1. , , , et al. Guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice–evidence-based approach from the Apheresis Applications Committee of the American Society for Apheresis. J Clin Apher 2010; 25:83–177.
2. , , , et al. Plasmapheresis in multiple sclerosis: prospective trial of pheresis and immunosuppression versus immunosuppression alone. Neurology 1982; 32:739–43.
3. , , , et al. Intensive immunosuppression in progressive multiple sclerosis. A randomized, three-arm study of high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide, plasma exchange, and ACTH. N Engl J Med 1983; 308:173–80.
4. , , , et al. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: double-blind controlled study of plasmapheresis in patients taking immunosuppressive drugs. Neurology 1985; 35:312–19.
5. , , , et al. Double-blind study of true vs. sham plasma exchange in patients treated with immunosuppression for acute attacks of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1989; 39:1143–9.
6. , , , et al. A randomized trial of plasma exchange in acute central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease. Ann Neurol 1999; 46:878–86.
7. , , , et al. Plasma exchange for acute attacks of CNS demyelination: Predictors of improvement at 6 months. Neurology 2009; 73:949–53.
8. . The Canadian Cooperative Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Lancet 1991; 337:441–6.
9. , , , et al. A case report of double filtration plasmapheresis in an acute episode of multiple sclerosis. Ther Apher Dial 2008; 12:250–4.
10. , , , et al. Immunoadsorption patients with multiple sclerosis: an open-label pilot study. Eur J Clin Invest 2005; 35:523–30.
11. , , , et al. Immunoadsorption–a new therapeutic possibility for multiple sclerosis? Transfusion Science 1998; 19 Suppl:59–63.
12. , , Immunoadsorption with phenylalanine-immobilized polyvinyl alcohol versus plasma exchange – a controlled pilot study in multiple sclerosis. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis 1993; 12:239–42.
13. , , , et al. Immunoadsorption (IA) versus plasma exchange (PE) in multiple sclerosis–first results of a double blind controlled trial. Prog Clin Biol Res 1990; 337:289–92.
14. , , Successful immunoadsorption with membrane plasmapheresis for multiple sclerosis. ASAIO Trans 1989; 35:576–7.
15. , , , et al. Immunoadsorption and plasma exchange in multiple sclerosis: complement and plasma protein behaviour. Biomat Artif Cells Immobilization Biotechnol 1991; 19:283–96.
16. Therapeutic plasma exchange for multiple sclerosis. In , , eds. Multiple Sclerosis: Experimental and Applied Therapeutics. London: Martin Dunitz, 1999:323–33.
17. , , , et al. Double-blind study of true vs. sham plasma exchange in patients treated with immunosuppression for acute attacks of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1989; 39:1143–9.
18. , , , et al. A randomized trial of plasma exchange in acute CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. Ann Neurol 1999; 46:878–86.
19. , , , et al. Plasmapheresis: Its use in multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating processes of the central nervous system. An observation study. Revista Neurologia 2003; 37:917–26.
20. , , , et al. Plasma exchange for severe optic neuritis – treatment of 10 patients. Neurology 2004; 63:1081–3.
21. , , , et al. Plasma exchange in episodes of severe inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system – A report of six cases. J Neurol 2004; 251:1515–21.
22. , , , et al. Plasma exchange for severe attacks of CNS demyelination: predictors of response. Neurology 2002; 58:143–6.
23. , , , et al. Effect of plasma exchange in accelerating natalizumab clearance and restoring leukocyte function. Neurology 2009; 72:402–9.
24. , , , et al. Treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with natalizumab. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:1075–80.
25. , , Meta-analysis of clinical studies of the efficacy of plasma exchange in the treatment of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. J Clin Apher 1995; 10:163–70.
26. , , , et al. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: double-blind controlled study of plasmapheresis in patients taking immunosuppressive drugs. Neurology 1985; 35:312–19.
27. , , , et al. Cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange in multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1991; 337:1540–1.
28. , , , et al. Intensive immunosuppression in progressive multiple sclerosis. A randomized, three-arm study of high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide, plasma exchange, and ACTH. N Engl J Med 1983; 308:173–80.
29. , , , et al. A double-blind controlled pilot study of plasma exchange versus sham apheresis in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 1985; 12:39–44.
30. , , , et al. Plasmapheresis in multiple sclerosis: prospective trial of pheresis and immunosuppression versus immunosuppression alone. Neurology 1982; 32:739–43.
31. , , , et al. [Intensive immunosuppression in progressive multiple sclerosis. An open study comparing 3 groups: cyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide-plasmapheresis and control subjects. Results after 3 years] Immunosuppression intensive dans la sclerose en plaques progressive. Etude ouverte comparant trois groupes: cyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide-plasmaphereses et temoins. Resultats a trois ans. Rev Neurol 1989; 145:369–77.
32. , , , et al. Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1985; 27:335–71.
33. , , , et al. A serum autoantibody marker of neuromyelitis optica: Distinction from multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2004; 364:2106–12.
34. , , , et al. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO: a study on antibody titre. Brain 2007; 130:1235–43.
35. , , , et al. The spectrum of neuromyelitis optica. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6:805–15.
36. , , , et al. A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic's neuromyelitis optica. Brain 2002; 125:1450–61.
37. , , , et al. Loss of aquaporin-4 in active perivascular lesions in neuromyelitis optica: a case report. Tohoku J Exp Med 2006; 209:269–75.
38. , , , et al. Pattern-specific loss of aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity distinguishes neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis. Brain 2007; 130:1194–205.
39. , , , et al. Loss of aquaporin 4 in lesions of neuromyelitis optica: distinction from multiple sclerosis. Brain 2007; 130:1224–34.
40. , , , et al. Therapeutic efficacy of plasma exchange in NMO-IgG-positive patients with neuromyelitis optica. Mult Scler 2007; 13:128–32.
41. , , , et al. Plasma exchange in severe spinal attacks associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Mult Scler 2009; 15:487–92.
42. , , , et al. Immunoadsorption plasma pheresis for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Mult Scler 2008; 14:S170-S170.
43. , Intermittent plasmapheresis prevents recurrence in neuromyelitis optica. Ther Apher Dial 2009; 13:505–8.
44. , , , et al. Plasmapheresis in fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology 1995; 45:824–7.
45. , , Plasmapheresis in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. J Clin Apher 2004; 19:154–9.
46. , , Role of plasmapheresis in acute disseminated (postinfectious) encephalomyelitis. J Clin Apher 1992; 7:173–9.
47. , , , et al. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: discordant neurologic and neuroimaging abnormalities and response to plasmapheresis. Pediatrics 2005; 116:431–6.
48. , Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: role of antibodies. Disease Markers 2006; 22:207–12.
49. , , , et al. NMO-IgG: a specific biomarker for neuromyelitis optica. Dis Markers 2006; 22:197–206.
50. , , , et al. Plasmapheresis affects T helper type-1/T helper type-2 balance of circulating peripheral lymphocytes. Ther Apher 2001; 5:494–6.
51. The role of B cells in multiple sclerosis: rationale for B-cell-targeted therapies. Curr Opin Neurol 2008; 21 Suppl 1:S9–18.
52. , , , et al. B-cell depletion with rituximab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:676–88.
53. , , , et al. Abnormal B-cell cytokine responses a trigger of T-cell-mediated disease in MS? Ann Neurol 2010; 67:452–61.
54. , , , et al. Relation between humoral pathological changes in multiple sclerosis and response to therapeutic plasma exchange. Lancet 2005; 366:579–82.
55. , , , et al. Lesion pathology predicts response to plasma exchange in secondary progressive MS. Neurology 2006; 67:1515–16.
56. , , , et al. Astrocytic damage is far more severe than demyelination in NMO: a clinical CSF biomarker study. Neurology 2010; 75:208–16.
57. , , , et al. Pathogenic potential of IgG binding to water channel extracellular domain in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 2007; 69:1–11.
58. , , , et al. Neuromyelitis optica: passive transfer to rats by human immunoglobulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009; 386:623–7.
59. , , , et al. Astrocytic necrosis is induced by anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive serum. Neuroreport 2009; 20:508–12.
60. , , , et al. Intrathecal pathogenic anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in early neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol 2009; 66:617–29.
61. , , , et al. Neuromyelitis optica: pathogenicity of patient immunoglobulin in vivo. Ann Neurol 2009; 66:630–43.
62. , , , et al. Intrathecal activation of the IL-17/IL-8 axis in opticospinal multiple sclerosis. Brain 2005; 128:988–1002.
63. , , , et al. Pathologic and immunologic profiles of a limited form of neuromyelitis optica with myelitis. Neurology 2009; 73:1628–37.
64. , , , et al. Complications of therapeutic plasma exchange: experience with 4857 treatments. Ther Apher Dial 2005; 9:391–5.
65. , Complications of therapeutic plasma exchange: a recent assessment. J Clin Apher 1994; 9:1–5.
66. , , Complications of therapeutic plasma exchange: a prospective study of 1,727 procedures. J Clin Apher 2007; 22:270–6.
67. , , , et al. Rheopheresis: rheologic, functional, and structural aspects. Ther Apher 2000; 4:348–57.
68. , , Complications of double-filtration plasmapheresis. Transfusion 2004; 44:1621–5.
69. , , , et al. Immunoadsorption patients with multiple sclerosis: an open-label pilot study. Eur J Clin Invest 2005; 35:523–30.
70. , , , et al. Treatment of coagulation inhibitors with extracorporeal immunoadsorption (Ig-Therasorb). Br J Haematol 2001; 112:91–7.
71. , Adverse clinical effects of immune sorption with staphylococcal protein A columns. Transfus Med Rev 1996; 10:62–70.
72. , , Long-term use of antecubital veins for plasma exchange. The Canadian Cooperative Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Transfusion 1989; 29:610–13.
73. , , , et al. Side-effects and complications in large-bore catheters for apheresis. Ther Apher Dial 2003; 7:221–4.
74. , , , et al. Complications of plasma exchange in the treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and Churg–Strauss angiitis and the contribution of adjuvant immunosuppressive therapy: a randomized trial in 72 patients. Artificial Organs 1988; 12:27–33.
75. , , Severe infections in plasmapheresis-treated systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41:414–20.
76. , , , et al. Infectious complications with plasmapheresis in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. J Am Med Assoc 1980; 244:2423–6.