Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: October 2011

Chapter 2 - Cerebrovascular disease: hemorrhagic


1. BroderickJP, AdamsHP, BarsanW, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the stroke council, American Heart Association. Stroke. 1999;30:905–915.
2. DouglasMA, HaererAF. Long-term prognosis of hypertensive hemorrhage. Stroke. 1982;13:488–491.
3. Helweg-LarsenS, SommerW, StrangeP, et al. Prognosis for patients treated conservatively for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 1984;15:1045–1048.
4. CounsellC, BoonyakarnkulS, DennisM, et al. Primary intracerebral hemorrhage in the Oxfordshire community stroke project. Cerebrovasc Dis. 1995;5:26–34.
5. QureshiA, TuhrimS, BroderickJP, et al. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. New Engl J Med. 2001;344:1450–1460.
6. BroderickJP, BrottT, TomsickT, et al. The risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in blacks as compared with whites. New Engl J Med. 1992;326:733–736.
7. MannoEM, AtkinsonJLD, FulghamJR, WijdicksEFM. Emerging medical and surgical strategies in the evaluation and treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005;80:420–433.
8. BurnsJD, MannoEM. Primary intracerebral hemorrhage: update on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies. Compr Ther. 2008;34:183–195.
9. VoelkerJL, KaufmanHK. Clinical aspects of intracerebral hemorrhage. In WelchKMA, CaplanLR, ReisDJ, SiesjoB, WeirB (eds), Primer on Cerebrovascular Disease. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1997; pp. 432–437.
10. WalkerDA, BroderickDF, KotsenasAL, RubinoFA. Routine use of gradient-echo MRI to screen for cerebral amyloid angiopathy in elderly patients. AJRAm J Roentgenol. 2004;182:1547–1550.
11. KatoH, IzumiyamaM, IzumiyamaK, et al. Y. Silent cerebral microbleeds on T2-weighted MRI: correlation with stroke subtype, stroke recurrence, and leukoaraiosis. Stroke. 2002;33:1536–1540.
12. GageBF, Yan Y MilliganPE et al. Clinical classification schemes for predicting hemorrhage: results from the national registry for atrial fibrillation (NRAF). Am Heart J. 2006;151:713–719.
13. GarciaJH, HoKL. Pathology of hypertensive arteriopathy. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1992;3:497–507.
14. CharcotJM, BouchardC. Nouvelle recherches sur la pathogenie de l'hemorrhagie cerebrale. Archives de la Physiologie normale et Pathologique. 1868;1:110.
15. FisherCM. Pathological observations in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1971;30:536–550.
16. BrottT, BroderickJ, KothariR, et al. Early hemorrhage growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 1996;28:1–5.
17. KazuiS, MinematsuK, YanamotoH, et al. Enlargement of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: incidence and time course. Stroke. 1996;27:1783–1787.
18. KazuiS, MinematsuK, YanamotoH, et al. Predisposing factors to enlargement of spontaneous intracerebral hematoma. Stroke. 1997;28:2370–2375.
19. WadaR, AvivRI, FoxAJ, et al. CT angiography “spot sign” predicts hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhageStroke. 2007;38:1257–1262
20. KothariRU, BrottT, BroderickJP, et al. The ABCs of measuring intracerebral hemorrhage volumes. Stroke. 1996;27(8):1304–1305.
21. BroderickJP, BrottTG, DuldnerJE, et al. Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage: a powerful and easy to use predictor of 30-day mortality. Stroke. 1993;24:987–993.
22. XiG, KeepRF, HoffJT. Pathophysiology of brain edema formation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2002;13:371–384.
23. GebelJM, JauchEC, BrottTG, et al. Relative edema volume is a predictor of outcome in patients with hyperacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 2002;33:2636–2641.
24. XiG, HuaY, BhasinR, et al. Mechanisms of edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage: effects of extravasated red blood cells on blood flow and blood-brain integrity. Stroke. 2001;32:2932–2938.
25. MayerSA, BrunNC, BegtrupK, et al. Recombinant activated Factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. New Engl J Med. 2005;352:777–785.
26. MayerSA, BrunNC, BegtrupK, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage. New Engl J Med. 2008;358:2127–2137.
27. MayerSA, DavisSM, SkolnickBE, et al. Can a subset of intracerebral hemorrhage patients benefit from hemostatic therapy with recombinant factor VII?Stroke. 2009;40:833–840.
28. DandapaniBK, SuzukiS, KelleyRE, et al. Relation between blood pressure and outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 1995;26:21–24.
29. von HeldenA, SchneiderG-H, UnterbergA, et al. Monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation in comatose patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracerebral haematomas. Acta Neurochir. 1993(Suppl);59:102–106.
30. PowersWJ, ZazuliaAR, VideenTO, et al. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow surrounding acute (6 to 22 hours) intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2001;57:18–24.
31. ZazuliaAR, DiringerMN, VideenTO, et al. Hypoperfusion without ischemia surrounding acute intracerebral hemorrhage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2001;21:804–810.
32. WilmotM, Leonardi-BeeJ, BathPMW. High blood pressure in acute stroke and subsequent outcome: a systematic review. Hypertension. 2004;43:18–24.
33. AndersonCS, HuangY, ArimaH, et al. Effect of early intensive blood pressure lowering on the growth of hematoma and perihematoma l edema in acute intracerebral hemorrhage: The Interactive blood pressure reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (ATACH). Stroke. 2010;41:307–312.
34. QuereshiA, PalescheYY, MartinR, et al. Effect of systolic blood pressure reduction on hematoma expansion, perihematomal edema, and 3-month outcome among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:570–576.
35. KazuiS, MinematsuK, YanamotoH, et al. Predisposing factors to enlargement of spontaneous intracerebral hematoma. Stroke. 1997;28:2370–2375.
36. SchwarzS, HafnerK, AschapA, SchwabS. Incidence and prognostic significance of fever following intracerebral hemorrhage. Neruology. 2000;54:354–361.
37. AuerLM, DeinsbergerW, NiederkornK, et al. Endoscopic surgery versus medical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral hematoma: a randomized study. J Neurosurg. 1989;70:530–535.
38. MendelowAD, GregsonBA, FernandesHM, et al. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hematomas in the international Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage (STICH): a randomized trial. Lancet. 2005;365:387–397.
39. RabinsteinAA, AtkinsonJL, WijdicksEFM. Emergency craniotomy in patients worsening due to expanded cerebral hematoma: to what purpose?Neurology. 2002;58:167–172.
40. MorganT, ZuccarelloM, NarayanP, et al. Preliminary findings of the minimally invasive surgery plus rtPA for intracerebral hematoma evacuation (MISTIE) clinical trial. Acta Neurochirg. 2008;Suppl 105:147–151.
41. MaramattomBV, WeigandS, ReinaldaM, et al. Pulmonary complications after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2006;5:115–119.
42. BroderickJ, ConnollyS, FeldmannE, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Council, High blood pressure Research council, and the quality of care and outcomes interdisciplinary working group. Circulation. 2007;116:e391–414.
43. BroderickJP, BrottT, TomsickT, et al. The risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage in blacks as compared to whites. New Engl J Med. 1992;326:733–736.
44. MenghiniVV, BrownRD Jr, SicksJD, et al. Incidence and prevalence of intracranial aneurysms and hemorrhage in Olmstead County, Minnesota, 1965–1995. Neurology. 1998;51:405–411.
45. SchievinkWI, MichelsVV, PiepgrasDG. Neurovascular manifestations of heritable connective tissue disorders. A review. Stroke. 1994;25:889–903.
46. SchievinkWI. Intracranial aneurysms. New Engl J Med. 1997;336:28–40.
47. ISUIA Investigators. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: risks of rupture and risks of surgical interventions. New Engl J Med. 1998;339:1725–1733.
48. IngallTJ, WhisnantJP, WiebersDO, O'FallonWM.Has there been a decline in subarachnoid hemorrhage mortality?Stroke. 1989;20:718–724.
49. HopJW, RinkelGJ, AlgraA, van GijnJ. Quality of life in patients and partners after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 1998;29:798–804.
50. MannoEM, WijdicksEFM. New management trends in aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In BogousslavskyJ (ed), Acute Stroke Treatment, 2nd edn. London: Martin Dunitz, 2003; pp. 233–248.
51. KassellNF, TornerJC, HaleyEC Jr, et al. The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 1: Overall management results. J Neurosurg. 1990;73:18–36.
52. EdlowJA, CaplanLR. Avoiding pitfalls in the diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. New Engl J Med. 2000;342:29–36.
53. MayerPL, AwadIA, TodorR, et al. Misdiagnosis of symptomatic cerebral aneurysm: prevalence and correlation with outcome at four institutions. Stroke. 1996;27:1558–1563.
54. SamesTA, StorrowAB, FinkelsteinJA, MagoonMR. Sensitivity of new generation computed tomography in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acad Emerg Med. 1996;3:16–20.
55. FishmanRA. Composition of the cerebrospinal fluid. In FishmanRA (ed), Cerebrospinal Fluid in Diseases of the Nervous System, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 1992; pp. 183–252.
56. VelthuisBK, van LeeuwenMS, WitkampTD, et al. Computerized tomography angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: from aneurysm detection to treatment without conventional angiography. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:761–767.
57. HuntWE, HessRM. Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1968;28:14–20.
58.Anonymous: Report of the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons committee on a universal subarachnoid hemorrhage grading scale. J Neurosurg. 1988;68:985–986.
59. KassellNF, TornerJC, HaleyEC Jr, et al. The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 1: Overall management results. J Neurosurg. 1990;73:18–36.
60. HasanD, VermeulenM, WijdicksEFM, et al. Management problems in acute hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 1989;20:747–753.
61. KassellNF, TornerJC, AdamsHP Jr.Antifibrinolytic therapy in the acute period following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Preliminary observations from the Cooperative aneurysm study. J Neurosurg. 1984;61:225–230.
62. HillmanJ, FridrikssonS, NilssonO, et al. Immediate administration of tranexamic acid and reduced incidence of early rebleeding after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective randomized study. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:771–778.
63. BrouwersPJ, WijdicksEFM, HasanD, et al. Serial electrocardiographic recording in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 1989;20:1162–1167.
64. LeeVL, ConnolyHM, FulghamJR, et al. Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy in aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an underappreciated ventricular dysfunction. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:264–270.
65. van der BiltIAC, HasanD, WildeWP, et al. Impact of cardiac complications on outcome after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology. 2009;72:635–642.
66. MolyneuxA, KerrR, StrattonI, et al. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomized trial. Lancet. 2002;360:1267–1274.
67. MolyneuxAJ, KerrRS, BirksJ, et al. Risk of recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage, death, or dependence and standardized mortality ratios after clipping or coiling of an intracranial aneurysm in the International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT): long term follow-up. Lancet Neurology. 2009;8:427–433.
68. SmithWS, MatthayM. Evidence for a hydrostatic mechanism in human neurogenic pulmonary edema. Chest. 1997;111:1326–1333.
69. SchievinkWI, WijdicksEFM. Origin of pretruncal nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: ruptured vein, perforating artery, or intramural hematoma. Mayo Clinic Proc. 2000;75:1169–1173.
70. TresserSJ, SelmonWR, RatchesonRA. Pathophysiological alteration following aneurysm rupture. Concept Neurosurg. 1994;6:23–45.
71. FisherCM, KistlerJP, DavisJM. Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized of computed tomographic scanning. Neurosurgery. 1980;6:1–9.
72. KistlerJP, CrowellRM, DavisKR. The relation of cerebral vasospasm to the extent and location of subarachnoid blood visualized by CT scan: a prospective study. Neurology. 1983;33:424–436.
73. FronteraJA, ClaassenJ, SchmidtJM et al. Prediction of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: The modified Fisher scale. Neurosurgery. 2006;59:21–27.
74. RabinsteinAA, FriedmanJA, WeigandSD, et al. Predictors of cerebral infarcts after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004;35:1862–1866.
75. MaroonJC, NelsonPB. Hypovolemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: therapeutic implications. Neurosurgery. 1979;4:223–226.
76. WijdicksEF, VermuelenM, HijdraA, van GijnJ. Hyponatremia and cerebral infarction in patients with a rupture intracranial aneurysms: is fluid restriction harmful?Ann Neurol. 1985;17:137–140.
77. SviriGE, FeinsodM, SoustielJF. Brain natriuretic peptide and cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinical and TCD correlations. Stroke. 2000;31:118–122.
78. VingerhoetsF, de TriboletN.Hyponatremia hypo-osmolarity in neurosurgical patients. “Appropriate secretion of ADH” and “cerebral salt wasting syndrome”. Acta Neurochir. 1988;91:80–84.
79. LennihanL, MayerSA, FinkME, et al. Effect of hypervolemic therapy on cerebral blood flow after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke. 2000;31:383–391.
80. GaehtgensP, MarxP. Hemorrheological aspects of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987;7:259.
81. OddoM, MilbyA, ChenI, et al. Hemoglobin concentration and cerebral metabolism in patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2009;40:1275–1281.
82. KosnikEJ, HuntWE. Postoperative hypertension in the management of patients with intracranial aneurysms. J Neruosurg. 1976;45:148–154.
83. KassellNF, PeerlessSJ, DurwaedQJ, et al. Treatment of ischemic deficits from vasospasm with intravascular volume expansion and induced arterial hypertension. Neurosurgery. 1982;11:337–343.
84. BevanJA, DuckworthJ, LaherI, et al. Sympathetic control of cerebral arteries: specialization in receptor type, reserve, affinity, and distribution. FASEB J. 1987;1:193–198.
85. LevyML, RabbCH, ZelmanV, GiannottaSL. Cardiac performance enhancement from dobutamine in patients refractory to hypervolemic therapy for cerebral vasospasm. J Neruosurg. 1993;79:494–499.
86. PolinRS, HansenCA, GermanP, et al. Intra-arterially administered papaverine for the treatment of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. Neurosurgery. 1998;42:1256–1264.
87. EskridgeJM, McAuliffeW, SongJ, et al. Balloon angioplasty for the treatment of vasospasm: results of the first 50 cases. Neurosurgery. 1998;42:510–516.
88. SolenskiNJ, HaleyEC Jr, KassellNF, et al. Medical complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a report of the multicenter, cooperative aneurysm study. Participants of the multicenter cooperative aneurysm study. Crit Care Med. 1995;23:1007–1017.
89. MannoEM. Transcranial doppler ultrasonography in the neurocritical care unit. Crit Care Clinics. 1997;13:79–104.
90. VoraYY, Suarez-AlmazorM, SteinkeDE, et al. Role of transcranial doppler monitoring in the diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 1999;44:1237–1248.