Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Pawełczyk, Agnieszka Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta Pawełczyk, Tomasz Ruszpel, Anna and Łojek, Emila 2015. Figural fluency and immediate visual memory in patients with at-risk mental state for psychosis: empirical study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, Vol. 9, Issue. 4, p. 324.

  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: May 2010

Chapter 26 - Schizophrenia

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

The Neuropsychology of Mental Illness
  • Online ISBN: 9780511642197
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *


Addington, J., Saeedi, H. & Addington, D. (2005). The course of cognitive functioning in first episode psychosis: changes over time and impact on outcome. Schizophrenia Research, 78, 35–43.
Aleman, A., Hijman, R., de Haan, E. H. F. et al. (1999). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1358–1366.
Badcock, J. C., Dragovic, M., Waters, F. A. et al. (2005). Dimensions of intelligence in schizophrenia: evidence from patients with preserved, deteriorated and compromised intellect. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39, 11–19.
Barch, D. M. & Csernansky, J. G. (2007). Abnormal parietal cortex activation during working memory in schizophrenia: verbal phonological coding disturbances versus domain-general executive dysfunction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1090–1098.
Bartok, E., Berecz, R., Glaub, T. et al. (2005). Cognitive functions in prepsychotic patients. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 29, 621–625.
Bertolino, A., Esposito, G., Callicott, J. H. et al. (2000). Specific relationship between prefrontal neuronal N-acetylaspartate and activation of the working memory cortical network in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 26–33.
Bilder, R. M., Lipschutz-Broch, L., Reiter, G. et al. (1991). Neuropsychological deficits in the early course of first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 5, 198–199.
Brahmbhatt, S. B., Haut, K., Csernansky, J. & Barch, D. (2006). Neural correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia and their high-risk siblings. Schizophrenia Research, 87, 191–204.
Brewer, W. J., Edwards, J., Anderson, V. et al. (1996). Neuropsychological, olfactory, and hygiene deficits in men with negative symptom schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 1021–1031.
Brewer, W. J., Francey, S. M., Wood, S. J. et al. (2005). Memory impairments identified in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis who later develop first-episode psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 71–78.
Caspi, A., Reichenberg, A., Weiser, M. et al. (2003). Cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients assessed before and following the first psychotic episode. Schizophrenia Research, 65, 87–94.
Chan, R. C., Chen, E. Y. & Law, C. W. (2006). Specific executive dysfunction in patients with first-episode medication-naive schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 82, 51–64.
DeLisi, L. E. (2008). The concept of progressive brain change in schizophrenia: implications for understanding schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 312–321.
Eastvold, A. D., Heaton, R. K. & Cadenhead, K. S. (2007). Neurocognitive deficits in the (putative) prodrome and first episode of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 266–277.
Elliott, R. & Sahakian, B. J. (1995). The neuropsychology of schizophrenia: relations with clinical and neurobiological dimensions. Psychological Medicine, 25, 581–594.
Fioravanti, M., Carlone, O., Vitale, B. et al. (2005). A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychology Review, 15, 73–95.
Fleming, K., Goldberg, T. E., Gold, J. M. et al. (1995). Verbal working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia: use of a Brown–Peterson paradigm. Psychiatry Research, 56, 155–161.
Fleming, K., Goldberg, T. E., Binks, S. et al. (1997). Visuospatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 43–49.
Fusar-Poli, P., Perez, J., Broome, M. et al. (2007). Neurofunctional correlates of vulnerability to psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavior Review, 31, 465–484.
Gold, S., Arndt, S., Nopoulos, P. et al. (1999). Longitudinal study of cognitive function in first-episode and recent-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1342–1348.
Goldberg, T. E., Weinberger, D. R., Berman, K. F. et al. (1987). Further evidence for dementia of the prefrontal type in schizophrenia? A controlled study of teaching the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 1008–1014.
Goldberg, T. E., Goldman, R. S., Burdick, K. E. et al. (2007). Cognitive improvement after treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medications in first-episode schizophrenia: is it a practice effect? Archive of General Psychiatry, 64, 1115–1122.
Gonzalez-Blanch, C., Crespo-Facorro, B., Alvarez-Jimenez, M. et al. (2007). Cognitive dimensions in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 968–977.
Hawkins, K. A., Addington, J., Keefe, R. S. et al. (2004). Neuropsychological status of subjects at high risk for a first episode of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 67, 115–122.
Heinrichs, R. W. & Zakzanis, K. K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426–445.
Hill, S. K., Schuepbach, D., Herbener, E. S. et al. (2004). Pretreatment and longitudinal studies of neuropsychological deficits in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 68, 49–63.
Ho, B.-C., Andreasen, N. C., Nopoulos, P. et al. (2003). Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their relationship to clinical outcome: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaing study early in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 585–594.
Hoff, A. L., Sakuma, M., Wieneke, M. et al. (1999). Longitudinal neuropsychological follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1336–1341.
Hoff, A. L., Svetina, C., Shields, G. et al. (2005). Ten year longitudinal study of neuropsychological functioning subsequent to a first episode of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 78, 27–34.
Hutton, S. B., Puri, B. K., Duncan, L.-J. et al. (1998). Executive function in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 28, 463–473.
Hutton, S. B., Murphy, F. C., Joyce, E. M. et al. (2002). Decision making deficits in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 55, 249–257.
Jablensky, A. (1995). Schizophrenia: the epidemiological horizon. In S.W. Hirsch (Ed.), Schizophrenia (pp. 206–252). Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Joyce, E. M., Hutton, S. B., Mutsatsa, S. H. et al. (2005). Cognitive heterogeneity in first-episode schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 516–522.
Karlsgodt, K. H., van Erp, T. G., Poldrack, R. A. et al. (2008). Diffusion tensor imaging of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and working memory in recent-onset schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 512–518.
Keefe, R. S., Lees-Roitman, S. E. & Dupre, R. L. (1997). Performance of patients with schizophrenia on a pen and paper visuospatial working memory task with short delay. Schizophrenia Research, 26, 9–14.
Keefe, R. S., Roitman, S. E., Harvey, P. D. et al. (1995). A pen-and-paper human analogue of a monkey prefrontal cortex activation task: spatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 17, 25–33.
Kim, M. S., Ha, T. H. & Kwon, J. S. (2004). Neurological abnormalities in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 17, 215–220.
Krieger, S., Lis, S., Cetin, T., Gallhofer, B. & Myer-Linderberg, A. (2005). Executive function and cognitive subprocesses in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia: an analysis of N-back performance. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1206–1208.
Lappin, J. M., Morgan, K. D., Morgan, C. et al. (2007). Duration of untreated psychosis and neuropsychological function in first episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 95, 103–110.
Leiderman, E. A. & Strejilevich, S. A. (2004). Visuospatial deficits in schizophrenia: central executive and memory subsystems impairments. Schizophrenia Research, 68, 217–223.
Liddle, P. F., Friston, K. J., Frith, C. D. et al. (1992). Cerebral blood flow and mental processes in schizophrenia. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 85, 224–227.
Lipska, B. K. & Weinberger, D. R. (2000). To model a psychiatric disorder in animals: schizophrenia as a reality test. Neuropsychopharmacology, 23, 223–239.
Lipska, B. K., Jaskiw, G. E. & Weinberger, D. R. (1993). Postpubertal emergence of hyperresponsiveness to stress and to amphetamine after neonatal excitotoxic hippocampal damage: a potential animal model of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 9, 67–75.
Moller, H. J. & von Zerssen, D. (1995). Course and outcome of schizophrenia. In S.W. Hirsch (Ed.), Schizophrenia (pp. 106–127). Oxford, UK, Blackwell Science.
Moritz, S., Andresen, B., Perro, C. et al. (2002). Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients. European Archive of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 252, 33–37.
Murray, R. M. & Lewis, S. W. (1987). Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder? [editorial]. British Medical Journal, 295, 681–682.
Myles-Worsley, M., Ord, L. M., Ngiralmau, H. et al. (2007). The Palau Early Psychosis Study: neurocognitive functioning in high-risk adolescents. Schizophrenia Research, 89, 299–307.
Niendam, T. A., Horwitz, J., Bearden, C. E. et al. (2007). Ecological assessment of executive dysfunction in the psychosis prodrome: a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 350–354.
Owen, A. M., Morris, R. G., Sahakian, B. J. et al. (1996). Double dissociations of memory and executive functions in working memory tasks following frontal lobe excisions, temporal lobe excisions or amygdalo-hippocampectomy in man. Brain, 119(5), 1597–1615.
Pantelis, C. & Barnes, T. R. (1996). Drug strategies and treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 30, 20–37.
Pantelis, C., Barber, F., Barnes, T. R. E. et al. (1999). Comparison of set-shifting ability in patients with chronic schizophrenia and frontal lobe damage. Schizophrenia Research, 37, 251–270.
Pantelis, C., Barnes, T. R. E., Nelson, H. E. et al. (1997). Frontal-striatal cognitive deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Brain, 120, 1823–1843.
Pantelis, C., Proffitt, T., Wood, S. J. et al. (2006). Spatial working memory and attentional set-shifting after the onset of psychosis: data from the EPPIC medium-term follow-up study. Schizophrenia Research, 81 (Suppl. 1), 128.
Pantelis, C., Stuart, G. W., Nelson, H. E. et al. (2001). Spatial working memory deficits in schizophrenia: relationship with tardive dyskinesia and negative symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1276–1285.
Pantelis, C., Wood, S. J., Proffitt, T. M. et al. (2009a). Attentional set-shifting ability in first-episode and established schizophrenia: Relationship to working memory. Schizophrenia Research, 112, 104–113.
Pantelis, C., Yücel, M., Wood, S. J. et al. (2005). Structural brain imaging evidence for multiple pathological processes at different stages of brain development in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 672–696.
Pantelis, C., Yücel, M., Wood, S. J. et al. (2009b). Neurobiological endophenotypes of psychosis and schizophrenia: are there biological markers of illness onset? In P. D. McGorry & H. J. Jackson (Eds.), Recognition and Management of Early Psychosis: A Preventive Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Park, S. & Holzman, P. S. (1992). Schizophrenics show spatial working memory deficits. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 975–982.
Partiot, A., Pierson, A., Dodin, V. et al. (1992). Information process in depressives. Biological Psychiatry, 31, 1175–1177.
Petrides, M. (1994). Frontal lobes and working memory: evidence from investigations of the effects of cortical excisions in nonhuman primates. In F. G. J. Boller (Ed.), Handbook of Neuropsychology, (pp. 59–82). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Pflueger, M. O., Gschwandtner, U., Stieglitz, R. D. et al. (2007). Neuropsychological deficits in individuals with an at risk mental state for psychosis – working memory as a potential trait marker. Schizophrenia Research, 97, 14–24.
Raine, A., Lencz, T., Reynolds, G. P. et al. (1992). An evaluation of structural and functional prefrontal deficits in schizophrenia: MRI and neuropsychological measures. Psychiatry Research, 45, 123–137.
Rajji, T. K. & Mulsant B. H. (2008). Nature and course of cognitive function in late-life schizophrenia: a systematic review. Schizophrenia Research, 102 (1–3), 122–140.
Randolph, C., Gold, J. M., Carpenter, C. J. et al. (1992). Release from proactive interference: determinants of performance and neuropsychological correlates. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 785–800.
Riley, E. M., McGovern, D., Mockler, D. et al. (2000). Neuropsychological functioning in first-episode psychosis – evidence of specific deficits. Schizophrenia Research, 43, 47–55.
Rund, B. R. (1998). A review of longitudinal studies of cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 425–435.
Sacchetti, E., Galluzzo, A., Panariella, A., Parrinello, G. & Cappa, S. F. (2008). Self-ordered pointing and visual conditional associative learning tasks in drug-free schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 6.
Saykin, A. J., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E. et al. (1991). Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Selective impairment of memory and learning. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 618–624.
Saykin, A. J., Shtasel, D. L., Gur, R. E. et al. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in neuroleptic naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 124–131.
Schlosser, R. G., Koch, K., Wagner, G. et al. (2008). Inefficient executive cognitive control in schizophrenia is preceded by altered functional activation during information encoding: an fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 46, 336–347.
Simon, A. E., Cattapan-Ludewig, K., Zmilacher, S. et al. (2007). Cognitive functioning in the schizophrenia prodrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 761–771.
Silver, H., Feldman, P., Nilker, W. & Gur, R. (2003). Working memory deficit as a core neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1809–1816.
Stirling, J., White, C., Lewis, S. W. et al. (2003). Neurocognitive function and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: a 10-year follow-up of an epidemiological cohort. Schizophrenia Research, 65, 75–86.
Szöke, A., Trandafir, A., Dupont, M.-E. et al. (2008). Longitudinal studies of cognition in schizophrenia: meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 248–257.
Twamley, E. W., Palmer, B. W., Jeste, D., Taylor, M. & Heaton, R. K. (2006). Transient and executive function working memory in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 87, 185–190.
Vance, A., Hall, N., Bellgrive, M. et al. (2006). Visuospatial working memory deficits in adolescent onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 87, 223–227.
Weickert, T. W., Goldberg, T. E., Gold, J. M. et al. (2000). Cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia displaying preserved and compromised intellect. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 907–913.
Weinberger, D. R. (1987). Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 660–669.
White, T., Ho, B. C., Ward, J. et al. (2006). Neuropsychological performance in first-episode adolescents with schizophrenia: a comparison with first-episode adults and adolescent control subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 463–471.
Whyte, M.-C., Brett, C., Harrison, L. K. et al. (2006). Neuropsychological performance over time in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia and controls. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 730–739.
Wood, S. J., Brewer, W. J., Koutsouradis, P. et al. (2007). Cognitive decline following psychosis onset: data from the PACE clinic. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, s52–s57.
Wood, S. J., Pantelis, C., Proffitt, T. et al. (2003). Spatial working memory ability is a marker of risk-for-psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 33, 1239–1247.
Wood, S. J., Pantelis, C., Velakoulis, D. et al. (2008). Progressive changes in the development toward schizophrenia: studies in subjects at increased symptomatic risk. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 322–329.
Wood, S. J., Proffitt, T., Mahony, K. et al. (2002). Visuospatial memory and learning in first-episode schizophreniform psychosis and established schizophrenia: a functional correlate of hippocampal pathology? Psychological Medicine, 32, 429–438.
Wood, S. J., Proffitt, T., O'Brien, C. et al. (2006). Cognitive change after a first psychotic episode – data from the EPPIC medium-term follow-up study. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 213S.
Woodberry, K. A., Giuliano, A. J., Seidman, L. J. (2008). Premorbid IQ in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 579–587.
Zipparo, L., Whitford, T. J., Hodge, M. A. R. et al. (2008). Investigating the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical changes that occur over the first 2–3 years of illness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 32, 531–538.