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Book description

Late medieval motet texts are brimming with chimeras, centaurs and other strange creatures. In The Monstrous New Art, Anna Zayaruznaya explores the musical ramifications of this menagerie in the works of composers Guillaume de Machaut, Philippe de Vitry, and their contemporaries. Aligning the larger forms of motets with the broad sacred and secular themes of their texts, Zayaruznaya shows how monstrous or hybrid exempla are musically sculpted by rhythmic and textural means. These divisive musical procedures point to the contradictory aspects not only of explicitly monstrous bodies, but of such apparently unified entities as the body politic, the courtly lady, and the Holy Trinity. Zayaruznaya casts a new light on medieval modes of musical representation, with profound implications for broader disciplinary narratives about the history of text-music relations, the emergence of musical unity, and the ontology of the musical work.


‘A thoroughly excellent, original, important, and thought-provoking book, which will prove to be of great interest to a broad constituency of readers in musicology.'

Elizabeth Eva Leach - University of Oxford

'Zayaruznaya's book provides compelling new insights into one of the most prominent and least understood genres of late-medieval music.'

Karl Kügle - Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Manuscripts Cited

A-Wn 123a

Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Fragm 123a

B-Bar 5170

Brussels, Algemeen Rijksarchief, fonds Sint-Goedele, 5170 (olim 758)

B-Br 19606

Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek van België, MS 19606

D-AAst 14

Aachen, Öffentliche Bibliothek der Stadt, Beis E 14

D-KA 60

Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, cod. Augiensis 60 add.

D-Mbs 4305

Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 4305

D-WÜf 10a

Würzburg, Franziskanerkloster, MS I, 10a

E-E 10

Escorial, Real Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo, MS O.II.10

F-AS 893

Arras, Bibliothèque municipale, 893 (olim 465)

F-CA 1328

Cambrai, Bibliothèque municipale, B 1328 (olim 1176)

F-CH 564

Chantilly, Musée Condé, MS 564 (olim 1047)

F-MO 196

Montpellier, Bibliothèque de l’Université, Faculté de Médecine H 196

F-Pa 595

Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, MS 595

F-Pa 5203

Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, MS 5203 (Machaut MS J)

F-Pn 67

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Collection de Picardie 67

F-Pn 146

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fonds français 146

F-Pn 1112

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS latin 1112

F-Pn 1584

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fonds français 1584 (Machaut MS A)

F-Pn 1585

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fonds français 1585 (Machaut MS B)

F-Pn 1586

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fonds français 1586 (Machaut MS C)

F-Pn 2444

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, nouvelles acquisitions latines 2444

F-Pn 3343

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS lat. 3343

F-Pn 8878

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS latin 8878

F-Pn 9221

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fonds français 9221 (Machaut MS E)

F-Pn 22546

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fonds français 22546 (Machaut MS G)

F-Pn 23190

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, nouvelles acquisitions françaises 23190 (olim Angers, Château de Serrant, Duchesse de la Trémoïlle)


See “F-Pn 146”

GB-Ccc Fer

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Ferrell-Vogüé MS. Private Collection of James E. and Elizabeth J. Ferrell, on deposit at the Parker Library, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (Machaut MS Vg)

GB-DRc 20

Durham, Cathedral Library, MS C.I.20, flyleaves

GB-Lbl 28550

London, British Library, Add. 28550

I-IV 115

Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS CXV (115)


See “I-IV 115”

Machaut MSS

Refers to the Machaut collected works manuscripts as a group. See Lawrence Earp, Guillaume de Machaut: A Guide to Research.


See “F-MO 196”


See “F-Pn 23190”

US-NYpm 396

New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M.396 (Machaut MS Pm)

Motets cited

Long incipits are given in the order Triplum/Motetus/T: “tenor label” or Tenor incipit/CT. Italicized texts are sung; texts in quotation marks are labels not audible in performance. “CT” indicates the presence of a contratenor in some or all redactions of a work. “Solus tenor” parts are not noted.

Sources are listed only for motets edited in examples and appendices in this book; in those cases the starred source is the primary one used (in most cases text-only sources are not indicated). Full source information for other motets can be found in the critical commentary to the listed editions (which are not exhaustive); in Zayaruznaya, “Form and Idea in the Late Medieval Motet,” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University (2010), 375–85; and on the Digital Archive of Medieval Music (

Abbreviations for editions are as follows:


Günther, The Motets of the Manuscripts Chantilly


Harrison, Motets of French Provenance


Lerch, Fragmente aus Cambrai (2 vols)


Schrade, The Roman de Fauvel; The Works of Philippe de Vitry; French Cycles of the Ordinarium Missae


Tischler, The Montpellier Codex

A vous/Ad te A vous vierge de douçour/Ad te virgo clamitans venio/T: “Regnum mundi.” Sources: *I-IV 115, 19v–20r. Edition: Harrison, 74–77. Almifonis/Rosa Almifonis melos cum vocibus/Rosa sine culpe spina/T. Harrison, 46–49. Altissionis/Hin Altissionis aptatis viribus modulando/Hin principes qui presunt seculi/T: “Tonans”/CT. Harrison, 7–12. Aman/Heu Fortuna Aman novi probatur exitu/Heu, Fortuna subdola/T: “Heu me, tristis est anima mea.” Schrade, 48–50. Amer/Durement Amer amours est la choison pourquoy/Durement au cuer me blesce/T: “Dolour meus.” Sources: *I-IV 115, 56v–57r; GB-DRc 20, 336r (fragmentary); PPic 67, recto (fragmentary); (F-Pn 23190). Edition: Harrison, 100–03. Amours/Faus semblant (Machaut, M15) Amours qui a le pouoir/Faus Samblant m’a deceü/T: “Vidi dominum.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 291–92. Apta/Flos Apta caro plumis ingenii/Flos virginum, decus et species/T: “Alma redemptoris”/CT. Harrison, 17–23; Günther, 8–13; Lerch, 2:109–18. Aucune/Qui (Machaut, M5) Aucune gent m’ont demandé/Qui plus aimme plus endure/T: “Fiat voluntas tua”/CT. See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 293–94. Ave virtus/Prophetarum (Nicolaus Grenon) Ave, virtus virtutum, caritas/Prophetarum fulti suffragio/T: Infelix, propera crede vel vetera. Reaney, Early Fifteenth-Century Music, 7: 10–17. Beatius/Cum humanum Beatius se servans liberat/Cum humanum sit peccare/[T]/[?CT]. Sources: F-Pn 2444, 49v (fragmentary); A-Wn 123a, 2v (2b) (fragmentary); D-WÜf 10a, 2b [verso] (fragmentary); (F-Pn 23190). *Edition: Zayaruznaya, “Quotation, Perfection, and the Eloquence of Form.” Bone pastor/Bone pastor (Machaut, M18) Bone pastor Guillerme/Bone pastor qui pastores/T: “Bone pastor.” Sources: F-Pn 1586, 222v–223r; *GB-Ccc Fer, 277v–278r; F-Pn 1585, 275v–276r; F-Pn 1584, 431v–432r; F-Pn 22546, 119v–120r; F-Pn 9221, 144v. Editions: see Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 296. Ce que je tieng/Certes Ce que je tieng pour deduit/Certes mout est bonne vie/Bonne copaignie/T: “Manere.” Tischler, no. 33 (Part I, 63–66). Cest quadruble/Vous Cest quadruble/Vous n’i dormirez/Biaus cuers/T: “Fiat.” Tischler, no. 30 (Part I, 56–58). Christe/Veni (Machaut, M21) Christe, qui lux es et dies/Veni creator spiritus/T: “Tribulatio proxima est…”/CT. See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 298. Colla/Bona (Vitry) Colla jugo subdere curias/Bona condit cetera bonum/T: “Libera me, Domine.” Schrade, 85–87; Lerch, 2:155–60. Cum statua/Hugo (Vitry) Cum statua Nabucodonasor metallina/Hugo, Hugo princeps invidie/T: “Magister invidie.” Sources: *I-IV 115, 14v–15r; F-CA 1328, 11v; (F-Pn 23190). Editions: Schrade, 82–84; Lerch, Fragmente aus Cambrai 2:129–33; Appendix 2 above. D’ardent/Efus D’ardant desir plains/T: “Nigra est set formosa”/Efus d’amer par bien amer. Harrison, 178–80; Günther, 27–28. Detractor/Qui Detractor est nequissima vulpis/Qui secuntur castra sunt miseri/T: “Verbum iniquum…” Schrade, 16–17. Dieus mout/Dieus je fui Dieus, mout me fet/Dieus, je fui ja pres/Dieus, je n’i puis la nuit dormir/T:“Et vide et inclina aurem tuam.” Tischler, no. 29 (Part I, 55–56). Facilius/Alieni Facilius a nobis vitatur/Alieni boni invidia/T: “Imperfecte canite.” Schrade, 35–37. Febus/Lanista Febus mundo oriens/Lanista vipereus, ibis fundens toxicum/T: Cornibus equivocis pascens. Harrison, 13–16. Felix/Inviolata (Machaut, M23) Felix virgo, mater Christi/Inviolata genitrix/T: “Ad te suspiramus…”/CT. See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 321–22. Firmissime/Adesto (Vitry) Firmissime fidem teneamus/Adesto, sancta trinitas/T: “Alleluya, Benedictus.” Sources: F-Pn 146, 43; *B-Br 19606, recto; GB-Lbl 28550, 43v–44r (intabulation). Edition: Schrade, 60–63. Floret/Florens Floret cum vana gloria/Florens vigor ulciscendo/T “Neuma quinti toni.” Sanders, “The Early Motets,” 37–42; Lerch, 2:205–12. Flos/Celsa (?Vitry) Flos ortus inter lilia/Celsa cedrus ysopus effecta/T: “Quam magnus pontifex.” Harrison, 42–45; Lerch, 2:175–80. Fons/O livoris (Machaut, M9) Fons tocius superbie/O livoris feritas/T:“Fera pessima.” Sources: F-Pn 1586, 213v–214r; *GB-Ccc Fer, 268v–269r; F-Pn 1585, 266v–267r; F-Pn 1584, 422v–423r; F-Pn 22546, 110v–111r; F-Pn 9221, 139v; (F-Pn 23190). Editions: see Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 322. Fortune/Ma dolour Fortune, mere a dolour/Ma dolour ne cesse pas/T: “Dolour meus.” Sources: *I-IV 115, 53v; F-Ca 1328, 11v; F-Pn 67, recto (fragmentary); (F-Pn 23190). Editions: Harrison, 92–94; Lerch, 2:184–88. Garrit/In nova (Vitry) Garrit Gallus flendo dolorose/In nova fert animus mutatas/T: “N[euma].” Sources: F-Pn 146, 44v; *F-Pn 67, recto. Editions: Schrade, 68–70. Hareu/Hélas! (Machaut, M10) Hareu! hareu! le feu/Helas! ou sera pris confors/T: “Obediens usque ad mortem.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 323. Hé! Mors/Fine Amour (Machaut, M3) Hé! Mors com tu es haie/Fine Amour, qui me vint navrer/T: “Quare non sum mortuus.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 324–25. Hélas/Corde mesto (Machaut, M12) Helas! pour quoy virent/Corde mesto cantando conqueror/T: “Libera me.” Sources: F-Pn 1586, 216v–217r; *GB-Ccc Fer, 271v–272r; F-Pn 1585, 269v–270r; F-Pn 1584, 425v–426r; F-Pn 22546, 113v–114r; F-Pn 9221, 141v–142r. Editions: see Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 326. Ida/Portio (Egidius de Pusiex) Ida capillorum matris/Portio nature precellentis geniture/T: “Ante tronum trinitatis”/CT. Harrison, 24–29, 30–35; Günther, 57–65. Impudenter/Virtutibus (Vitry) Impudenter circumivi solum/Virtutibus laudabilis/T: [Alma redemptoris mater]/CT. Schrade, 91–96. In virtute/Decens (Vitry) In virtute nominum/Decens carmen edere/T: “Clamor meus”/CT. Sources: *I-IV 115, 55v; F-Pn 2444, 48; (F-Pn 23190). Editions: PMFC 5:95–99; Appendix 1 above. Inflammatus/Sicut Inflammatus invidia demon/Sicut de ligno parvulus/T [Victime paschali laudes]. Schrade, 43–44. Je voi/Fauvel Je voi douleur avenir/Fauvel nous a fait présent/T: Autant m’est si poise. Source: *F-Pn 146, 9v. Edition: Schrade, 25. L’amoreuse/En l’estat L’amoreuse flour d’esté/En l’estat d’amere tristour/T [Sicut fenum arui]. Harrison, 108–12. La mesnie/J’ai fait La mesnie fauveline/J’ai fait nouveletement amie/T: Grant despit ai ie, Fortune. Schrade, 40–41. Martyrum/Diligenter (Machaut, M19) Martyrum gemma latria/Diligenter inquiramus/T: “A Christo honoratus.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 342. Maugré/De ma dolour (Machaut, M14) Maugré mon cuer/De ma dolour confortes doucement/ T: “Quia amore langueo.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 342–43. Musicalis/Sciencie Musicalis sciencia qua regitur melodia/Sciencie laudabili musice venerabili/T. Source: *PPic 67, verso. Edition: Harrison, 181–84. Nuper rosarum (Du Fay) Nuper rosarum flores (triplum and motetus)/“Terribilis est locus iste” (Tenor I and Tenor II). Du Fay, Opera Omnia, 1 rev., 70–75. O canenda/Rex (Vitry) O canenda vulgo per computa/Rex quem metrorum depingit/CT/T: “Rex regum [regi filio].” Schrade, 106–09. O Philippe/O bone dux O Philippe, Franci qui generis/O bone dux indolis optime/Solus Tenor. Harrison, 1–6. Orbis/Vos pastores Orbis orbatus oculis in die/Vos pastores adulteri et veri/T: “Fur non venit…” Schrade, 22–23. Petre/Lugentium (Vitry) Petre clemens, tam re quam nomine/Lugentium siccentur occuli/T [Non est inventus similis illi]/CT. Schrade, 97–105; Zayaruznaya, “Hockets as Compositional and Scribal Practice,” appendix. Phi millies/O creator (Vitry) Phi millies ad te triste pecus/O creator deus pulcherrimi/T: “Jacet granum…”/CT: “Quam sufflabit…” Sources: *D-AAst 14, (1)v (fragmentary triplum); F-Pn 3343, 71v (text only). Edition: Appendix 3 above. Pictagore/O terra Pictagore per dogmata/O terra sancta, suplica/T: “Rosa vernans caritatis.” Günther, 33–39; Harrison, 128–135. Post missarum/Post misse Post missarum sollempnia/Post misse modulamina/T/CT. Sources: D-AAst 14, (2)v; *I-IV 115, 7v–8r; (F-Pn 23190). Edition: Harrison, 36–41. Quant je/Bon vin Quant je le voi ou voirre cler/Bon vin doit l’en a li tirer/T: Cis chans veult boire. Source: F-Pn 146, 45r. Editions: Schrade, 71; Example 1.6 above. Quant vraie/O series (Machaut, M17) Quant vraie amour enflamee/O series summe rata/T: “Super omnes speciosa.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 364. Qui/Ha! Fortune (Machaut, M8) Qui es promesses de Fortune/Ha! Fortune, trop suis mis/T: “Et non est qui adjuvet.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 366–67. Rachel/Ha fratres Rachel plorat filios/Ha fratres, ha vos domini/T. Harrison, 66–69. S’il estoit/S’Amours (Machaut, M6) S’il estoit nulz qui pleindre/S’Amours tous amans joïr/T: “Et gaudebit cor vestrum.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 371. Scariotis/Jure Scariotis geniture vipereae periture/Jure quod in opere divitico/T: “Superne matris gaudia etc.” Schrade, 8–9. Se grace/Cum venerint Se grace n’est a mon maintien/Cum venerint miseri degentes/T: “Ite missa est.” Schrade, 129–31. Servant/Ludowice Servant regem misericordia et veritas/Ludowice, prelustris Francorum/T: “Rex regum et Dominus dominantium.” Schrade, 29–31 (as Servant/O Philippe, following F-Pn 146). Sub Arturo/Fons (Johannes Alanus) Sub Arturo plebs valata plaudat melos/Fons citharizantium ac organizantium/T: “In omnem terram.” Bent, “Two 14th-Century Motets,” 1–7; Gunther, 49–52; Harrison, 172–77. Super/Presidentes Super cathedram Moysi/Presidentes in thronis seculi/T: “Ruina.” Schrade, 5–8; Lerch, 71–75. Thalamus/Quomodo Thalamus puerpere, thronus salomonis/Quomodo cantabimus sub iniqua lege/T. Schrade, 51–53. Tous corps/De souspirant (Machaut, M2) Tous corps qui de bien amer/De souspirant cuer dolent me pleing/T: “Suspiro.” See Earp, Guillaume de Machaut, 381. Tribum/Quoniam (Vitry) Tribum, que non abhorruit/Quoniam secta latronum/T: “Merito hec patimur.” Schrade, 54–56; Bent, “Polyphony of Texts and Music,” 90. Tuba/In arboris (Vitry) Tuba sacre fidei proprie/In arboris empiro prospere/T: “Virgo sum.” Schrade, 32–34. Vos/Gratissima (Vitry) Vos qui admiramini, virgines/Gratissima virginis species/T: “Gaude gloriosa”/CT. Sources: D-AAst 14, (1)r (fragmentary); B-Bar 5170, 67bisv (fragmentary); F-CA 1328, 15v; *GB-DRc 20, 336v-337r; I-IV 115, 8v–9r; (F-Pn 23190); E-E 10, 224v (tenor only). Editions: Schrade, 76–81; Lerch, 2:192–201. Zolomina/Nazarea Zolomina zelus virtutibus/Nazarea que decora bonitate/T: “Ave Maria.” Harrison, 62–65.


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