1. , Immune and inflammatory mechanisms in neuropathic pain. Brain Res Rev 2006;51:240–64.
2. , The neuro-immune balance in neuropathic pain: involvement of inflammatory immune cells, immune-like glial cells and cytokines. J Neuroimmunol 2010;229:26–50.
3. , , , et al. Cellular localization of kinin B1 receptor in the spinal cord of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a fluorescent [Nalpha-Bodipy]-des-Arg9-bradykinin. J Neuroinflammation 2009;6:11.
4. , , , Switching of bradykinin-mediated nociception following partial sciatic nerve injury in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004;308:1158–64.
5. , , , et al. Bradykinin produces pain hypersensitivity by potentiating spinal cord glutamatergic synaptic transmission. J Neurosci 2005;25:7986–92.
6. , , , et al. Peripheral kinin B(1) and B(2) receptor-operated mechanisms are implicated in neuropathic nociception induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats. Neuropharmacology 2007;53:48–57.
7. , , , et al. Kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors contribute to orofacial heat hyperalgesia induced by infraorbital nerve constriction injury in mice and rats. Neuropeptides 2010;44:87–92.
8. , , , et al. Reduced nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in kinin B1 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci 2005;25:2405–12.
9. , , Chemical mediators enhance the excitability of unmyelinated sensory axons in normal and injured peripheral nerve of the rat. Neuroscience 2005;134:1399–411.
10. , Activation of ATP P2X receptors elicits glutamate release from sensory neuron synapses. Nature 1997;389:749–53.
11. , , , et al. Extracellular ATP triggers tumor necrosis factor-α release from rat microglia. J Neurochem 2000;75:965–72.
12. , , , et al. P2X4 receptors induced in spinal microglia gate tactile allodynia after nerve injury. Nature 2003;424:778–83.
13. , , ATP receptors gate microglia signaling in neuropathic pain. Exp Neurol 2012;234:354–61.
14. , , , et al. The antihyperalgesic activity of a selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-839977, is lost in IL-1αβ knockout mice. Behav Brain Res 2009;204:77–81.
15. , , , et al. Disruption of the P2X7 purinoceptor gene abolishes chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Pain 2005;114:386–96.
16. , , , et al. P2X7-related modulation of pathological nociception in rats. Neuroscience 2007;146:1817–28.
17. , , , et al. Genetically determined P2X7 receptor pore formation regulates variability in chronic pain sensitivity. Nat Med 2012;18:595–9.
18. , , , , Nerve injury-activated microglia engulf myelinated axons in a P2Y12 signaling-dependent manner in the dorsal horn. Glia 2010;58:1838–46.
19. , , , et al. P2Y12 receptors in spinal microglia are required for neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. J Neurosci 2008;28:4949–56.
20. , , , Injured nerve-derived COX2/PGE2 contributes to the maintenance of neuropathic pain in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging 2010;31:1227–37.
21. , , Prostaglandin E2 contributes to the synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in primary sensory neuron in ganglion explant cultures and in a neuropathic pain model. Exp Neurol 2012;234:466–81.
22. , Role of prostaglandin E2 in the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in primary sensory neurons: an in vivo and in vitro study. J Neurochem 2011;118:841–54.
23. , , , et al. A treatment algorithm for neuropathic pain. Clin Ther 2004;26:951–79.
24. , Leukotrienes in nociceptive pathway and neuropathic/ inflammatory pain. Biol Pharm Bull 2011;34:1163–9.
25. , , Role of cysteinyl leukotrienes in nociceptive and inflammatory conditions in experimental animals. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;423:85–92.
26. , , , Leukotriene synthases and the receptors induced by peripheral nerve injury in the spinal cord contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain. Glia 2010;58:599–610.
27. , , , Inflammation and hyperalgesia induced by nerve injury in the rat: a key role of mast cells. Pain 2003;105:467–79.
28. , , Activation of peripheral and spinal histamine H3 receptors inhibits formalin-induced inflammation and nociception, respectively. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007;88:122–9.
29. , , , et al. Novel histamine H3 receptor antagonists GSK189254 and GSK334429 are efficacious in surgically-induced and virally-induced rat models of neuropathic pain. Pain 2008;138:61–9.
30. Growth factors and neuropathic pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2011;15:185–92.
31. , , , et al. The effect of systemically administered recombinant human nerve growth factor in healthy human subjects. Ann Neurol 1994;36:244–6.
32. , , , et al. Antibodies to nerve growth factor reverse established tactile allodynia in rodent models of neuropathic pain without tolerance. J Pharmacol Exp Therapeut 2007;322:282–7.
33. , , , et al. Efficacy and safety of tanezumab in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Pain 2011;152:2248–58.
34. . , et al., Efficacy and safety of tanezumab in the treatment of chronic low back pain [Pain 2011;152:2248–2258] and Hill, Blocking the effects of NGF as a route to safe and effective pain relief – fact or fancy? [Pain 2011;152:2200–2201]. Pain 2012;153:1128–9; author reply 1129–31.
35. , , , et al. BDNF from microglia causes the shift in neuronal anion gradient underlying neuropathic pain. Nature 2005;438:1017–21.
36. , , , et al. Role of mast cell activation in inducing microglial cells to release neurotrophin. J Neurosci Res 2010;88:1348–54.
37. , , Tumor necrosis factor-α increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons in an activity-dependent manner. Neuroscience 2011;180:322–33.
38. , , , Modulation of neuropathic pain by a glial-derived factor. Pain Med 2009;10:1229–36.
39. , , , et al. Effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor intrathecal injection on spinal dorsal horn glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Int J Neurosci 2012; doi:10.3109/00207454.2012.672500.
40. , , , Peripheral nerve injury alters blood–spinal cord barrier functional and molecular integrity through a selective inflammatory pathway. J Neurosci 2011;31:10819–28.
41. , , , et al. Peri-sciatic administration of recombinant rat TNF-alpha induces mechanical allodynia via upregulation of TNF-alpha in dorsal root ganglia and in spinal dorsal horn: the role of NF-kappa B pathway. Exp Neurol 2007;205:471–84.
42. , Nociceptive and inflammatory effects of subcutaneous TNFalpha. Pain 2000;85:145–51.
43. , , , et al. TNF-alpha contributes to up-regulation of Nav1.3 and Nav1.8 in DRG neurons following motor fiber injury. Pain 2010;151:266–79.
44. , , , Cytokine mechanisms of central sensitization: distinct and overlapping role of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in regulating synaptic and neuronal activity in the superficial spinal cord. J Neurosci 2008;28:5189–94.
45. , , , et al. The role of proinflammatory cytokines in the generation and maintenance of joint pain. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010;1193:60–9.
46. , , , Etanercept reduces hyperalgesia in experimental painful neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2001;6:67–72.
47. , , , et al. The treatment of disc-herniation-induced sciatica with infliximab: one-year follow-up results of FIRST II, a randomized controlled trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2006;31:2759–66.
48. , , , et al. Dynamic regulation of spinal pro-inflammatory cytokine release in the rat in vivo following peripheral nerve injury. Brain Behav Immun 2010;24:569–76.
49. , , , et al. Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is dependent on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF: implications for neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 2011;31:12533–42.
50. , , , et al. Endogenous interleukin-6 contributes to hypersensitivity to cutaneous stimuli and changes in neuropeptides associated with chronic nerve constriction in mice. Eur J Neurosci 1999;11:2243–53.
51. , , , et al. The critical role of invading peripheral macrophage-derived interleukin-6 in vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;592:87–92.
52. , , , , SOCS3-mediated blockade of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway reveals its major contribution to spinal cord neuroinflammation and mechanical allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. J Neurosci 2010;30:5754–66.
53. , , , et al. Efficacy of epidural administration of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody onto spinal nerve for treatment of sciatica. Eur Spine J 2012;21:2079.
54. , , , et al. IFN-gamma receptor signaling mediates spinal microglia activation driving neuropathic pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:8032–7.
55. , , , et al. Interferon-gamma is a critical modulator of CB(2) cannabinoid receptor signaling during neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 2008;28:12136–45.
56. , , , , Role of IL-15 in spinal cord and sciatic nerve after chronic constriction injury: regulation of macrophage and T-cell infiltration. J Neurochem 2008;107:1741–52.
57. , , , et al. T cell infiltration after chronic constriction injury of mouse sciatic nerve is associated with interleukin-17 expression. Exp Neurol 2006;200:480–5.
58. , Interleukin-17 contributes to neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury in mice. J Pain 2011;12:370–83.
59. , , , et al. Interleukin-17 levels in rat models of nerve damage and neuropathic pain. Neurosci Lett 2011;493:86–91.
60. , , , , Interleukin-18-mediated microglia/astrocyte interaction in the spinal cord enhances neuropathic pain processing after nerve injury. J Neurosci 2008;28:12775–87.
61. , , , et al. The astrocyte-targeted therapy by Bushi for the neuropathic pain in mice. PLoS One 2011;6:e23510.
62. , , , et al. Enduring reversal of neuropathic pain by a single intrathecal injection of adenosine 2A receptor agonists: a novel therapy for neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 2009;29:14015–25.
63. , , , et al. Intrathecal cannabilactone CB2R agonist, AM1710, controls pathological pain and restores basal cytokine levels. Pain 2012;153:1091–106.
64. , , , , . IL-4 deficiency is associated with mechanical hypersensitivity in mice. PLoS One 2011;6:e28205.
65. , , , HSV-mediated expression of interleukin-4 in dorsal root ganglion neurons reduces neuropathic pain. Mol Pain 2006;2:6.
66. , , , et al. Transforming growth factor-beta1 impairs neuropathic pain through pleiotropic effects. Mol Pain 2009;5:16.
67. , , , et al. BAMBI (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) reveals the involvement of the transforming growth factor-beta family in pain modulation. J Neurosci 2010;30:1502–11.
68. , Chemokines, neuronal-glial interactions, and central processing of neuropathic pain. Pharmacol Ther 2010;126:56–68.
69. , , , et al. Excitatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 signaling is up-regulated in sensory neurons after chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102:14092–7.
70. , , , Enhanced production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the dorsal root ganglia in a rat model of neuropathic pain: possible involvement in the development of neuropathic pain. Neurosci Res 2004;48:463–9.
71. , , , et al. JNK-induced MCP-1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 2009;29:4096–108.
72. , , , et al. CCL2 is a key mediator of microglia activation in neuropathic pain states. Eur J Pain 2009;13:263–72.
73. , , , et al. Impaired neuropathic pain responses in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:7947–52.
74. , , , et al. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) distribution in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia under basal and neuropathic pain conditions. Eur J Neurosci 2004;20:1150–60.
75. , , , Induction of CX3CL1 expression in astrocytes and CX3CR1 in microglia in the spinal cord of a rat model of neuropathic pain. J Pain 2005;6:434–8.
76. , , , et al. Evidence that exogenous and endogenous fractalkine can induce spinal nociceptive facilitation in rats. Eur J Neurosci 2004;20:2294–302.
77. , , , et al. Reduced inflammatory and neuropathic pain and decreased spinal microglial response in fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) knockout mice. J Neurochem 2010;114:1143–57.
78. , , , Propentofylline, a CNS glial modulator does not decrease pain in post-herpetic neuralgia patients: in vitro evidence for differential responses in human and rodent microglia and macrophages. Exp Neurol 2012;234:340–50.