The last two decades have witnessed a remarkable reinvention of the role of the neurologist, from an outpatient consultant to a critical presence in the inpatient setting. Spotting a neurologist in an emergency room or intensive care unit is no longer incongruous, rather an expectation of their relatively new roles as acute stroke doctors and neurointensivists. With this shift in patient care setting came a shift in research and many questions that have plagued the neurologic community for decades have resurfaced. The groundbreaking neurophysiologic discoveries of the previous century have armed us with an understanding of how the normal neuron functions. Now, in the inpatient, critically ill population, we once again find ourselves wondering what is happening within the shroud of the skull.