D. (2004), Kaupangen i Skiringssal: Vikingenes by, Oslo
Solli, B. (2002), Seid: myter, sjamanisme og kjønn i vikingenes tid, Oslo
Speake, G. (1980), Anglo-Saxon Animal Art and Its Germanic Background, Oxford
Steinsland, G. (1991), Det hellige Bryllup og norrøn kongeideologi, Oslo
Steinsland, G. (1994), ‘Eros og død – de to hovedkomponenter i norrøn kongeideologi’, in Uecker, H. (ed.), Studien zum altgermanischen: Festschrift für Heinrich Beck, Berlin and New York
Storms, G. (1970), ‘The significance of Hygelac’s raid’, NMS 14
Strömbäck, D. (1935), Sejd, Stockholm
Strömbäck, D. (1970), ‘Sejd’, in Karker, A. (ed.), Kulturhistorisk leksikon for nordisk middelalder XV, Copenhagen
Svennung, J. (1967), Jordanes und Scandia, Stockholm
Svennung, J. (1972), ‘Jordanes und die gotische Stammsage’, in Hagberg, U. E. (ed.), Studia Gotica (Antikvariska Serien 25), Stockholm
Turville-Petre, E. O. G. (1975), Myth and Religion of the North, Westport, CT
Wagner, N. (1967), Getica: Untersuchungen zum Leben des Jordanes und zur frühen Geschichte der Goten (Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach- und Kulturgeschichte der germanischen Völke, NF 22), Berlin
Watt, M. (1992), ‘Die Goldblechfiguren (goldgubber) aus Sorte Muld’, in Hauck, K. (ed.), Der historische Horizont der Götterbildamulette aus der Übergangsepoche von Spätantike zum Frühmittelalter, Göttingen
Weibull, C. (1958), Die Auswanderung der Goten aus Schweden, Göteborg
Weiner, J. (1999), ‘Myth and metaphor’, in Ingold, T. (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology, London
Wiker, G. (1999), Gullbrakteatene – i dialog med naturkreftene: ideologi og endring sett I lys av de skandinaviske brakteatnedleggelsene, Olso
Wolfram, H. (1990), The History of the Goths, trans. Dunlap, J. T., Berkeley, CA
Wolfram, H. (1994), ‘Origo et religio. Ethnic traditions and literature in early medieval texts’, EME 3
Wood, I. N. (1995), ‘Paganism and superstition east of the Rhine from the fifth to the ninth century’, in Ausenda, G., (ed.), After Empire: Towards an Ethnology of Europe’s Barbarians, Woodbridge
Wood, I. (1983), The Merovingian North Sea (Occasional Papers on Medieval Topics 1), Alingsås