Skip to main content Accessibility help
Native Speakers and Native Users
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

'Native speakers' and 'native users' are terms traditionally used to differentiate between speakers who have acquired a language from birth and speakers who have learnt a second language. This book highlights the problems associated with making such a clear cut distinction. By analysing a range of literature, language uses and proficiency tests, Davies argues that there is no significant difference between native speakers and native users, and emphasises the importance of the Standard Language. Whilst individual native speakers may vary considerably, the academic construct of the native speaker is isomorphic with the Standard Language which is available to both native speakers and native users through education. In this book, Davies explores the 'native user' as a second language speaker who uses language with 'native speaker' competence. This book will be of significant interest to students and researchers working in the fields of second language acquisition and applied linguistics.


‘Davies interrogates the Native Speaker, together with the conspiring partner Native User, with disarming logic and multiple lines of incriminating evidence. The two prove to be implicated inextricably not only in their expected guises of learning, losing, standardizing, and assessing languages but also to be acting in collusion in a broad array of social circumstances around the world ranging from religious rituals to literary personae. This is triumphant, passionate, and elucidating intellectual sleuth work.’

Alister Cumming - University of Toronto

‘From the macroscopic domains of national identity to the intimacy of a Quaker meeting, Davies tackles the two central concepts that lie at the heart of all linguistics - speech and language use. Few applied linguistics researchers and theoreticians are as versed in the cognitive and experimental research as the ethnographic and qualitative - in this book, theory and empirical data share centre stage. Davies continually challenges himself and in doing so unsettles what we all take for granted. A delightful combination of reflection, erudition and an appreciative joy of all forms of language acquisition.’

Miriam Meyerhoff - University of Auckland

‘… explores a number of issues central to applied linguistics, second language acquisition, sociolinguistics, and the study of language generally … One major contribution of this new book … is its unravelling of a cluster of complex issues related to such distinctions as ‘native speaker’ versus ‘native user’, and ‘Standard English’ versus ‘world Englishes’. The wide-ranging theoretical discussion of these key notions is illuminated by reference both to empirical research on language testing worldwide, and the detailed analysis of a number of relevant discourses, including those of postcolonial literatures. The scholarly reach of this book is attested to by its discussion of English linguistics, conversation analysis, language loss, language norms, second language acquisition, and world Englishes … an erudite, intellectually layered, and intelligently witty book [and] an important contribution to the discussion of key ideas and ideologies in the linguistic sciences.’

Kingsley Bolton - Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

'The book is carefully structured through solid arguments, which are richly illustrated by literate examples or empirical studies. The reader will find engaging examples and rich references to literature that will revive his/her interest in exploring the nature and scope of native and non-native speakers and in establishing stronger relationships between theoretical and applied linguistics.'

Laura Dubcovsky Source: Linguist List

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Abrams, M. H. 1981. A Glossary of Literary Terms, 4th edn. New York: Holt Rinehart.
Achebe, C. 1963. ‘Muntu: Chinua Achebe on Janheinz Jahn’. Transition 8: 9.
Advices 1964. ‘Advices and queries’. In Church Government. London: Religious Society of Friends. 701–706.
AERA: Ethical Standards 1992. (accessed 14 February 2013).
Allen, J. P. B. and S. P. Corder (eds) 1973–1975. The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics, vols I–III: vol. I (1973) Readings for Applied Linguistics; vol. II (1974) Techniques in Applied Linguistics; vol. III (1975) Papers in Applied Linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.
Allen, J. P. B. and A. Davies (eds) 1977. The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics, vol. IV: Testing and Experiment in Applied Linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.
ALTE: Association of Language Testers in Europe 2001. ‘Principles of good practice for ALTE examinations’. (accessed 14 February 2013).
Anderman, G. and M. Rogers (eds) 2005. In and Out of English: For Better or Worse? Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Ang, I. 2001. On Not Speaking Chinese. London: Routledge.
Ashcroft, B. 1994. ‘Postcolonialism and the verandahs of meaning’. De-scribing Empire, ed. C. Tiffin and A. Lawson. London: Routledge. 33–44.
Ashcroft. B., G. Griffiths and H. Tiffin 1989. The Empire Writes Back. London: Routledge.
Bachman, L. and A. Cohen (eds) 1998. Interfaces between Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing Research. Cambridge University Press.
Bachman, L. F. and A. Palmer 2010. Language Assessment in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bailey, A. and F. Butler 2004. ‘Ethical considerations in the assessment of the language and content knowledge of U.S. School Age English learners’. Language Assessment Quarterly 2 and 3, 2004: 177–193.
Baldwin, J. 1955. Notes of a Native Son. New York: Beacon Press.
Barclay, R. 1678. Apology for the True Christian Divinity. Glenside, PA: Quaker Heritage Press.
Barker, E. 1991. O Caledonia. New York: Harcourt.
Bartsch, R. 1988. Norms of Language. London: Longman.
Basso, K. H. 1970. ‘To give up on words: silence in Western Apache culture’. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 26: 213–230.
Bauman, R. 1983. ‘Speaking in the light: the role of the Quaker minister’. In Let Your Words be Few, ed. R. Bauman and J. Sherzer. Cambridge University Press. 144–160.
Bauman, R. and J. Sherzer (eds) 1974. Explorations in the Ethnology of Speaking. Cambridge University Press.
Beamish, L. 1967. ‘The silent century’. Friends Quarterly January. 386–396.
Bennett, A. 1994. Writing Home. London: Faber and Faber.
Bex, T. and T. J. Watts 1999. Standard English: The Widening Debate. London: Routledge.
Bhatt, R. M. 1995. ‘Prescriptivism, creativity and World Englishes’. World Englishes 14.2: 247–259.
Bialystok, E. 1997. ‘The structure of age: In search of barriers to second language acquisition’. Second Language Research 13/2: 116–137.
Birdsong, David 1992. ‘Ultimate attainment in second language acquisition’. Language 68: 706–755.
Birdsong, David 2004. ‘Second language acquisition and ultimate attainment’. In The Handbook of Applied Linguistics, ed. A. Davies and C. Elder. Oxford: Blackwell. 82–105.
Birdsong, D. and M. Molis 2001. ‘On the evidence for maturational effects in second language acquisition’. Journal of Memory and Language 44: 235–249.
Bley-Vroman, R. 1989. ‘What is the logical problem of foreign language acquisition?’ In Linguistic Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition, ed. S. M. Gass and J. Schachter. Cambridge University Press. 41–68.
Block, D. 2003. The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition. Edinburgh University Press.
Boehme, J. 1764. ‘Apology to Tilken’. In Theosophia Revelata, vol. II, trans. Sparrow, Ellitone and Blunden. London: M. Richardson1–62.
Bokamba, E. G. 1982. ‘The Africanisation of English’. In The Other Tongue: English across Cultures, ed. B. B. Kachru. Urbana: Illinois University Press. 77–94.
Bolton, K. 2004. ‘World Englishes’. In The Handbook of Applied Linguistics, ed. A. Davies and C. Elder. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 367–396.
Braine, G. (ed.) 1999. Non-native Educators in English Language Teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Braithwaite, W. C. 1912. The Beginnings of Quakerism. London: Macmillan.
Brass, P. 1974. Language, Religion and Politics in North India. London: Cambridge University Press.
Brett, S. (ed.) 1984. The Faber Book of Parodies. London: Faber and Faber.
Brown, A. and T. Lumley 1998. ‘Linguistic and cultural norms in language testing: a case study’. Melbourne Papers in Language Testing 7.1: 80–96.
Brutt-Griffler, J. 2002. World English: A Study of Its Development. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Brutt-Griffler, J. 2005. ‘Striving to be the native speaker’. Paper delivered at British Association of Applied Linguistics Conference, September.
Cameron, D. 2005. ‘Language, gender and sexuality: current issues and new directions’. Applied Linguistics 26/4: 482–502.
Canagarajah, S. 1999. Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching. Oxford University Press.
Canagarajah, S. 2005. ‘Changing communicative needs, revised assessment objectives’. Paper delivered at Symposium on the Assessment of World Englishes. AILA Conference, Madison, WI. July.
Carls, U. 1994. ‘Types of lexical peculiarities in Indian English’. In Anglistentag 1993 Eichstadtt Proceedings, ed. G. Blaicher and B. Glaser. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 205–216.
Carroll, J. B. 1975. The Teaching of French as a Foreign Language in Eight Countries. New York: Wiley.
Carter, R. 1999. ‘Standard grammars, spoken grammars: some educational implications’. In Standard English: The Widening Debate, ed. T. Bex and R. J. Watts. London: Routledge. 149–166.
Césaire, A. 1956/1995. Cahier d’un retour au pays natal Paris: Editions Présence Africaine, 1995 edn trans. M. Rosello with A. Pritchard. Highgreen, Tarset, Northumberland: Bloodaxe.
Chafe, W. C. 1985. ‘Some reasons for hesitating’. In Perspectives on Silence, ed. D. Tannen and M. Saville-Troike. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 77–89.
Cheshire, J. 1999. ‘Spoken Standard English’. In Standard English: The Widening Debate, ed. T. Bex and R. J. Watts. London: Routledge. 129–148.
Chomsky, N. 1985Response’. In The Native Speaker Is Dead!, ed. T. M. Paikeday. Toronto and New York: Paikeday. 49–62.
CILT 2011. Centre for Information on Language Teaching. Language Trends 2011.
Clapham, C. 1996. The Development of IELTS: A Study of the Effect of Background Knowledge on Reading Comprehension. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate and Cambridge University Press (Studies in Language Testing, Vol. IV).
Clark, E. 2003. First Language Acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Clark, J. L. D. 1977. The Performance of Native Speakers of English on the Test of English as a Foreign Language. Research Report. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Colley, L. 1992/2003. Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837. London: Pimlico.
Colley, L. 2002. Captives: Britain, Empire and the World 1600–1850. London: Jonathan Cape.
Cook, V. J. and B. Bassetti (eds) 2011. Language and Bilingual Cognition. New York: Psychology Press.
Coppieters, R. 1987. ‘Competence differences between native and near-native speakers’. Language 63: 544–73.
Corder, S. P. 1973. Introducing Applied Linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Corder, S. P. 1981. Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford University Press.
Coupland, N. (ed.) 1988. Styles of Discourse. London: Croom Helm/Routledge.
Cox, B. 1991. Cox on Cox: an English Curriculum for the 1990s. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Cranshaw, A. 1997. ‘A study of Anglophone native and near-native linguistic and metalinguistic performance’. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: University of Montreal.
Crewe, W. 1977. ‘Singapore English as a non-native dialect’. In The English Language in Singapore, ed. W. Crewe. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press. 96–119.
Criper, C. and A. Davies 1988. ELTS Validation Project Report (Research Report 1/1). London and Cambridge: The British Council and University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.
Cronbach, L. J. 1984. Essentials of Psychological Testing. 4th edn. New York: Harper and Row.
Crowley, T. 1996. Language in History: Theories and Texts. London: Routledge.
Crystal, D. 1995. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, D. 1997. English as a Global Language. Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, D. and D. Davy 1969. Investigating English Style. London: Longman.
Darby, P. 1998. The Fiction of Imperialism. London: Cassell.
Das, K. 1996. ‘An introduction’. Rpt in The Arnold Anthology of Colonial Literatures in English, ed. J. Thieme. London: Arnold. 717.
Das, K. 2009. ‘An Introduction’. Rpt in The Arnold Anthology of Colonial Literatures in English, ed. J. Thieme. London: Arnold. 717.
Dasgupta, P. 1993. The Otherness of English: India’s Auntie Tongue Syndrome. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Daswani, C. J. 1978. ‘Some theoretical implications for investigating Indian English’. In Papers Read at the Seminar on Indian English Held at the CIEF, Hyderabad, July 1972, ed. R. Mohan. Bombay: Orient Longman. 115–128.
Davidson, F. 1994. ‘Comments and replies’. World Englishes 13.1: 119–120.
Davies, A. 1988. ‘Talking in silence: ministry in Quaker meetings’. In Styles of Discourse, ed. N. Coupland. Beckenham: Croom Helm. 105–137.
Davies, A. 1989. ‘Is international English an interlanguage?TESOL Qtly 23.3: 447–467.
Davies, A. 1991. The Native Speaker in Applied Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press.
Davies, A. 1997. ‘Demands of being professional in language testing’. Language Testing 14.3: 328–339.
Davies, A. 2003a. The Native Speaker: Myth and Reality. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Davies, A. 2003b. ‘Textual hoaxes: questioning the taken-for-granted’. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics 9.2: 91–125.
Davies, A. 2004. ‘Introduction: language testing and the golden rule’. Language Assessment Quarterly 1, 2 and 3: 97–107.
Davies, A. 2005. A Glossary of Applied Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press; Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Davies, A. 2007. An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: From Practice to Theory. 2nd edn. Edinburgh University Press.
Davies, A. 2008. ‘Ethics, professionalism, rights and codes’. In Encyclopedia of Language and Education, vol. VII: Language Testing and Assessment, ed. E. Shohamy and N. H. Hornberger. 2nd edn. New York: Springer Science and Business Media: 429–443.
Davies, A. 2009. ‘Assessing World Englishes’. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 29: 80–89.
Davies, A. 2010. ‘Test fairness: a response’. Language Testing 27.2: 171–176.
Davies, A., A. Brown, C. Elder, K. Hill, T. Lumley and T. McNamara 1999. Dictionary of Language Testing. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate and Cambridge University Press (Studies in Language Testing, vol. VII).
Davies, A. and C. Elder (eds) 2004. The Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
Davies, A. and C. Elder 1976. ‘Assessing English as a lingua franca’. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26: 282–301.
Davies, A. and C. Elder 1997. ‘Language distance as a factor in the acquisition of literacy in English as a Second Language’. In The Bilingual Interface Project, ed. P. McKay, A. Davies, B. Devlin, J. Clayton, R. Oliver and S. Zammitt. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education Training and Youth Affairs. 93–106.
Davies, A., L. Hamp-Lyons and C. Kemp 2003. ‘Whose norms: international proficiency tests in English’. World Englishes 22.4: 571–584.
Davies, R. 1771. ‘Life’, qtd in A. Brayshaw, The Quakers. London: Allen and Unwin. 243.
De Beaugrande, Robert 1999. ‘Theory and practice in the discourse of language planning’. World Englishes 18.2: 107–121.
De Keyser, R. 2000. ‘The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition’. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 22/4: 493–533.
DeKeyser, R. 2001. ‘Automaticity and automatization’. In Cognition and Second Language Instruction, ed. P. Robinson. Cambridge University Press. 125–151.
De Saussure, F. 1916. Cours de linguistique générale, ed. C. Bally and A. Sechehaye, with the collaboration of A. Riedlinger. Lausanne and Paris: Payot; trans. W. Baskin, Course in General Linguistics. Glasgow: Fontana/Collins, 1977.
Derrida, J. 1962. ‘Commentary on Edmund Husserl: Origins of Geometry’. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Doerr, N. M. (ed.) 2009. The Native Speaker Concept: Ethnographic Investigations of Native Speaker Effects. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Doody, M. A. 1980. ‘How shall we sing the Lord’s song upon an alien soil? The New Episcopalian Liturgy’. In The State of the Language, ed. L. Michaels and C. Ricks. London: University of California Press. 108–124.
Du, R. and Y. Jiang 2001. ‘A survey of “China English” in the past 20 years’. Foreign Language Teaching and Research. 33.1: 1–31.
EALTA 2006. European Association for Language Testing and Assessment. EALTA Guidelines for good practice in language testing and assessment. (accessed on 14 February 2013).
Edge, J. (ed.) 2006. (Re)locating TESOL in an Age of Empire. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Edmundson, W. 1981. Spoken Discourse: A Model for Analysis. London: Longman.
Elder, C. 1997. ‘What does test bias have to do with fairness?Language Testing 14.3: 261–277.
Elder, C. 2000. ‘Is it fair to assess native and non native speakers in common on school “foreign” language examinations?’ In Fairness in Language Testing: Proceedings of the 19th Language Testing Research Colloquium, ed. A. Kunnan. Cambridge University Press. 82–104.
Elder, C. 2001. ‘Assessing the language proficiency of teachers: are there any border controls?Language Testing 18.1: 149–170.
Elder, C. and A. Davies 1998. ‘Performance on ESL examinations: is there a language distance effect?Language and Education 12.1: 1–17.
Elder, C. and A. Davies 2006. ‘Assessing English as a lingua franca’. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26: 282–301.
Elder, C., T. McNamara and P. Congdon 2004. ‘Rasch techniques for detecting bias in performance assessments: an example comparing the performance of native and non-native speakers on a test of academic English’. In Introducing Rasch Measurement, ed. R. Smith. London: Taylor and Francis. 419–444.
Escudero, P. R. and M. Sharwood-Smith 2001. ‘Reinventing the native speaker: or “what you never wanted to know about the native speaker so never dared to ask”’. In EUROSLA Yearbook, vol I., ed. S. H. Foster-Cohen and A. Nizegorodcow. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 275–286.
ETS (Educational Testing Service) 2003. ‘Fairness review guidelines’. Princeton, NJ: ETS. Available from (accessed 26 March 2013).
European Survey 2012. Annual Growth Survey 2012. European Commission. (accessed 7 May 2013).
Fairclough, N. 1959. ‘Diglossia’. Word 15.2: 325–340.
Fairclough, N. 1992. Critical Language Awareness. London: Longman.
Ferguson, C. F. 1983. ‘Language planning and language change’. In Progress in Language Planning, ed. H. Cobarrubias and J. A. Fishman. Berlin: Mouton. 29–40.
Firth, A. 1991. ‘Lingua franca negotiations: towards an interactional approach’. World Englishes 9.3: 269–280.
Firth, J. R. 1935/1957. ‘The techniques of semantics’. Transactions of the Philological Society 34/1: 36–53. Also in J.R. Firth, 1957. Papers in Linguistics 1934–51. London: Oxford University Press. 7–17.
Fishman, J. A., A. W. Conrad and A. Rubal-Lopez (eds) 1996. Post-imperial English: Status Change in Former British and American Colonies 1940–1990. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Forbes, P. 1997. ‘The hoax engine’. Poetry Review 18.2: 3–5.
Fowler, H. W. 1926. Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press.
Fox, G. 1694/1975. Journal. Rev. edn London Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, 1975.
Freeman, D. 1999. The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead: A Historical Analysis of Her Samoan Research. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Frekko, S. E. 2009. ‘Social class, linguistic normativity and the authority of the native Catalan speaker in Barcelona’. In The Native Speaker Concept: Ethnographic Investigations of Native Speaker Effects, ed. N. M. Doerr. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter: 161–184.
Fulcher, G. 2010. ‘The reification of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and effect-driven testing’. In Advances in Research on Language Acquisition and Teaching, ed. A. Psyaltou-Joycey and M. Matthaioudakis. Thessaloniki: GALA.
Garfinkel, H. 1967. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ge, C. 1980. ‘On issues from Chinese–English translation’. Translation Studies 2: 1–8.
Gilbert, H. 1994. ‘De-scribing orality: performance and the recuperation of voice’. In De-scribing Empire, ed. C. Tiffin and A. Lawson. London: Routledge. 98–111.
Giles, H. and P. F. Powesland 1975. Speech Style and Social Evaluation. London: Academic Press.
Goffman, E. 1971. Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order. New York: Basic Books.
Goffman, E. 1974. Frame Analysis. New York: Harper and Row (references to the 1975 edition Harmondsworth: Penguin).
Gorlach, M. (ed.) 2002. English in Europe. Oxford University Press.
Gorman, G. 1973. Introduction to Quakerism. London: Religious Society of Friends.
Graddol, D. 1997. The Future of English. London: British Council.
Graddol, D. 1999. ‘The decline of the native speaker’. In English in a Changing World, ed. D. Graddol and U. Meinhof, special issue AILA: the AILA Review (13): 57–68.
Graddol, D. 2010. English Next. London: The British Council.
Gregg, K. R. 2003. ‘SLA theory construction and assessment’. In The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. C. J. Doughty and M. H. Long. Oxford: Blackwell. 831–865.
Grice, H. P. 1975. ‘Logic and conversation’. In Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts, ed. P. Cole and J. Morgan. London and New York: Academic Press. 187–210.
Grubb, E. n.d. ‘The delivery of the message. Preparation for service’, no.10. The Yearly Meeting Committee on Ministry and the Friends Fellowship Union.
Gumperz, J. J. and S. C. Levinson 1996. Rethinking Linguistic Relativity. Cambridge University Press.
Halliday, M. A. K., A. McIntosh and P. D. Strevens 1964. The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. London: Longman.
Hamp-Lyons, L. 1989. ‘Language testing and ethics’. Prospect 5: 7–15.
Hamp-Lyons, L. and A. Davies 2005. ‘Bias revisited’. Paper delivered at Symposium on The Assessment of World Englishes. AILA Conference, Madison. July.
Hamp-Lyons, L. and A. Davies 2008. ‘The Englishes of English tests: bias revisited’. World Englishes 27/1: 26–39.
Hamp-Lyons, L. and W. B. Zhang 2000. ‘World Englishes: issues in and from academic writing assessment’. In English for Academic Purposes, ed. J. Flowerdew and M. Peacock. Cambridge University Press: 101–116.
Han, Z. H. 2004. ‘To be a native speaker means not being a nonnative speaker’. Review of Davies, A. 1991: The Native Speaker in Applied Linguistics and Davies, A. 2003: The Native Speaker: Myth and Reality. Second Language Research 20/2: 166–187.
Harris, R. 1988. Language, Saussure and Wittgenstein: How to Play Games with Words. London: Routledge.
Haugen, E. 1966. ‘Dialect language, nation’. American Anthropologist 68: 922–935.
Heyward, M. 1993. The Ern Malley Affair. London: Faber and Faber.
Hill, C. and K. Parry (eds) 1994. From Testing to Assessment: English as an International Language. London: Longman.
Hill, K. 1996. ‘Who should be the judge? The use of non-native speakers as raters on a test of English as an international language’. Melbourne Papers in Language Testing 5/2: 29–50.
Hindmarsh, R. 1962. ‘Africa: the inward exploration’. Transition 6/7: 41–45.
Hinds, J. 1987. ‘Reader versus writer responsibility: A new typology’. In Writing across Languages: Analysis of L2 Text, ed. U. Connor and R. B. Kaplan. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. 141–152.
Hinds, J. 1993. ‘Contrastive rhetoric: Japanese and English’. Text 3: 183–195.
Hodgkin, L. V. 1919. Silent Worship. London: Allen and Unwin.
Holliday, A. S. 2008. ‘Standards of English and politics of inclusion’. Language Teaching 41/2: 119–130.
Honey, J. 1997. Language Is Power: The Story of Standard English and Its Enemies. London: Faber.
Hubbard, G. 1974. Quaker by Convincement. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Hughes, R. 1993. ‘Introduction: the well-wrought Ern’. In The Ern Malley Affair, ed. M. Heyward. London: Faber and Faber. xv–xx.
Hutcheon, L. 1985. A Theory of Parody. New York: Methuen.
Hyltenstaam, K. and N. Abrahamsson 2003. ‘Maturational constraints in SLA’. In The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. C. J. Doughty and M. H. Long. Oxford: Blackwell. 539–588.
Ikome, O. M. 1998. ‘Language “nativization” in West Africa: acculturation and acquisition of native speakers in Cameroon’. In The Native Speaker: Multilingual Perspectives, ed. R. Singh. New Delhi: Sage Publications. 61–78.
ILPA: Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association 2010. House of Lords Motion re: Statement of Changes in Immigration Rules (Cm 7944) 25 October 2010, (accessed 17 February 2013).
ILTA CoE 2000. Code of Ethics for ILTA, (accessed 17 February 2013).
ILTA CoP 2000. ILTA Guidelines for Practice, (accessed 17 February 2013).
Ioup, G., E. Boustagui, M. El Tigi and M. Moselle 1994. ‘Reexamining the critical period hypothesis: a case study of successful adult SLA in a naturalistic environment’. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16/1: 73–98.
Jackson, A. 2012. The Two Unions: Ireland, Scotland and the Survival of the United Kingdom 1707–2007. Oxford University Press.
Jahn, J. 1968. A History of New-African Literature, trans. O. Coburn and U. Lehrburger. London: Faber.
James, A. R. 2000. ‘English as a European lingua franca: current realities and existing dichotomies’. In English in Europe: The Acquisition of a Third Language, ed. J. Cenoz and U. Jessner. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 22–38.
Jenkins. J. 2000. The Phonology of English as an International Language: New Models, New Norms, New Goals. Oxford University Press.
Jenkins. J. 2002. ‘A sociolinguistically based, empirically researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an International Language’. Applied Linguistics 23/1: 83–103.
Jenkins. J. 2005. ‘The spread of English as an International Language: a testing time for testers’. Paper delivered at British Association of Applied Linguistics Conference, September.
Jenkins. J. 2006. ‘The spread of EIL: a testing time for testers’. English Language Teaching Journal 60: 42–50.
Jenkins. J. 2007. English as a Lingua Franca: Attitudes and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jiang, Y. 1995. ‘Chinglish and China English’. English Today, 41: 51–53.
Johnson, J. S. and E. L. Newport 1989. ‘Critical period effects in second language learning: the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language’. Cognitive Psychology 21: 60–99.
Jones, R. 1914. Spiritual Reformers of the 16th and 17th Centuries. London: Macmillan.
Joseph, J. 2004. Language and Identity: National, Ethnic, Religious. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Joseph, J. 2006. Language and Politics. Edinburgh University Press.
Judd, D. 1996. Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1975 to the Present. London: Harper Collins.
Kachru, B. 1982/1992. The Other Tongue: English across Cultures. Urbana: Illinois University Press.
Kachru, B. B. 1983. The Indianization of English: The English Language in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kachru, B. 1986. The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions and Models of Non-Native Englishes. Oxford: Pergamon.
Kachru, B. B. 1991. ‘Liberation linguistics and the Quirk concerns’. English Today 25: 3–13.
Kachru, B. 1992. ‘World Englishes: approaches, issues and resources’. Language Teaching 25: 1–14.
Kachru, B. 1994. ‘English in South Asia’. In The Cambridge History of the English Language, vol. V: English in Britain and Overseas: Origins and Development, ed. R. Burchfield. Cambridge University Press. 497–553.
Kachru, Y. 1988. ‘Writers in Hindi and English’. In Writing across Cultures: Issues in Contrastive Rhetoric, ed. A. C. Purves. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kandiah, T. 1998. ‘Epiphanies of the deathless native user’s manifold avatars: a post-colonial perspective on the native speaker’. In The Native Speaker: Multilingual Perspectives, ed. R. Singh. New Delhi: Sage Publications. 79–110.
Kaplan, A. 1994. French Lessons: A Memoir. University of Chicago Press.
Katunich, J. 2006. ‘Equity and English in South African higher education: Ambiguity and colonial language legacy’. In (Re)locating TESOL in an Age of Empire, ed. J. Edge. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 139–157.
Kelly, T. 1966. ‘The gathered meeting’. In The Eternal Promise, ed. R. Kelly. New York: Harpers.
Kemp, C. 2007. ‘Strategic processing in grammar learning: Do multilinguals use more strategies?International Journal of Multilingualism 4: 241–261.
Kenkel, J. M. and R. W. Tucker 1989. ‘Evaluation of institutionalized varieties of English and its implications for placement and pedagogy’. World Englishes 8.2: 201–214.
Kenner, H. 1968. The Counterfeiters. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Kincaid, J. 1988. A Small Place. New York: Farrar. Straus, Giroux.
Kirkpatrick, A. (ed.) 2010. The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes. Abingdon: Routledge.
Koestler, A. 1971. The Case of the Midwife Toad. London: Hutchinson.
Koh, T. 1979. ‘Singapore pride’. In The English of Singapore and Malaysia, ed. R. K. Tongue. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.
Krishnaswamy, N. and A. S. Burde 1998. The Politics of Indians’ English: Linguistic Colonization and the Expanding English Empire. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Labov, W. 1994. Principles of Linguistic Change: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lado, R. 1949. ‘Measurement in English as a foreign language’. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Lado, R. 1961. Language Testing. London: Longman.
Lamb, C. 1835. ‘A Quaker’s Meeting’. In C. Lamb Essays of Elia London. Paris: Baudry European Library.
Language and National Origin Group 2004. ‘Guidelines for the use of language analysis in relation to questions of national origin in refugee cases’. The International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law 11/2: 261–266.
Language Learning: A Journal of Applied Linguistics 1948. Volume 1. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan.
Le Page, R. B. and A. Tabouret Keller 1985. Acts of Identity: Creole-Based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge University Press.
Lee, C.-R. 1995. Native Speaker. London: Granta and Penguin.
Leitner, G. 1985. ‘Das Englische in Indien: ein Uberblick uber die Literatur seit cc 1975’. Acolit 17: 18–38.
Lemert, C. 1997. ‘Goffman’. In The Goffman Reader, ed. C. Lemert, and A. Branaman. Oxford: Blackwell. ix–xliii.
Lemert, C. and A. Branaman (eds) 1997. The Goffman Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lessing, D. 1950. The Grass Is Singing. London: Harper Collins.
Lewis, G. 1997. ‘Three faces of forgery’. Poetry Review 18.2: 6–8.
Li, W. 1993. ‘China English and Chinese English’. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 4: 19–20.
Long, M. H. 2003. ‘Stabilization and fossilization in interlanguage’. In The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. C. J. Doughty and M. H. Long. Oxford: Blackwell. 487–535.
Long, M. H. and C. J. Doughty 2003. ‘Second language acquisition and cognitive science’. In The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. C. J. Doughty and M. H. Long. Oxford: Blackwell. 866–870.
Lowenberg, P. 1993. ‘Issues of validity in tests of English as a world language: whose standards?World Englishes 12.1: 95–106.
Lowenberg, P. 2002a. ‘Assessing English proficiency in the expanding circle’. World Englishes 21.2: 431–435.
Lowenberg, P. 2002b. ‘Southeast Asian norms: implications for assessing proficiency in English as a global language’. Paper presented at the AILA Conference, Singapore, December.
Lukmani, Y. 2002. ‘English in India: assessment issues’. Presentation at the Hong Kong Seminar.
Lumley, T. 2005. Assessing Second Language Writing: The Rater’s Perspective. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Lumley, T. and A. Brown 1996. ‘Specific purpose language performance tests: task and interaction’. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 13: 105–136.
MacCulloch, D. 2009. A History of Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years. London: Allen Lane.
Mackey, W. F. 1965. Language Teaching Analysis. London: Longman.
Maltz, D. N. 1985. ‘Joyful noise and reverent silence: The significance of noise in Pentecostal worship’. Perspectives on Silence, ed. D. Tannen and M. Saville-Troike. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Matras, Y. 2009. Language Contact. Cambridge University Press.
Matsuda, A.Negotiating ELT assumptions in EIL classrooms’. In (Re)locating TESOL in an Age of Empire, ed. J. Edge. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 158–170.
Maurer, D. W. 1940/1999. The Big Con: The Classic Story of the Confidence Man and the Confidence Trick. London: Century.
Mbangwana, P. 1989. Flexibility and Lexical Usage in Cameroon English. University of Yaounde.
McArthur, T. 1992. The Oxford Guide to World English. Oxford University Press.
McArthur, T. 1998. The English Languages. Cambridge University Press.
McAuley, J. 1963. ‘Letter from Australia: negritude and mateship’. Transition 9: 49–50.
McCrum, R., R. McNeil and W. Cran 1986. The Story of English. London: Faber and Faber.
McKay, S. 2002. Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford University Press.
McKay. S. L. 2005. ‘Sociolinguistics and second language learning’. In Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, ed. E. Henkel. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 281–300.
McNamara, T. 2001. ‘Language assessment as social practice: challenges for research’. Language Testing 18/4: 333–349.
McNamara, T. 2005. ‘21st century shibboleth: language tests, identity and intergroup conflict’. Language Policy 4.4: 1–20.
McNamara, T. and C. Roever 2006. Language Testing: The Social Dimension. Oxford: Blackwell.
Medgyes, P. 1994. The Non-Native Teacher. London: Macmillan. 1999 rev. 2nd ed. Ismaning, Germany: Hueber.
Mesthrie, R. and R. M. Bhatt 2008. World Englishes: The Study of New Linguistic Varieties. Cambridge University Press.
Milroy, L. 1999. ‘Standard English and language ideology in Britain and the United States.’ In Standard English: The Widening Debate, ed. T. Bex and R. J. Watts. London: Routledge. 173–206.
Mind! 1901. Special Issue of Mind (vol. x).
Montrul, S. and R. Slabakova 2001. ‘Is native-like competence possible in L2 acquisition?’ In BUCLD 25: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Boston, MA: Cascadilla Press. 522–533.
Mphalele, E. 1962. The African Image. London: Faber.
Mugglestone, L. 1995. Talking Proper: The Rise of Accent as a Social Symbol. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Mukherjee, J. 2007. ‘Steady states in the evolution of new Englishes: present-day Indian English as an equilibrium’. Journal of English Linguistics 35.2: 157–187.
Myers, T. 1979. The Development of Conversation and Discourse. Edinburgh University Press.
Nelson, C. L. 1995. ‘Intelligibility and world Englishes in the classroom’. World Englishes 14.2: 273–279.
Ngugi. J. 1986. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. London: Heinemann.
O’Hagan, S. 1999. ‘Assessment criteria for non-native and native speaker essays: Do uniform standards work?’ (accessed 26 March 2013).
O’Rourke, B. 2011. Galician and Irish in the European Context: Attitudes towards Weak and Strong Minority Languages. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Odlin, T. 1989. Language Transfer: Cross-Linguistic Influence in Language Learning. Cambridge University Press.
Odlin, T. 2002. ‘Language transfer and cross-linguistic studies: relativism, universalism and the native language’. In The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics, ed. R. B. Kaplan. Oxford University Press. 253–261.
Okara, G. 1963. ‘African speech’. Transition 10: 15–16.
Paikeday, T. M. 1985. The Native Speaker Is Dead! Toronto and New York: Paikeday.
Pakir, Ann (ed.) 1993. The English Language in Singapore: Standards and Norms. Singapore University Press.
Pawley, A. and F. H. Syder 1983. ‘Two puzzles for linguistic theory: naturelike selection and naturelike fluency’. In Language and Communication, ed. J. C. Richards and R. Schmidt. Harlow: Longman.
Penn, W. 1694. A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers. Project Gutenberg 2006: 12.
Penn, W. 1726. Preface to George Fox’s Journal. London (1726) Works, vol. 2.
Penney, N. (ed.) 1907. The First Publishers of Truth. London: Headley Brothers.
Peters, P. 1995. The Cambridge Australian English Style Guide. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
Phillipson, R. 1992. Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford University Press.
Phillipson, R. 1999. ‘Voice in global English: unheard chords in Crystal loud and clear’. Review of D. Crystal, 1992, English as a Global Language; Applied Linguistics 20/2: 265–276.
Phillipson, R. 2003. English-Only Europe? Challenging Language Policy. London: Routledge.
Phillipson, R. and T. Skutnabb-Kangas 1999. ‘Englishisation: one dimension of globalisation’. In English in a Changing World, ed. D. Graddol and U. H. Meinhof (eds). AILA Review 13: 19–38.
Pica, T. 2005. ‘Second language acquisition research and applied linguistics: State of the art on second language acquisition’. In Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, ed. E. Henkel. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 263–280.
PISA 1997. Programme for International Student Assessment. Paris: OECD.
Poe, Edgar A. 1859. ‘Note’ to ‘The unparalleled adventure of one Hans Pfaall’. Works of the Late Edgar Allan Poe, ed. Rufus Wilmot Griswold. New York: Redfield. I: 46–51.
Poetry Review 1997. The Hoax Issue 18.2.
Prabhu, N. S. 1987. Second Language Pedagogy. Oxford University Press.
Prator, C. 1968. ‘The British heresy in TESL’. In Language Problems of Developing Nations. New York: Wiley. 459–476.
Preisler, B. 1999. ‘Functions and forms of English in a European EFL country’. In Standard English: The Widening Debate, ed. T. Bex and R. J. Watts. London: Routledge. 239–267.
Preston, D. 1989. Sociolinguistics and Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. 1991. The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language. University of Chicago Press.
Punter, D. 2000. Postcolonial Imaginings: Fictions of a New World Order. Edinburgh University Press.
Quirk, R. 1985. ‘The English language in a global context’. In English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures, ed. R. Quirk and H. G. Widdowson. Cambridge University Press and the British Council. 1–6.
Quirk, R. 1990. ‘What is Standard English?’ In English in Use, ed. R. Quirk and G. Stein. London: Longman. 112–125.
Quirk, R. and G. Stein 1990. English in Use. London: Longman.
Rosch, E. 1973. ‘Natural Categories’. Cognitive Psychology 4: 328–350.
Rosello, M. 1995. ‘Introduction’ and ‘Note’. In A. Césaire, Notebook of a Return to my Native Land. Hightree, Tarset, Northumberland: Bloodaxe Books. 1–68, 137–139.
Rosen, H. and T. Burgess 1980. Languages and Dialects of London School Children: An Investigation. London: Ward Lock.
Rubadiri, D. 1964. ‘Why African literature?Transition 15: 39–42.
Russell, P. 1964. ‘Letter from Europe’. Transition 17: 47–52.
Ryave, A. C. and J. N. Schenkein 1974. ‘Notes on the art of walking’. In Ethnomethodology, ed. R. Turner. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 65–74.
Sailaja, P. 2009. Indian English. Edinburgh University Press.
Samarin, W. J. 1972. Tongues of Men and Angels: The Religious Language of Pentecostalism. London: Macmillan.
Scammell, G. V. 1989. The First Imperial Age. London: Routledge.
Schmied, J. 1994. ‘Syntactic style variation in Indian English’. In Anglistentag 1993 Eichstatt Proceedings, ed. G. Blaicher and B. Glaser. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 217–232.
Schneider, E. W. 2007. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the World. Cambridge University Press.
Scott, W. 1805. The Lay of the Last Minstrel. Edinburgh: A. Constable and Co.
Seavey, O. 1975. The Moon Hoax (Richard Adams Locke). Boston, MA: Gregg Press.
Sedlatschek, A. 2009. Contemporary Indian English: Variation and Change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Seidlhofer, B. 2000. ‘Mind the gap: English as a mother tongue versus English as a lingua franca’. Views 9.1: 51–68.
Seidlhofer, B. 2001. ‘Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca’. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11: 133–158
Seidlhofer, B. 2004. ‘Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca’. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24. Cambridge University Press: 209–239.
Seidlhofer, B. 2007. ‘Common property: English as a lingua franca in Europe’. In International Handbook of English Language Teaching, ed. N. J. Cummins and C. Davison. New York: Springer. 137–154.
Seidlhofer, B. 2010. ‘Lingua franca English–the European context’. In The Routledge Handbook of World Englishes, ed. A. Kirkpatrick. Abingdon: Routledge. 355–371.
Selinker, L. 1972. ‘Interlanguage’. International Review of Applied Linguistics 10: 209–231.
Selinker, L., M. Swain and G. Dumas 1975. ‘The interlanguage hypothesis extended to children’. Language Learning 25: 139–152.
Shastri, S. V., C. T. Patilkulkarni and G. S. Shastri 1986. Manual of Information to Accompany the Koltapur Corpus of Indian English, for Use with Digital Computers. Koltapur: Shiraji University.
Shohamy, E. 2001. The Power of Tests. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Singleton, D. and Z. Lengyel (eds) 1995. The Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 1994. ‘Linguistic human rights and minority education’. TESOL Qtly 28: 625–628.
Smitherman, G. 1983. ‘Standard English’. Journal of Negro Education 52/1: 21–22.
Snobbs, S. 1901 ‘A commentary on the snark’. Mind! special issue: 87–101.
Sokal, A. 1996. ‘Transgressing the boundaries: toward a transformative hermeneutics of quantum gravity’. Social Text 46/47: 217–252.
Sokal, A. and J. Bricmont 1998. Intellectual Impostures. London: Profile Books.
Sood, K. S. and P. S. Bright n.d. Bright’s Handbook of Common Errors in English and How to Avoid Them. New Delhi: Bright Careers Institute.
Sorace, A. 2003. ‘Near-nativeness’. In The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. C. J. Doughty and M. H. Long. Oxford: Blackwell. 130–151.
Spolsky, B. 1993. ‘Testing across cultures: an historical perspective’. World Englishes 12.1: 87–93.
Spolsky, B. 1995. Measured Words. Oxford University Press.
Spolsky, B. 2009. ‘Editor’s Introduction’. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics vol. 29: Language Policy and Language Assessment. vii–xii.
Steere, D. 1972. On Speaking out of the Silence: Vocal Ministry in the Unprogrammed Meeting for Worship. Pendle Hill Pamphlet no 182, Philadelphia.
Stemler, S. E. 2002. ‘A comparison of consensus, consistency, and measurement approaches to estimating interrater reliability’. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation 9/4 (online).
Stern, H. H. 1983. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press.
Swift, J. 1729. ‘A Modest Proposal for preventing the children of poor people from being a burthen to their parents, or the country, and for making them beneficial to the publick’. In Swift Selected Writings, ed. J. Hayward. London: Nonesuch Press, 1939. 1–7.
Tannen D. and M. Saville-Troike (eds) 1985. Perspectives on Silence. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Tarone, E. 2007. ‘Sociolinguistic approaches to second language acquisition research, 1997–2007’. Modern Language Journal 91: 837–848.
Taylor, L. 2002. ‘Assessing learners’ English: But whose/which English(es)?Research Notes 10. Cambridge ESOL Examinations. 1–11.
Taylor, L. 2005. ‘Linguistic diversity: language varieties and their implications for testing and assessment’. Paper presented at the ALTE Conference. Berlin.
Teng Mui Huang 1985. ‘Singapore English’. Diploma in Applied Linguistics dissertation. Singapore: RELC.
Thompson, J. B. 1984. Studies in the Theory of Ideology. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Tickoo, M. L. 1991. Languages and Standards: Issues, Attitudes, Case Studies. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
Tiffin, C. and A. Lawson (eds) 1994. De-scribing Empire. London: Routledge.
Tongue, R. K. 1979. The English of Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.
Trudgill, P. 1975. Accent, Dialect and the School. London: Edward Arnold.
Trudgill, P. 1999. ‘Standard English: what it isn’t’. In Standard English: The Widening Debate, ed. T. Bex and R. J. Watts. London: Routledge. 117–128.
Trudgill, P. 2003. A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh University Press.
Trudgill, P. and J. Hannah 2002. International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English. 4th edn. London: Arnold.
Trueblood, D. E. 1960. ‘The paradox of the Quaker ministry’. Quaker lecture, Indiana Yearly Meeting.
Turner, R. 1970. Words, Utterances and Activities. In Understanding Everyday Life, ed. J. Douglas. Chicago: Aldine. Reprinted in R. Turner (ed.) 1974, Ethnomethodology. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
UCLES 2001. Cambridge Examinations, Certificates and Diplomas, First Certificate of English Handbook. University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.
Ullman, M. T. 2002. ‘The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: the declarative/procedural mode’. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 4/2: 105–122.
Underhill, E. 1936. Worship. London: James Nisbet and Co.; 1962, London: Fontana.
Van Wuijtswinkel, K. 1994. ‘Critical period effects on the acquisition of grammatical competence in a second language’. Unpublished dissertation: Katholieke Universiteit, Nijmegen.
Verma, S. K. 1978. ‘Syntactic irregularities in Indian English’. In Papers Read at the Seminar on Indian English Held at the CIEF, Hyderabad, July 1972, ed. R. Mohan. Bombay: Orient Longman. 207–220
Verma, S. K. 1982. ‘Swadehi English: form and function’. In New Englishes, ed. J. Pride. New York: Newbury House. 174–187.
Wa Thiong’o, N. 1986. See Ngugi, J. 1986.
Walder, D. 1988. Post-colonial Literatures in English: History, Language, Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wali, O. 1963. ‘The dead end of African literature’. Transition 10: 13–15.
Walker, H. E. 1952. ‘The conception of a ministry in the Quaker movement and a survey of its development’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Weber, M. 1978. Economy and Society. 2 vol. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
White, L. 2003. ‘On the nature of interlanguage and representation: universal grammar in the second language’. In The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition, ed. C. J. Doughty and M. H. Long. Oxford: Blackwell. 19–42.
Wimsatt, W. K., Jr. and M. C. Beardsley 1946. ‘The intentional fallacy’. The Sewanee Review 54/3: 468–488.
Woolman, J. 1910. The Journal and Essays, ed A. M. Gunmore. London: Dent (first published 1774).
Wyld, H. C. 1934. ‘The best English: a claim for the superiority of Received Standard English’. Proceedings of the Society for Pure English 4. Tract 39: 603–621.
Young, R. J. C. 1995. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture, and Race. London: Routledge.
Zhang, Y. and C. Elder 2011. ‘Judgements of oral proficiency by non-native and native English speaking teacher raters: competing or complementary constructs?Language Testing 28.1: 31–50.
Zielinski, S. 1975. Psychology and Silence. Pendle Hill Pamphlet No. 201. Pendle Hill, PA: Religious Society of Friends.
Zuengler. J. and K. M. Cole 2005. ‘Language socialization and second language learning’. In Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning, ed. E. Henkel. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 301–316.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.